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Wyoming Valley 

Biographical, Genealogical, and Historical. 

Sketches of the Bench and Bar 




'■ This shall be written for the generation to come." — Psahns cii: iS. 

" Remember the days of old ; consider the years of many generations ; ask thy father and he 
will shew thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee." — Deut. xxxii : 7. 

" The man who feels no sentiment of veneration for the memory of his forefathers, who has no 
natural regard forhis ancestors or his kindred, ishimselfunworthy of kindred regard or remembrance." 

— Daniel IVebsier. 


VOL. I. 


V. 1 4- 

Copyright 1S85 by 









If I unwittingly * * * 

Have aught committed that is hardly borne 

To any in this presence, I desire 

To reconcile me to his friendly peace : 

'Tis death to me to be at enmity ; 

I hate it, and desire all good men's love. 

- —Richard HI, 

These words, employed by the craft of Gloster to close the 
eye of suspicion against his unholy ambitions and cruelty, are 
here bestowed to speak a serious truth. It has been the chief 
aim in the preparation of this work to present all the principal 
facts in the lives and ancestry of the members of the legal 
profession in Luzerne county; to present them reliably, and, in 
such comment as may be esteemed to verge upon the line of 
criticism, to offer only a generously impartial judgment. The 
task has involved much labor and been attended by all the many 
difficulties that of necessity accompany historical research in any 
previously unexplored field; but it has been patiently and honestly 
performed, and the results, as recorded in the printed pages which 
follow, are sincerely believed to be substantially accurate and fair. 
If error there be, either in date, circumstance, or expression of 
opinion, it is error undesignedly perpetrated, and Gloster's speech 
is borrowed to make appropriate apology in advance. A com- 
plete biography of the members of a bar as numerous and admit- 
tedly conspicuous for their professional talent as that of Luzerne 
county, if made to include a genealogy of the families represented 
— and no biography is complete without that (see Matthew I., and 
Luke III.) — is necessarily in great part a history of the county it- 
self. It is, at least, a history of the greater number of its leading 
families and leading men, and contains more or less detailed refer- 
ence to all the principal events in the county history. These par- 
ticular biographies have, in the research they have made requisite, 
developed not a few facts hitherto unrecorded in book form, which 
must needs be of interest and importance to the general student 
of local history. Nearly all the old New Englanders, particu- 

vi Preface. 

larly those from Connecticut, and all the old Pennsylvania families 
from the lower counties who together made up the earlier set- 
tlers of the Wyoming Valley, and endured the hardships, fatigues, 
and dangers of this then practically unbroken wilderness, fig- 
ure in these pages as the progenitors of many of the men who 
have been, or now are, practitioners at the Luzerne county bar. 
Most of them were men who would have made their mark any- 
where, or under any circumstances, in sufficient proof of which 
we have the fact that they did that very thing amid discourage- 
ments that were not more than paralleled in any part of the 
country, or at any period in our colonial history. The first set- 
tlement of the valley was in 1762, but a year later these original 
pioneers were driven away — some being ruthlessly massacred — 
and it was not until 1769 that a second attempt at settlement was 
made. These sixty-niners found three foes to conquer; the Pen- 
namites or claimants under the Pennsylvania title, the treacher- 
ous and predatory Indians, and the then unbroken forests. Only 
men of stout hearts and vigorous understanding could hope to 
make successful combat against such a formidable trio of obsta- 
cles to civilized settlement at one and the same time. The Con- 
necticut settlers brought with them both these essential adjuncts 
to the needed victory. They were no mere experimenters or 
excursionists. They had come to stay, and they began immedi- 
ately to lay the foundations of a permanent Christian and en- 
lightened community by setting aside parts of their great land 
purchase for gospel, and parts for educational purposes, and still 
other parts for public commons or parks forever. When, only 
nine years later, the ever memorable massacre came, they had 
established several villages, containing, as near as can be esti- 
mated, ^cight hundred houses, the homes of a hardy, thrifty, and 
God-fearing people. It is but natural that among the descend- 
ants of these men are numbered many of the most brilliant, per- 
severing, and successful pulpit workers the state has produced. 
And when, in a day and a night, the savages, spurred to fiendish- 
ness by the machinations of the British, had sent scores of them 
to bloody graves and given nearly all their beautiful homes to 
the torch, they had not vanquished the indomitable spirit of the 
survivors, who returned just as soon as it was safe, avenged them- 


selves upon their cruel persecutors, rebuilt their razed domiciles, 
re-tilled their fields, re-opened their schools and churches, and 
made a new, and even an improved, Wyoming, the seat of lasting 
peace and continuous plenty. In the lives of these men, and the 
troubles and trials that surrounded them, was an ever progressing 
development of those traits of individuality and moral energies 
that are the corner-stones of our liberties and prosperity, and 
the most valuable and valued heritage of their descendants. 
Some there are in our galaxy, whose ancestry lived and died 
in other lands, or came here at a later date. Tracing their 
histories has carried us into all parts of the world, and resur- 
rected many incidents of unusual moment in its history, all which 
will, we think, be found both generally interesting and instruct- 
ive. In every instance, with these and with the others, we have 
gone to the most reliable authorities for our facts, seeking al- 
ways precision and completeness as essential in a work of this 
kind, if it is to have any real and permanent value. This, so far 
as known, is the first history of the bench and bar of a county 
ever published. The biographies of the judges and leading law- 
yers of the United States and of single states have been collated 
and printed in book form, but the lesser divisions, and the idea 
of including all, whether distinguished or otherwise, or in the 
beginning or at the maturity of their professional careers, has, 
up to this time, been disregarded. Objection has been made 
that the biographer should deal only with those whose life-work 
has been completed and who have been gathered to their fathers. 
While that objection is very ingeniously and plausibly supported, 
we have not felt it to be insuperable, though, on the other hand, 
we have convinced ourselves that no family or sectional history 
can be esteemed complete that ignores the living. And the liv- 
ing of to-day are the dead of to-morrow. These biographies 
were all first published, in the order of the professional seniority 
of their subjects, in the weekly issues of the Luzerne Legal Reg- 
ister, the first bearing date February i8, 1881 ; and compara- 
tively recent as that date is, no fewer than ten have since been 
called to the other world, as follows : Stephen S. Winchester, 
Hendrick B. Wright, James A. Gordon, Charles Pike, Ebenezer 
W. Sturdevant, Calvin Wadhams, William R. Kingman, Aaron 

viii Preface. 

J. Dietrick, Daniel S. Bennet, and Harrison Wright. For valu- 
able assistance rendered in connection with our labors we are 
gratefully indebted to Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, Sheldon 
Reynolds, Oscar J. Harvey, Hon. Steuben Jenkins, Irving A. 
Stearns, and especially to C. Ben Johnson. With this brief 
statement of the certainly modest design of the work and those 
matters incident to its compilation in which it has been thought 
the reader might feel an interest; with the advance caution 
to critics that it offers no pretensions to literary excellence, and 
with the hope that the imperfections, from which we cannot 
reasonably expect it has wholly escaped, will be generously 
overlooked, and that it may serve a useful local if not general 
purpose, we commend it to that great literary ocean, where, 
if it founders, it will at least leave us the consoling reflection 
that it abides in its distress in the company of many wrecks of 
craft far more ambitiously freighted and far more ceremoniously 
launched. With the second volume we propose to have a com- 
plete and perfect index to the entire work, which will embrace 
every name mentioned in the book, besides a complete historical 
index to the same. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., June, 1885. 





James Augustus Gordon, the oldest resident member of the 
bar in Luzerne county, was born October 6th, 1797, in the town 
of Painted Post (now the city of Corning), Steuben county, New 
York. His mother was the daughter of Cornelius Atherton, a 
grandson of Gen. Humphry Atherton, of Boston. Mr. Gordon 
early sufferred the loss of his father, James A. Gordon, Sr., and 
after his death his mother removed to Wyoming, where her rela- 
tives then resided. She was universally known as the " Widow 
Gordon," and from 1804 to the time of her death, in 1846, she 
resided in Wilkes-Barre. Mr. Gordon comes of some of the best 
blood of Scotland. Of the Ayrshire Gordons, George Gordon, 
the grandfather of our subject, was born near Alloway Kirk, on 
the banks of the Doon, and came to New Jersey in 1767, settling 
at Elizabethtown, where the father of James A. Gordon was born 
in 1769, as also his brother John, who was the grandfather of 
John B. Gordon, late United States Senator from Georgia. Mr. 
Gordon, after having served an apprenticeship to the trade of 
carpentering, commenced the study of the law with Hon. George 
Denison in September, 1820. He was admitted to the bar on the 
7th of August, 1822, on the certificate of Thomas Dj^er, Roswell 
Wells, and Garrick Mallery, Esquires, the examining committee. 
The education of Mr. Gordon was quite limited, he never having 
attended any school after he was thirteen years of age. He was 
an amateur type-setter in boyhood days, and spent his leisure 
time in the printing office of Hon. Charles Miner, where he first 
imbibed his taste for journalism. In his early years he was as- 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

sistant editor and contributor to the Detroit Free Press and other 
newspapers. In 1834 he established the Mountaineer ^t Conyng- 
ham, in this county. This paper was the avowed and energetic 
enemy of the monopoly of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation 
Company. In it first appeared Mr. Gordon's best efforts against 
the monopolizing tendency of that age. Although Mr. Gordon 
was a good student, and well versed in the law, he had little taste 
for the practice, but was fond of his mechanical skill. He has 
spent the greatest part of his life as a constructing engineer, and 
the specimens of his handiwork can be seen at Mauch Chunk, 
Blossburg, Pittston, and other places. In 1871 he located him- 
self at Plymouth, where he now resides. His time has been 
chiefly devoted to journalizing. Among his published produc- 
tions are " Old Memories of Wyoming and its Early Settlers." 
Mr. Gordon married September 22d, 1822, Hannah Wall, daugh- 
ter of Coggshall Wall, of North Norwich, Chenango county, N. 
Y., a great-granddaughter of ex-Governor Coggshall, of Rhode 
Island, and cousin of Hon. Garrett D. Wall, ex-governor of New 
Jersey. Mr, and Mrs. Gordon have had twelve children. Captain 
Harry M. Gordon and an invalid daughter are the only survivors. 


Hendrick Bradley Wright was born at Plymouth, Luzerne 
county Pennsylvania, on the 24th day of April, 1808. His father, 
Joseph Wright, was of that family of Wrights whose ancestors 
came to America from England in 168 1 with William Penn's col- 
ony of Quaker emigrants. John Wright, one of the number, in a 
short time after the landing, commenced a residence in the eastern 
part of Burlington county, New Jersey, and was the first settler 
of Wrightstown, being the founder, in fact, of the village of that 
name. He held a commission of Justice of the Peace and Captain 
of the militia under the royal seal of Charles II., and at the same 
time was an ardent member and supporter of the Society of 
Friends. A diary kept by this pioneer is still in the possession 
of the family. The mother of Hendrick B. Wright, whose maiden 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

name was Hendrick, was descentled from an earlier Puritan set- 
tler of Massachusetts. His father removed from Wrightstown 
to Plymouth (or the Susquehanna country, as many then called 
it) in the year 1795, and soon became one of its most prominent 
and substantial inhabitants. Ambitious for the welfare of his 
son, he secured for him the best educational advantages which 
the locality afforded, and in due course of time sent him to Dick- 
inson College, where he pursued the usual classical and mathe- 
matical studies. Upon leaving college he began the study of the 
law in the office of the late Judge Conyngham, of Wilkes-Barre. 
Under the wise counsels and kind encouragement of that able 
jurist and truly admirable man, he made rapid progress, and was 
admitted to the bar of Luzerne county on November 8th, 1831, 
on the certificate of James McClintock, O. Collins, and George 
Denison. During the ten years which followed, Mr. Wright de- 
voted himself assiduously to his profession. The bar of Luzerne 
county at that period contained many of the most learned and 
eminent counselors of Pennsylvania. Among these Mr. Wright 
soon took a high position, and as an advocate achieved a marked 
pre-eminence. Above the middle height, of large frame, of erect 
and commanding figure, with great power, and a flexibility of 
voice, and a countenance full of life and expression, he was an 
orator who arrested and continued to compel attention. It was 
not without reason that his clients believed and said that no jury 
could resist him. Armed at all points with evidence, drawn from 
every available source, and brought to bear upon the minds of 
the triers in such order and with such strength aS to render the 
cause of an opponent almost hopeless from the outset, he followed 
these attacks with arguments of such earnestness and energy as 
rarely failed to complete the rout, and secure an easy victory. 
In truth, it may be said that in a just cause he never knew defeat. 
Such success could not otherwise than win for him an extensive 
reputation, and a laborious as well as a lucrative practice. 

In the year 1841, partly to satisfy his numerous friends, and 
partly as a respite from professional toil, he accepted a nomina- 
tion to the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, and was 
elected. He at once became prominent as a committeeman and 
debater, and was soon acknowledged as one of the leaders of the 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

House. In 1842 he was again elected, and appointed chairman 
of the Committee on Canals and Internal Improvements, a subject 
that had always deeply interested him, and to which he now 
devoted much attention. He also took a position on the Judi- 
ciary Committee under his friend, Judge Elwell, of the Columbia 
Judicial District, for the express purpose of procuring a repeal of 
the law providing for the imprisonment of poor debtors. In this 
matter his efforts were untiring, and he had at last the satisfaction 
of seeing that barbarous law blotted out of the statute book of 
his native State. He also strenuously endeavored to procure the 
abolition from the prison discipline of Pennsylvania of the system 
of solitary confinement, a method of punishment which always 
appeared to him as equally needless and inhuman. But in this 
effort he was unsuccessful. In 1843 the nomination of State 
Senator was offered to him, but preferring the popular branch of 
the Assembly, he declined the honor, and was again elected to 
the House. Upon the opening of the session he was chosen 
Speaker, a position which he ably filled, and where he acquired 
a facility in parliamentary rules and usages which proved of 
singular advantage to him in the years that followed. 

In May, 1844, the Democratic National Convention met in 
Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the Presidency. It was a 
time of great excitement growing out of the Texas annexation 
question. The convention was almost equally divided in senti- 
ment upon the subject, and great fears of serious dissensions 
were entertained. The friends of annexation met in council and 
after a long discussion determined that every other consideration 
must yield to the necessity of appointing to the chairmanship of 
the convention some man skilled in parliamentary rules, and of 
sufficient tact and courage to secure their enforcement in every 
possible emergency. Mr. Wright, then a delegate at large from 
Pennsylvania, was at once recognized as the man for the occasion 
and, having been first unanimously elected temporary chairman, 
discharged his difficult and responsible task with such efficiency 
during the organization of the convention that he was unani- 
mously chosen its permanent presiding officer. At this conven- 
tion, whose session lasted nearly a week, and over whose stormy 
discussion its able chairman held an unrelaxing and impartial 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 5 

rein, James K. Polk, a Texas annexation candidate, was finally 
nominated. At the close of the convention Mr. Wright bade 
farewell to the assembled delegates in these words : 

" Our labor is terminated : our work is done. In a few hours 
we leave this arena of the last four days' action,. but my voice 
falters under the thought that we part forever. This body, 
composed of the most distinguished men of the country, was 
assembled to discharge as solemn and sacred a trust as that 
committed to the men who met in the hall of the Continental 
Congress when the great charter of American liberty was born. 
If the eastern conqueror wept over the millions of human beings 
passing in review before him — for that in a short time not one of 
them should be left — how much more reason have I to weep at 
the thought that this concentrated monument of mind before me 
must pass away in the change of all things. But it cannot be. 
It will be fresh on the page of history when the pyramids of the 
Nile shall have crumbled, stone by stone, to atoms. The man 
may die, but the fruits of his mind are the growth of eternity." 

From 1844 to 1852 Mr. Wright was again engrossed in the 
duties of his profession. In the latter year he was elected to 
Congress and served a term with marked ability. He was 
renominated in 1854, but was defeated by Hon. Henry M. Fuller 
(father of Henry A. Fuller, Esq., of the Luzerne county bar), who 
represented the American or " Know Nothing " element, of whose 
narrow and exclusive policy Mr. Wright had always been a most 
uncompromising foe. Colonel Wright (by which title he was gen- 
erally known), having been commissioned by Gov. Wolf, in 1834, 
District Attorney, concluded to retire from public life and devote 
the remainder of his days to the law. But upon the breaking 
out of the rebellion, in 1 861, he was again called from his retire- 
ment. The nomination to Congress was tendered him by both 
political parties. He accepted, and was, of course, elected ; and, 
amid the perplexities and dangers which surrounded the Federal 
Congress during the next two years, he was distinguished as a 
consistent and untiring advocate of an undivided Union. 
Although a life-long Democrat, and as such wedded by the 
strongest political ties' to the doctrine of state sovereignty, yet in 
him the citizen ever rose above the politician, and in the hour of 
national peril he was contented to let political opinions slumber 
until the great and pressing work of national salvation was 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

accomplished. Thus, while he advocated no measure of subju- 
gation, and regarded ihterference with domestic institutions for 
their own sake as unadvisable, he constantly supported the 
government by his vote and his voice in its every attempt to 
overthrow the internal enemy. At this time there was practically 
three great parties in the nation, the Democratic, Republican, 
and War Democrats, of which latter party Mr. Wright was a 
member. In a speech delivered January 14th, 1863, not long 
after he had followed Captain Joseph Wright, of the Luzerne 
county bar, his eldest son, to a soldier's grave, he thus replied to 
the resolutions offered by Mr. Vallandigham, a Democrat: 

" Sir, there is no patriotic man who does not desire peace ; not 
peace, however, upon dishonorable terms ; not peace that would 
destroy our great government; not peace that would place us in 
an humble attitude at the feet of traitors, but that peace which 
will make peace live ; peace that shall maintain and perpetuate 
the eternal principles of union based upon equality handed down 
to us by our fathers and sealed with their blood; the peace of 
Washington and Lafayette, whose images decorate the walls of 
this house ; a peace that shall not defame and belie the memory 
of these illustrious men is the one I would see established in 
this land. * * * Our army went to the field to suppress 
rebellion. Its numbers have reached over eight hundred thou- 
sand men, larger than any army of ancient or modern times. It 
is still in the field, and its destiny is to preserve entire this Union 
and protect the flag, and it has the courage and power to do it. 
* * * I bring my remarks to a close. Where I stood when 
the rebellion began I stand to-day — on the same platform. My 
opinions have undergone no change. I denounced rebellion 
at the threshold ; I denounce it now. I have no terms to make 
with the enemy of my country which will destroy the Union ; I 
am satisfied that no other can be obtained. Time will determine 
whether my position is right or not, and I calmly abide it. The 
war, sir, has cost me its trials and tribulations, and I can truly 
close my remarks with a quotation from an ancient philosopher, 
uttered over the dead body of his son, slain in battle : 

' I should have blushed if Cato's house had stood 
Secure and flourished in a civil war.' " 

On the same day Mr. Vallandigham spoke to the resolutions 
of Mr. Wright and defined his position on the war question. In 
this speech he thanked God that not the smell of so much as one 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

drop of blood was upon his garments, and characterized as a 
monstrous delusion the attempt to whip back the Southern 
brethren into love and fellowship at the point of the bayonet, 
and denounced in excedingly bitter terms the usurpations and 
infractions of public liberty and private right by the administra- 
tion. Mr. Vallandigham closed his third term in Congress on 
the 4th of March, 1863. He returned to Ohio and was arrested 
by the military authorities for a speech delivered at Mount 
Vernon, Ohio. On the next day he published the' following 
address to his political friends : 

Military Prison, Cincinnati, (Ohio), May 5th, 1863. 

To the Democracy of Ohio : — I am here in a military bastile for 
no other offense than my political opinions, and the defense of 
them, and of the rights of the people, and of your constitutional 
liberties. Speeches made in the hearing of thousands of you 
in denunciation of the usurpations of power, infractions of the 
constitution and laws, and of military despotism were the sole 
cause of my arrest and imprisonment. I am a Democrat — for the 
constitution, for law, for the Union, for liberty — this is my only 
" crime." For no disobedience to the constitution ; for no viola- 
tion of law; for no word, sign or gesture of sympathy with the 
men of the South, who are for disunion and Southern independ- 
ence, but in obedience to their demand as well as the demand of 
Northern abolition disunionists and traitors, I am here in bonds 
to-day ; but " Time, at last, sets all things even ! " Meanwhile, 
Democrats of Ohio, of the Northwest, of the United States, be 
firm, be true to your principles, to the constitution, to the Union, 
and all will yet be well. As for myself, I adhere to every princi- 
ple, and will make good, through imprisonment and life itself, 
every pledge and declaration which I have ever made, uttered, 
or maintained from the beginning. To you, to the whole people, 
to Time, I again appeal. Stand firm! Falter not an instant! 

C. L. Vallandigham. 

He was tried by a military commission, convicted, and 
sentenced to close confinement in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, 
during the war. President Lincoln changed the sentence to a 
banishment across the lines. He was taken to Tennessee, and 
delivered into the hands of Colonel Webb, of the 31st Alabama 
Regiment of the Confederate States army, Mr. Vallandigham 
making the following declaration : 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

" I am a citizen of Ohio and of the United States. I am here 
within your lines by force and against my will. I therefore sur- 
render myself to you as a prisoner of war." 

The arrest, trial, and banishment of Mr. Vallandigham occa- 
sioned much discussion, both in public assemblies and in the 
papers of the day. Without an exception among the Demo- 
cratic newspapers, the whole transaction was denounced as a 
violation of the rights of free speech, personal liberty, and trial 
by the constituted tribunals of the country, and also by such 
Republican champions as the New York Tribune, the New York 
Evening Post, the New York Commercial Advertiser, the Albany 
Statesman, the Boston Advertiser, the Boston Traveler, the Spring- 
field Republican, and, in short, by the ablest and most influential 
champions of the Republican party, backed, as the New York 
Evening Post avows, by at least three-fourths of the Republican 
party itself Mr. Vallandigham was coldly received by the 
Southern leaders as too good a Union man for them, and soon 
made his escape through the blockade to the Bermudas and 
Canada. While thus an exile he was nominated for Governor 
by the Democratic party in Ohio, and received the largest vote 
ever polled by a Democratic candidate in that State. Mr. Val- 
landigham was a member of the Democratic National Convention 
at Chicago in 1864, and brought about the nomination of 
McClellan and Pendleton. He subsequently held no office, and 
was always recognized as a Democratic leader until his death. 

Mr. Wright was succeeded in Congress by Hon. Charles 
Denison, a Democrat, and at that time a member of the bar of 
Luzerne county. He is now deceased. In a speech delivered 
by him in Congress, May 2d, 1864, he uttered the sentiments 
of the Democratic party, as follows : 

" You speak of bringing the South back. I ask back to what ? 
back to where ? It cannot be back to the constitution, for the 
constitution has been destroyed, and all civil rights have been 
destroyed with it. And should they come back to the crude and 
chaotic proclamation of the President's military war power, that 
has made a camp of the entire land? They have enough of war 
power at home ; and with this power and its proclamations, 
and our confiscation acts and reconstruction bureaus, there is no 
motive for the South to come back. They can but fare worse to 
fight, and fight they do. 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

"One hundred and forty thousand of the American people in 
my district have sent their sons to the army to fight for. and 
maintain their government as laid down in the constitution. 
They have sent me here as their representative to maintain the 
same thing, and in their name I ask what you have done with 
their government? On the 4th day of March, 1861, they placed 
their government in your hands. And in that government was 
secured to the people free speech, a free press, security of person 
and property, and the elective franchise undisturbed by military 
power, and to th'ose suspected of crime a fair and speedy trial, 
and to all the benefit of the great right of the writ of habeas corpus. 
What have you done with this government? The one which 
you have furnished secures none of these rights. Shall I tell 
them you are not bound by your oath in time of war; that when 
you made your oath to 'preserve, protect, and defend the consti- 
tution,' it was upon condition that we had no war? When do 
you propose to restore to the people their government? 

"The interpretation which I claim for the President's war 
power is the only one which will perpetuate our republican form 
of government. The history of every day which passes over our 
heads is full of meaning, and confirms this position. There does 
not exist on earth a more despotic government than that of 
Abraham Lincoln. He is a despot in fact, if not in name. The 
constitutional right of the citizen to bear arms has been denied, 
and houses searched and arms taken from the citizen; the right 
of trial denied, and citizens have been banished the country with- 
out trial or conviction; and I only mention some of the outrages 
perpetrated by this war power to say that if our government has 
been fairly administered under this new interpretation of the war 
power for the last three years, it'does not matter how soon it is 
destroyed. It is not worth to the people a dollar, or a battle, or 
a man. And it does not matter to the people whether their 
liberties have been taken away by Abraham Lincoln as President 
or as Commander in Chief of the army; he is no less a despot, 
and they no less slaves." 

We have quoted thus largely from the speeches of Mr. Val- 
landigham and Mr. Denison to show the distinction between the 
Democratic party, of which the above named gentlemen were 
honored leaders, and the Union or War Democratic party, of 
which Mr. Wright was a member. The Democratic party was 
as much of a union party as either the Republican or War Dem- 
ocratic party. They believed that the exertion of public force 
in the war should be exclusively for the object with which the 

lo Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

warwas begun, to wit: the restoration of the union, and the juris- 
diction of our laws over the revolted country, and being confined 
to that object, and relieved from the incumbrance of other objects, 
should be brought to a speedy and honorable conclusion. They 
also charged the Republican and Administration pvty as being 
false to its promises made as the condition upon which it attained 
power; that it had broken the constitution shamefully and often; 
that it had wasted the public treasure; that it had suspended the 
ancient writ of liberty, the habeas corpus, rendering it impossible 
for the citizen to obtain redress against the grossest outrage; 
that it had changed the war into a humanitarian crusade outside 
of any constitutional or lawful object; that it had grossly mis- 
managed the war in the conduct of military operations, and to 
retain its power it had undertaken to control State elections by 
direct military force, or by fraudulent selection of voters from the 
army. The Republican and Administration parties held that the 
Union should be maintained, even if it became necessary to hold 
the Confederate States as conquered provinces. 

After the close of the XXXVIIth Congress, for a number of 
years, Mr. Wright held no National or State offices, but he was 
by no means idle. Besides attending to a large practice, and 
taking an active interest in municipal affairs, he wrote and pub- 
lished two works; the one "A Practical Treatise on Labor,'' 
which first appeared in the shape of weekly letters to the Anthracite 
Monitor, the then official organ of the miners and other labor 
associations of this region. This book is an index to the man's 
heart. It shows clearly that his great object of life is not per- 
sonal, but that he is in sympathy with his less fortunate fellow- 
creatures. These ideas he has made a manly effort to impress 
on the law-making power of the country. The other, " Historical 
Sketches of Plymouth," his native town; a work gotten up with 
taste, containing thirty beautiful illustrations, likenesses of the 
leading men of the early settlement of the town, some of the old 
landmarks, private residences, public buildings, coal mines, etc. 
In tracing the pages of this book, in which the author gives a 
vivid description of the plain and frugal habits and simple customs 
of a primitive people, the reader will discover tlie deep and 
indelible impressions which they made upon the mind of the 

Hendrick Bradley Wright. i i 

author; a generous .and heartfelt offering to a race of men, all of 
whom he personally knew, but who now, with an exception of 
one or two, have left the stage of human action. His work was 
the design of a memorial for these pioneers. The author of this 
history makes no effort to assume an elevated plane of rhetoric 
or finished diction, but treats his subject in simple and plain lan- 
guage; but which, in his narrative of events showing the perils 
and exposures of frontier life, touches the heart and enkindles 
sympathetic emotion. 

In 1872 Mr. Wright was a Democratic candidate for Congress- 
man at Large, and having received the endorsement of the 
Workingmen's Convention, ran several thousand votes ahead of 
his ticket. In this region the support he then received was 
especially liberal and complimentary. In 1873 he was chosen to 
preside over the State Democratic Convention which met at Erie, 
and he was subsequently made chairman of the State Central 
Committee of the party, and conducted the campaign with great 
vigor, paying out of his own pocket a large proportion of the 
expense attending it. The defeat of Allen in Ohio disheartened 
the Democratic forces in our State, and the campaign resulted in 
a Republican success. In 1876 Mr. Wright was nominated for 
Congress in the Luzerne district while absent from home, and 
without his solicitation, or even knowledge. He was elected by 
a majority of 1,456 votes over Hon. H. B. Payne, his Republican 
competitor. In 1878 he was renominated and re-elected by a 
majority of 2,494 over Henry Roberts, his Republican opponent. 
In 1880 he received over 4,000 votes for Congress, although not 
a candidate. He closed his political life on March 4, 1881, after 
a service of thirteen years in the State and National Legislatures. 

In his refusal of further political honors he is persistent, and 
will listen to no inducements which will break his resolve. Mr. 
Wright was, during his long period of time in Congress, what 
may b'e called a working man, in committee and in the House, 
ever on time and ready to share in the public labors. During 
the last four years of his public service in Congress, his untiring 
aim and object have been to aid by legislation the working men 
of the country; to accomplish which he introduced a supple- 
ment to the homestead law, (in the passage of which he took an 

12 Hendrick Bradley Wright. 

important part in 1862) by which a small loan by the government 
should be made to poor and deserving men, repayable in ten 
years, at a small rate of interest, secured on the premises by 
mortgage, to enable men of small means to enter and settle upon 
the public lands, which to them is otherwise unavailable. In the 
accomplishment of this great and philanthropic measure he failed; 
but this abated none of his zeal or indomitable perseverance. 
This bill was defeated in the XLVth Congress, but he renewed it 
in the XLVIth, and it was defeated in committee of the whole 
House by three majority only. The committee reported it to 
the House with a negative recommendation. Mr. Wright was 
more successful in his support of the eight-hour law. This bill 
was passed at the last session of Congress by more than a two- 
third vote. His speeches on the homestead bill and the eight- 
hour bill should be carefully read. by every laboring man in the 
land. They show a progress much in advance of the age — noble 
efforts in a great cause. The support of these two great measures 
has been the daily work of Mr. Wright for the last four years, 
and the advancement of the social condition of the laboring 
classes has occupied his attention for the last twenty years. 
But it is not in a legislative capacity only that we are to deal 
with the subject of this notice. Mr. Wright has shown by his 
acts in the whole course of his life that charity and benevolence 
were the ruling features of his heart. The distribution of his 
holiday loaves to the city poor— a practice he has continued for 
years; his acts of generosity to the poor the year round; his aid 
to people in debt and contributions to public charities and various 
subscriptions for public purposes, all indicate the existence in him 
of that priceless feature of exalted manhood and the true orna- 
rnent of human life. Colonel Wright is now in his seventy-third 
year,. unbent with the weight of more than "three score and ten," 
and in the enjoyment of good health. Though possessed of a 
considerable estate, and of the highest rank socially, he Is ever 
approachable to the most humble of his fellow-citizeng, who arc 
made to feel as much at home in his presence as they would be 
in that of their fellow-workmen. There are few of them who 
have not seen Colonel Wright. His voice, too, upon the hustings 
and in the halls of justice still echoes upon their ears. 

Hendrick Bradley Wkight. 13 

With his retirement from public life he also retires from busi- 
ness pursuits. He is now engaged in the erection of a place of 
retreat at Harvey's Lake, some twelve miles northwest of Wilkes- 
Barre, where he designs to spe-nd most of his time for the 
remainder of his days. He and the Hon. Charles T. Barnum, 
who resides on the western shore, purchased the lake of the 
State some years ago and have stocked it with fine fish. It is 
some ten miles in circumference, and a delightful mountain 
home, a thousand feet above the sea. It is to be hoped that Mr. 
Wright, in his new home and with leisure on hand, will continue 
to chronicle and put in print for the public those unwritten mat- 
ters connected with Wyoming's history, which would afford so 
much pleasure to the residents of the valley. His knowledge of 
men and public affairs, gathered up during a long and eventful 
public life, might, too, be a source of employment to him and 
pleasure to others. An experience of about three-quarters of a 
century by an observing man, must necessarily have accumulated 
a pretty good stock of local general history. 

Col. Wright is an old member of the Wyoming Historical and 
Geological Society, and \vas President of the association during 
the years 1870, 1 87 1, and 1872. 

Mr. Wright was, on the 21st day of April, 1835, married to 
Mary Ann Bradley Robinson, granddaughter of Col. Zebulon 
Butler, who commanded our army at the Battle of Wyoming, 
July 3d, 1778, and daughter of John W. Robinson, Esq., of 
Wilkes-Barre, who was a descendant in direct line of Rev. John 
Robinson, a portion of whose followers came over on the May- 
flower. The Colonel has in his possession the veritable cane 
which that stern and unbending old Dissentor from the English 
Church carried in his lifetime, and which was brought by his 
family on their voyage to the New World. It has been handed 
down from generation to generation with pious and reverential 
care. It is a valuable relic, and considering its age of over two 
hundred and fifty years, is in a state of perfect preservation save 
that the initials "J. R." engraved upon its silver head have 
become nearly defaced; but still enough is left of the outline of 
the letters to indicate their character. 

Mrs. Wright died September 8th, 1871. Mr. and Mrs. Wright 

14 Ebenezer Wakren Sturdevant. 


have had a family of ten children, five of whom survive. George 
Riddle Wright, only surviving son, is a member of the Luzerne 
county bar. 


Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant was born June iith, 1806, in 
Braintrim, Luzerne (now Wyoming) county, Pennsylvania, on 
the property there originally owned by his maternal grandfather, 
then by his father, and which he now owns. His father, Samuel 
Sturdevant, was born at Danbury, Connecticut, September i6th, 
1773, and died March 4th, 1847. His mother, Elizabeth Stur- 
devant, nee Skinner, was born at Hebron, Connecticut, July i6th, 
1773, and died August 26th, 1833. Mr. Sturdevant's grandfather, 
Rev. Samuel Sturdevant, took an active part in the struggle for 
American independence, entering the army as an orderly sergeant, 
and being promoted to a captaincy, serving uninterruptedly from 
the battle of Lexington to the surrender at Yorktown. Soon 
after he emigrated to Braintrim, where, at the place known as 
Black Walnut Bottom, he bought a large farm, and resided there 
until his death, in 1828. Ebenezer Skinner, the grandfather of 
our subject on his mother's side, had located in 1776 at the mouth 
of the Tuscarora creek, only two miles distant, on lands adjoin- 
ing the after -purchase of the Rev. Samuel Sturdevant. Upon 
the advance of the Indians down the valley in 1778, he with his 
family went by canoe down the river to Forty Fort, that being 
then, and for many years afterwards, the only means of travel up 
and down the Susquehanna. One of his sons, John N. Skinner, 
was in the battle of Wyoming, and was one of those in charge of 
the fort as protectors of the women and children. Mr. Sturde- 
vant's mother, then but seven years of age, was with her mother 
in the fort, and after the massacre went on foot, with the women 
and children .spared by the Indians, through the wilderness called 
the "Shades of Death" to the Delaware river, and thence to 

Mr. Sturdevant, like all farmers' boys, remained at home until 
the age of fifteen, living the uneventful and careless life of a boy 

Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 15 

on a country farm. At that age he entered the old Wilkes-Barre 
Academy, then under charge of Dr. Orton as principal, and 
remained under his tuition a year, making such advancement 
educationally that he was fitted to continue his studies at Hamil- 
ton Academy, Hamilton, New York. Remaining at that insti- 
tution two years, he entered the sophomore class of Hamilton 
College, then under the presidency of Dr. Davis. A year later 
a large number of the class, including Mr. Sturdevant, left Ham- 
ilton to enter at various other colleges, Mr. Sturdevant entering 
the junior class of Union College, under the presidency of Dr. 
Nott. Here he took all the degrees conferred at the institution, 
was the junior and senior orator, and graduated in June, 1830, 
receiving all the honors in a class of one hundred and six, the 
largest that had at that time graduated from any American edu- 
cational institution. In the July following his graduation, Mr. 
Sturdevant entered the law office of Hon. Garrick Mallery, at 
Wilkes-Barre, and remained two years as a co-student with the 
Hon. George W. Woodward, since Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania. He was admitted to the Bar April 3d, 
1832, upon the recommendation of John N. Conyngham, Oristus 
Collins, and Thomas Dyer, the examiidg committee. In 1836 he 
was appointed District Attorney of Luzerne county by Governor 
Wolf, and also one of the aids of the Governor, with the rank of 
Colonel. In 1837 Colonel Sturdevant was elected a member of 
the convention to revise the constitution of Pennsylvania, to fill a 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. William Swetland. 
He took his seat October 21st, 1837, ^""^ was one of the most 
active and influential members of that body. The Colonel at 
that time belonged to the Whig party, his colleagues from this 
county being George W. Woodward and Andrew Bedford, M. D., 
Democrats. Chiefly through his instrumentality the word wliitc 
was inserted in the constitution of 1838, although Dr. Bedford, 
the father of George R. Bedford, Esq., a member of the Luzerne 
county bar, had on May i6th, 1837, submitted the following reso- 
lution to the convention: 

"Resolved, That the committee on the third article of the con- 
stitution be instructed to inquire into the expediency of so 
amending the said article that every ze//«y? male citizen, who shall 

i6 Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 

have attained the age of twenty-one years, and shall have resided 
in this State one year, and for six months next preceding the 
election in the county where he may offer his vote, shall be enti- 
tled to vote in the township or ward where he actually resides, 
and not elsewhere, for all officers that now are, or hereafter may 
be, made elective by the people." 

On the 17th of January, 1838, on the motion of Mr. Martin, 
of Philadelphia, to amend the first section of the third article of 
the constitution by inserting the word zvhite before the word 
freeman, Mr. Sturdevant said: 

"Mr. President, I must beg the indulgence of the convention 
while I, as briefly as possible, submit my views upon the subject 
now under consideration. My inexperience admonishes me that 
my opinions on so vital a question as this cannot carry with them 
much weight, and inclines me to keep silence and learn wisdom 
from the aged and experienced delegates, whose opinions we may 
expect to hear before the close of this debate. I, however, sir, 
have a duty to discharge, and never shall shrink from its per- 
formance. In justice to my constituents, in justice to the citizens 
of this Commonwealth, and in justice to myself I feel called upon 
to use my feeble exertions in the support of the amendment 
introduced in this section of the third article. . The amend- 

mend in this section, to which I shall confine my observations, is 
in the first line of the third article. The section referred to com- 
mences thus: 'In elections by the citizens, every freeman of the 
age of twenty-one,' etc. By the proposed amendment it will 
read: 'In elections by the citizens., every white freeman,' etc. 
This is the proposed alteration, and I need not say that I feel in 
common with every delegate in this hall that the subject i.s a 
most important one. The question here proposed to be settled 
is one that has, and is still producing much excitement in this 
Commonwealth. 'Will the convention introduce into the consti- 
tution an amendment to exclude negroes from voting?' is a ques- 
tion that has been often asked me. I for one, sir, am as read}' to 
answer that question here as I ever have been — in the affirmative. 
I am for settling at once this apparently vexed question, and of 
placing it hereafter beyond the shadow of a doubt. I am aware 
that there are a large number of the people of this State who 
believe, or pretend at least to believe, that the framers of the 
constitution of 1790 did not desire to exclude the negroes, from 
voting, and that the language used in that instrument conveys no 
such idea; but, on the contrary, expressly includes them. Hav- 
ing come to this conclusion, they at once say that we are retro- 
grading, by creating now an exception, and introducing a distinc- 

Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 17 

tion where none heretofore existed. I regret much that more 
examination had not been given to this subject by those who are 
in favor of giving to the blacks political rights. I deny that a 
negro is a citizen or a freeman, either by the constitution of 1776, 
or by the constitution of the United States, or by the constitution 
of 1790, the present constitution. . . . The constitution of 
1776 provides that ' every freeman of the age of twenty-one years,' 
etc., 'shall enjoy the rights of an elector,' and it declares that 'all 
. men are born equally free and independent,' and it further declares 
that 'all men have certain inalienable rights, among which are 
enjoying and defending life, liberty,' etc. Now, sir, at this time 
slavery existed in this Commonwealth, and the children of slaves 
were born slaves. If j'ou apply the language used here to the 
negroes, is it true? were they born equal? They were governed 
by a distinct code of laws, and treated by the framers of that 
instrument as neither citizens nor freemen. A severe penal code 
was in force, by which they were punished and governed. They 
had not the rights of trial by jury, and were regarded as having 
no interest in the government of the country. By this constitu- 
tion, too, the frecinen of this Commonwealth were directed to be 
'trained and armed for the defense of the country.'. Yet both 
slaves and free negroes, by laws then, and for a long time after, 
in force, were prohibited from carrying arms, either 'guns, swords, 
clubs,' etc. (see Con. 1705). 'Freemen,' then, as used here, could 
not aoply to negroes. The framers of this constitution unques- 
tionably regarded them as a degraded race, and therefore took 
no notice of them. "Esteeming them neither citizens nor freemen, 
they left them where they had found them, in the enjoyment of 
no political rights. Such, then, was the condition of the negro 
in 1776, and such it continued to be up to 1780, when an act of 
'the Legislature was passed 'for the gradual abolition of slavery' 
in this Commonwealth. This law, among other things, repeals 
the laws for the government of negroes before referred to, gives 
to them the trial by jury, and ordains that no negro born after 
its passage in Pennsylvania should be a slave for life. This act 
changes in no way the. political rights of the negro. It'gave him 
no other rights or privileges than those specified. It conferred 
not upbn him the rights of a citizen, 3. freeman, or an elector. I 
think, therefore, sir, that up to the date of the constitution of 
1790 the negro, although in the enjoyment of some additional 
civil rights, was not a citizen or a freeman. Did the present con- 
stitution confer on him the right of suffrage? Pennsylvania was 
still a slave holding State. All those unfortunate beings who 
were slaves for life, at the passage of the law referred to, in 1780, 
were still slaves, and their children, being born of slave parents. 

Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 

were slaves till the age of twenty-eight years. The Legislature 
unquestionably had the power to have repealed the laws of 1780, 
'for the same power which took off the burden might impost it 
again at pleasure.' In the constitution of 1790 (art. iii., sec. i ), 
nearly the same language is used as in the old constitution. The 
language of the present constitution is, 'in elections by the citi- 
zens, every freeman of the age of twenty-one,' etc. Now, sir, had 
the framers of the present constitution intended to have embraced 
in the word 'citizen,' or 'freeman,' the negro population, would . 
they not have used some language that would have placed that 
intention beyond doubt? A strong circumstance that of itself 
would have much weight in my mind is, that the constitution of 
the United States had been adopted prior to the meeting of the 
delegates to form the constitution of 1790, and out of the tliirtcen 
States who had adopted that constitution eight of them were slave 
holding States. In this constitution the words 'citizen,' 'freemen,' 
and 'people,' are used as in the present constitution of Pennsyl- 
vania, and most surely could not have then been supposed to 
include either slaves or free negroes. Slavery existed in 

this Commonwealth when the constitution of 1790 went into 
operation, and for years after; and the negro, at that time, was 
regarded as inferior to the white, and it was deemed neither 
sound policy for the State, nor in accordance with the letter and 
spirit of the constitution of the United States, to confer upon him 
any political rights. . . No man, sir, on thia floor feels more 
sympathy for this unfortunate race than I do. No man regrets 
more than I do the existence of slavery in this country. Yet, sir, 
I am not disposed to- interfere with the institutions of slavery in 
any of our sister States. I am no abolitionist. I believe the 
American people will have to answer hereafter for the sin of hav- 
ing introduced slavery among them; but, at the same time, I do 
not believe that the doctrines or measures pursued by the aboli- 
tionists will have the least tendency to expiate that sin. On the 
contrary, sir, the course being pursued by that class of men will 
only tend to degrade the negro, to rivet still closer his chains, 
and finally, by exciting sectional prejudices, may subvert the 
liberties of our happy country. In this Commonwealth, sir, I 
would give to the negro all those rights which he now enjoys. 
I would place him as nearly on an equality with the white as the 
condition of his race would warrant. I would secure to him 
those civil and religious privileges peculiar to our institutions, 
but never, sir, would I concede to him that political, \.\\2X conven- 
tional right, \Nhic\\ was purchased with the blood and treasures of 
our ancestors — the right of voting and being voted for. When- 
ever you confer on them the right of voting, you, at the same 

Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 19 

moment, concede to them the right of being elected to the high- 
est office in your State — a condition of things that no patriot can 
desire to see. I am satisfied that it is not the desire of the black 
to enjoy the right of suffrage. They, sir, would have been silent 
on this subject, but that they have been goaded on by the mis- 
taken zeal of deluded philanthropists. . . I call upon delegates 
on this floor to pause before they yield a right to the negro, 
which, by an attempt to elevate him, will degrade us; which will 
violate a sacred pledge given by this State to her sister States at 
the adoption of the constitution of the United States, and which, 
while it is a triumph and a sanction given to the anti-American 
doctrines of the abolitionists, may result finally in the overthrow 
of the Union." 

Colonel Sturdevant was ably seconded in the convention by 
such men as Charles J. Ingersoll, George W. Woodward, Andrew 
Bedford, M. D., Robert Fleming, Almon H. Read, George M. 
Keim, Samuel A. Purviance, James Pollock, Wm. M. Meredith, 
Tobias Sellers, John Houpt, John A. Gamble, James Clarke, .and 
many other noted and distinguished men, and the amendment 
finally .prevailed by a vote of T] for and 45 against it. 

In 1840 Colonel Sturdevant was the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress, and, although running largely ahead of his ticket, was 
defeated by Hon. Benjamin A. Bidlack, subsequently Charge 
d' Affaires at Bogota, New Granada. In 1842 Colonel Sturdevant 
was elected Brigadier General of the brigade comprising the 
northeastern counties of Pennsylvania, and subsequently pro- 
moted tq the office of Major General of the division to which his 
brigade was attached.. He held the two offices consecutively 
during a period of seventeen years, and is now known as the 
oldest Major General in the State. 

General Sturdevant was in the active practice of his profession 
successfully up to 1857. In 1840 he removed to his present 
residence, then just completed, on the Firwood farm. Since his 
retirement from an active practice, he has been chiefly engaged 
in the management of his real estate interests, but formerly he 
was identified with many of the most important enterprises of the 
State and section, acting as director of one of the branches of the 
Reading Railroad, for which he procured a charter, and taking 
an active part in securing legislation authorizing the construction 
of the North Branch Canal. He has been for thirty years a 

20 Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant. 

manager of the Wilkes-Barre Bridge Company, and was a direc- 
tor of the old Wyoming Bank. For the years 1835-6-7-8 he 
was President of the Wilkes-Barre Borough Council, having for 
his colleagues Henry Pettebone, W. S. Ross, Hendrick B. Wright, 
B. A. Bidlack, Edmund Taylor, A. C. Laning, W. H. Alexander, 
Hugh Fell, and Anning O. Chahoon. At present he is a director 
of the First National Bank of Wilkes-Barre, and for years has 
been a member of the City Council, chairman of the Committee 
on Law and Ordinances, and is now President of that body. 

During a long term of years, General Sturdevant has been in 
some manner connected with most of the important business 
enterprises looking to the development and improvement of the 
various interests of the Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys. His 
connection with the now gigantic iron interest of the Lackawanna 
in the days of its infancy is peculiarly interesting. In 1839 he 
was requested by the President of the Bank of North America, 
Philadelphia, a.s the agent and attorney of the bank, to visit a 
body of the land owned by the bank in the old township of 
Providence (now city of Scranton), with a view to looking after 
iron ore reported to have been discovered on one of the bank's 
tracts by a well known hunter of that vicinity. On a pleasant 
morning he set out in a buggy, carrying with him a saddle, a pair 
of saddle bags, and a hatchet, in preparation for a journey through 
the woods, if it should be necessary. Passing through the local- 
ity of Scranton, then called Slocum Hollow, where then stood the 
old red Slocum house, the old forge on Roaring brook, and two 
miles beyond the residence of Elisha Hitchcock, he found the man 
he sought, to whom he agreed to pay $50 in consideration of his 
showing him the ore', provided that a test should prove it to be 
valuable. After unharnessing his horse, which he accoutred in 
saddle and saddle bags, the General mounted and followed the 
old hunter (who carried his rifle, with an eye to the possibility 
that they might arouse a deer or a bear from their mid-day nap) 
about five miles over a foot path pretty well obstructed by fallen 
trees to Stafford Meadow brook, near which, in a small ravine, 
on a tract in the warrantee name of Daniel Van Campen, and 
owned by the Bank of North America, they found outcroppings 
of iron ore on both sides of the gully. Taking as much of the 

Ebenezer Warken Stukdevant. 21 

ore as the General could carry in" his saddle bags, the two returned 
to the hunter's house, and hastily harnessing the horse, the Gen- 
eral drove back to Wilkes-Barre by moonlight. The next day 
the ore was securely boxed and sent to the President of the bank 
by stage. Soon General Sturdevant received a letter from the 
President enclosing a statement of the very favorable analysis of 
the ore by Professor Booth. The General paid the promised ^50 
to his friend, the hunter, and the Scrantons a little later bought 
the Daniel Van Campen tract, with other lands adjoining, and 
took initial steps leading to the wonderful development of the 
interests of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company, and through 
them of the thriving, energetic, and rapidly growing city o 

General Sturdevant up to 1842 had been an active and earnest 
member of the Whig party, but becoming dissatisfied with the 
Whig leaders during the administration of President Tyler, con- 
cluded to leave the party. General Sturdevant, as stated by him 
in the Constitutional Convention, was no abolitionist. He was 
also opposed to a national bank, which the Whig kaders of that 
day attempted to foist upon the people, and also to the tariff bill 
of that period. Since that time the General has been an ardent 
Democrat, and quite prominent in the affairs 'of his party. 
Though often tendered the candidacy for high political honors, 
he has never willingly consented, preferring the comforts of pri- 
vate life to the highest office in the country. 

For many years General Srurdevant has been a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. For more than thirty years he 
was a vestryman of St. Stephen's Church, Wilkes Barre. He 
was a liberal contributor toward the establishment of St. Clement's 
parish, in which Firwood is located, and the erection of its house 
of worship, and since the organization of the parish he has been 
senior warden of that church. 

General Sturdevant was. married May 1st, 1832, to Martha 
Dwight Denison, of Wilkes-Barre, daughter of Austin Denison, 
of New Haven, Conn., and Martha Denison, nee Dwight, and a 
niece of President Dwight of Yale College. On her mother's 
side she was of the seventh generation of descendants of Colonel 
Timothy Dwight, grandson of John Dwight, of Dedhani, Mass.. 

^2 Ebenezer Warken Sturdevant. 

the common ancestor, it is believed, of all who legitimately bear 
his family name on this continent. She was a lady of very supe- 
rior education and fine accomplishments, as honest a christian 
woman as ever lived, proud of the Dwight name, and cherishing 
through life every incident in the history of the family, with 
which she was thoroughly acquainted. She died October ,20th, 
1842. Only one child, Mary Elizabeth Sturdevant, who was 
born April loth, 1833, and died June i8th, 1835, was born of 
this marriage. 

On the 12th of May, 1847, General Sturdevant married Lucy, 
daughter of Hon. Chas. Huston, a Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, who bore him four children, — Charles Huston, 
Mary Elizabeth, Edward Warren, and Lucy Huston, — and who 
died, in the fullest confidence of faith and holy hope, May 3d, 
1879, 3t the residence of her daughter, Mrs. J. N. Stone, Jr., in 
Philadelphia, surrounded by her husband and children, in the six- 
tieth year of her age. For more than thirty years Mrs. Sturdevant 
had lived amid an increasing circle of appreciative and loving 
friends. A devoted wife and mother, a faithful and exemplary 
church member, a constant worshiper in her parish church, a 
most efficient teacher in the Sunday-school, and a true friend to 
all, to whom her friendship was helpful and full of comfort, her 
loss to the whole community, and especially to the parish of St. 
Clement's Church, was so great as to seem irreparable. She was 
born in Bellefonte, Centre county, Pa., and was trained under the 
pastoral care of Rev. Geo. W. Natt. She left, besides her hus- 
band and her two sons and two daughters, a countless numbei of 
mourning friends, to whom the bereavement of her loss was 
greater than can be told. 

General Sturdevant, still in active business life, and identified 
with the leading interests of Wilkes-Barre and vicinity, an efficient 
and prominent member of the City Council, sound in health, and 
thoroughly alive to the important events of the time, is passing 
the latter years of his life at Firwood farm, the care of which is 
his daily occupation and pleasure. His two sons, Charles Huston 
Sturdevant and Edward Warren Sturdevant, are members of the 
Luzerne county bar. Hon. John Sturdevant, so long and favor- 
ably known in Wilkes-Barre, was his brother, and Rev. Byron 

Andrew Todd McClintock. 23 

D. Sturdevant, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was his 
nephew. Since 1858 the General has been a member of the 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 


Andrew Todd McClintock was born February 2d, iSro, and 
is consequently now in the seventy-second year of his age. The 
scene of his birth was in the old town of Northumberland, in 
the county of that name, in this State. He is of Scotch-Irish 
extraction; the scion of a stock which has contributed very 
largely, especially within the last fifty years, to the galaxy of 
Pennsylvania's eminent public men. His grandfather was James 
McClintock, who was born in the town of Raphoe, county of 
Donegal, Ireland, where, also, Andrew's father, Samuel, was 
ushered into the world. The latter came to this country at the 
age of, eighteen, and was followed, seven years later, by the 
grandfather. They settled in Northumberland county, where 
both lived and died; the father at Northumberland, in 1812, aged 
thirty-six years. 

Andrew's mother was Hannah, the daughter of Col. Andrew 
Todd, of Trappe, Montgomery county, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, and through her our respected fellow-citizen is related to 
the Porters, the Hamills,and other leading families in Montgom- 
ery county. 

Mr. McClintock was but two years of age when his father 
died. His earlier education was received at the public schools 
of his native county — very primitive affairs at that early date ; 
after which he was sent to Kenyon College, Ohio, of which, at 
the time, the late Bishop Mcllvaine was President. There were 
in attendance at the college at the same time the late Hon. Edwin 
M. Stanton, Secretary of War during the war; Judge Frank- 
Hurd, one of Ohio's most distinguished Democrats; and Rufus 
King, Dean of the Law School of Cincinnati. He rernained in 

24 Andrew Todd McClintock. 

this institution thi;ee years, devoting himself assiduously to study, 
and achieving the happiest results. 

Upon leaving college he returned to Northumberland, and 
soon after entered the office of James Hepburn, Esq., a very tal- 
ented attorney of that day, as a student at law. Here he pursued 
his studies diligently for about a year, at the expiration of which 
time he came to Wilkes-Barre, where he completed his law 
in the office and under the tuition of the late Hon. George W. 
Woodward. He passed a highly creditable examination, and 
was admitted to the bar on August 8th, 1836, upon the recom- 
mendation of John N. Conyngham, Chester Butler, and Volney 
L. Maxwell, the examining committee. Immediately afterwards 
he entered into partnership with his late tutor, and the law 
firm of Woodward & McClintock continued and prospered until 
,^ 1838. In 1839 Mr. McClintock was appointed District Attorney 

of the county by Hon. Ovid F. Johnson, Attorney General of the 
Commonwealth, who, by the way, was a descendent of Rev. 
Jacob Johnson, who settled in the Wyoming Valley prior to the 
Revolution. David R. Porter was at this time the Governor of 
the State. Mr. McClintock discharged the duties of this, the 
only political office he ever held in his life, with distinguished 
ability and perfect conscientiousness for the term of one year, at 
the expiration of which time, public position having become dis- 
tasteful to him, he resigned, and resumed his private practice. 
He has frequently since been solicit to accepted political sta- 
tions of high trust and emolument, but has persistently refused. 
When, in 1867, an act of the Legislature gave Luzerne title to an 
Additional Law Judge, the members of the bar en masse, and 
very many of our best and most prominent business men, turned 
instinctively to Andrew T. McClintock as the man of all others 
in the profession best fitted for the post. He would bring to it a 
degree of dignity that would insure universal respect, a profound 
knowledge of the law, and a fairness and impartiality against 
which no taint of suspicion had ever for an instant rested. The 
following correspondence is the best attestation of how generally 
this conviction was entertained, and how universal was the regret 
occasioned by Mr. McClintock's final refusal to accept the honor 
tendered him : 

Andrew Todd McCuntock. 


Wilkes-Barre, Pa., April 8, i86j. 

We, the undersigned, members of the Democratic party of 
Luzerne county, are very desirous that Andrew T. McCIintock, 
Esq., should become the Additional Law Judge of the Eleventh 
Judicial district. And we urge upon him to accept the position, 
should it be tendered to him. We have the fullest confidence 
that he will be the choice of the Democratic party beyond all 
question, and we shall do all that it may be necessary for us to 
do to secure his nomination. It is simply unnecessary to speak 
of Mr. McCIintock as a man and as a lawyer. He is known to 
every one, and he is without reproach, whilst his professional 
ability is acknowledged with profound respect here and elsewhere. 

Stanley Woodward, 
Hendrick B. Wright, 
Geo. B. Kulp, 

C. F. Bowman, 
A. R. Brundage, 
G. B. Nicholson, 
Gustav Hahn, 
E. L. Merriman, 
O. F. Nicholson, 
T. H. B. Lewis, 
E. K. Morse, 

D. Rankin, 

Charles L. Lamberton, 
Charles Pike, 
G. R. Bedford, 
D. L. O'Neill, 
Howard Ellis, 
Rufus J. Bell, 
D. R. Randall, 
Stephen S. Winchester. 
D. C. Cooley, 
M. Regan, 
John Lynch, 
C. L. Bulkeley. 

The following leading lay Democrats and others also signed 
the above petition : 

J. B. Stark, 

M. J. Philbin, 

James Johnson, 

G. W. Kirkendall, 

S. Bristol, 

W. W. Smith, 

L. Myers, 

E. Taylor, 

E. Troxell, 

G. P. Steele, 

Robert Baur, 

J. Pryor Williamson, 

B. F. Pfouts, 

T. S. Hillard, 

Fred. Mercur, 

J. E. Vanleer, 

S. Bowman, 

G. M. Reynolds, 
E. B. Collings, 
Charles Erath, 
Peter Pursel, 
Marx Long, 
Walter H. Hibbs, 
Neal McGroarty, 
J. Reichard, 
Peter Raeder, 
A. H. Emley, 
C. A. Zeigler, 
S. H. Puterbaugh, 
C. C. Plotz, 
James Campbell, 
Charles Dorrance, 
S. R. Marshall, 
James Mullens. 

26 Andrew Todd McClintock. 

Wilkes-Barre, April lo, 1867. 
A. T. McClintock, Esq., 

Dear Sir: The Legislature of the State has passed an act 
providing for the election of an Additional Law Judge for the 
several courts of Luzerne county. The very great magnitude 
and importance of the interests of our county, to be chiefly pro- 
tected and administered in our civil and criminal courts, places 
the question of the judgeship high above the region of partisan 
politics. We need for the place a judge who shall be learned in 
the law, of known integrity of character, and high moral courage. 
Satisfied from a life-long acquaintance with you that you possess 
the qualifications we seek, we respectfully urge you to permit the 
use of your name for the office indicated. And we cheerfully 
pledge you our best efforts, and the use of all proper and legiti- 
mate means to secure for you the same expression, of opinion 
and desire from the great majority of your fellow-citizens of 
Luzerne county. 

Henry M. Hoyt, Alexander Farnham, 

W. W. Lathrope, Calvin Wadhams, 

Andrew Hunlock, R. C. Shoemaker, 

Garrick M. Harding, A. H. Winton, 

A. M. Bailey, H. W. Palmer, 

E. B. Harvey, H. B. Payne, 

V. L, Maxwell, Jerome G. Miller, 

W. W. Ketcham, C. D. Foster, 

W. P. Miner, , D. C. Harrington, 
George Loveland. 

In addition to the names of the lawyers above given, all of 
v/hom are Republicans, the following influential members of the 
Republican party, among others, signed the petition: 

S. D. Lewis, Charles Parrish, 

Joseph Brown, Arnold Bertels, 

Lewis C. Paine, W. C. Gildersleeve, 

W. W. Loomis, Thomas F. Atherton, 

Douglass Smith, A. J. Davis, 

E. P. Kingsbury, John S. Law. 

Wilkes-Barre, April 15, 1867. 
A. T. McClintock, Esq., 

Dear Sir: At a meeting of the members of the bar of 
Luzerne county on the 8th inst, the undersigned were appointed 
a committee to solicit the use of your name for the position of 

Andrew Todd McClintock. 27 

Additional "Law Judge for our several courts, under the act of 
Assembly recently passed. We therefore present the question 
directly to your consideration. The unanimity and urgency on 
the subject on the part of your brethren of the bar is the most 
emphatic view we can offer you. It is their clear and spontane- 
ous desire, and we are authorized to state that no ordinary con- 
sultation of your private feelings can override a call to serve the 
public made by so large and responsible body of your fellow- 
citizens. We need not urge our views of your qualifications for 
the duties of this office, nor the obvious necessity that the very 
first order of qualifications should be brought to its duties. Your 
knowledge of the situation is very full, and we leave the whole 
matter with you, hoping that a careful and conscientious review 
of the case will enable us to report your affirmative response to 
those whom we represent. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

C. L. Lamberton, 
Henry M. Hoyt, 
V, L. Maxwell, 
S. S. Winchester. 

Wilkes- Barre, April 2^, 186 j. 

Gentlemen: Your communication of the 15th inst., informing 
me of the proceedings of a meeting of the bar of Luzerne county, 
held on the 8th inst.,' was duly received. I have given careful 
consideration to the reasons so kindly urged to induce me to 
permit the use of my name for the position of Additional Law 
Judge for our several courts, under the act recently passed. I 
did not suppose that anything could be urged to induce me to 
hesitate in answering such a suggestion, but your strong appeal, 
and the appeal made to me from my fellow-citizens, without dis- 
tinction of party, have forced upon me the consideration of 
whether my duty should overrule my inclination, and have, I 
confess, greatly embarrassed me. I would like to oblige my 
friends, and am deeply sensible of the compliment they have paid 
me; but if, before receiving such expressions of confidence in 
my fitness for the position, I distrusted my ability to discharge 
the duties thereof with acceptance, I certainly am now convinced 
that I could not fulfill the expectations which it is evident my 
brethren of the bar and my fellow-citizens entertain of my quali- 
fications for the office. The standard which, in your kind appre- 
ciation of my qualifications, you esteem me fitted to fill is so 
high that I cannot undertake even to try to come up to it. I 
am averse to public life — the result, probably, of too exclusive 

28 Andrew Todd McClintock. 

atteation to the calls of my profession. I greatly prefer the bar 
to the bench, and cannot bring myself to the point of consenting 
to the use of my name for the position of judge. Another con- 
sideration has its influence in bringing me to this conclusion. I 
have been counsel for many years for interests that embrace a 
large portion of the business and property of our county. My 
relations to those interests have been so confidential and inti- 
mate that I could not, on the bench, feel free to sit in cases where 
those interests were involved, even though they might arise after 
my relations as counsel to such interests had ceased, and I could 
not, therefore, dispose of very much of what must, in the next 
few years, make up the greater part of the busineiS of our courts. 
With every disposition to oblige my friends, and with a deep 
sense of their kindness in the expression of their partiality to me 
for the position of Additional Law Judge, I must decline, decid- 
edly and absolutely, the use of my name for the office. I cannot 
consent to accept the positk>n. 

Very truly, your friend, 

Andrew T. McClintock. 

To Messrs, C. L. Lamberton, Henry M. Hoyt, V. L. Maxwell, 
and S. S. Winchester, Committee of the Bar of Luzerne county. 

By 1877 it had been ascertained that the new constitution was 
in many particulars defective. It was generally acknowledged 
a vast improvement upon the old instrument, but it was not in 
mortal power to forsee all our possible political \yants and con- 
tingencies, so that brainy, mdustrious, and careful as was the 
Constitutional Convention, that body left a number of things 
undone needed to make the fundamental law as nearly as possi- 
ble perfect, and did other things so imperfectly that a revision 
was already imperatively demanded. To make this revision was 
a delicate and difficult task — one that could not safely be assigned 
except to the very clearest legal minds in the State. The Legis- 
lature authorized the appointment of a commission for the pur- 
pose, and the choosing of its members fell to the lot of Governor 
John F. Hartranft, who took counsel from the wisest of his 
friends, and made the following excellent selections: Daniel 
Agnew, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; Benjamin Harris 
Brewster, perhaps the greatest lawyer at the Philadelphia bar; 
Samuel E. Dimmick, Attorney General of the Commonwealth; 

Andrew Todd McClintock. 29 

William A. Wallace, then United States Senator; William H. 
Playford, then a State Senator; Henry W. Williams, a Judge of 
the Supreme Court; and Andrew T. McClintock. It is not too 
much to say that, distinguished as were each and all of these 
gentlemen in the profession of the law, Mr. McClintock was the 
peer of the ablest of them. The commission held a number of 
sessions, Mr. McClintock participating actively in all the discus- 
sions, and returned its report to the Governor, by which official 
it was submitted to the Legislature. No action has as yet been 
taken upon it by that body, but it is the opinion of many of the 
best legal minds of the Commonwealth that in such delay a grave 
error of judgment has been committed, and many important 
interests neglected. 

Mr. McClintock is one of the busiest men in the community 
in which he lives. He has a very large and important clientage, 
including the Pennsylvania Coal Company, the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Company, and the Delaware, Lackawanna, and 
Western Railroad Company,, for which corporations he has been 
many 3'ears counsel. In 1870 Princeton College conferred upon 
him the degree of L.L. D. He is a Director of the Wyoming 
National Bank, President of the HoUenback Cemetery Associa- 
tion, and President of the Luzerne County Bible' Society. He 
has been a Director of the Wilkes-Barre City Hospital since its 
organization; is a Director of the Home for Friendless Children, 
and President of the Wilkes-Barre Law and Library Association. 
He is a member of the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society of Wilkes-Barre, and during the Centennial year was its 
President. He is an Elder of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Wilkes-Barre, and has been chosen a number of times a Delegate 
to the General Assembly of that denomination. 

Mr. McClintock has always been an old-school Democrat, but 
never in any sense a politician. His views have been those of 
the JefFersons and Jacksons of his party, and his contempt for 
that class which has, from time to time, for selfish purposes, 
sought to compromise the views which made the names men- 
tioned and the party they led great, has always been thorough 
and outspoken. This is the kind of party man who never sacri- 
fices the esteem of his political opponents, and hence it was that 

30 Andrew Todd McClintock. 

nearly all the leading Republicans of his county were so willing 
and anxious that Mr. McClintock, Democrat though he wasr 
should sit upon the judicial bench, to be the arbiter of their lib- 
erties and their properties. The names of Henry M. Hoyt, now 
Governor; Henry W. Palmer, now Attorney General; W. W. 
Ketcham and Garrick M. Harding, since Judges themselves; 
Hubbard B. Payne, since a State Senator, and others equally 
distinguished, and of the same party, will be noticed as among 
those who bear witness to the justice of this tribute to Mr, 
McClintock's deserving, in the flattering terms in which they 
speak of him in the correspondence quoted. " 

Mr. McClintock was married May nth, 1841, to Augusta, 
daughter of Jacob Cist, of Wilkes-Barre, and has had five chil- 
dren, four of whom survive. His only son, Andrew Hamilton 
McClintock, is a member of the Luzerne county bar. J. Vaughan 
Darling, also a member of the Luzerne bar, is his son-in-law. 

Mr. McClintock is above the medium height, and of more than 
average weight. He has a stately presence and kindly countenance. 
Having always been a man of good habits, he is wonderfully well 
preserved, and few would take him from his appearance to be 
within fifteen years as old as he is. The numerous civic positions 
he holds evidence the esteem in which he is held, and the faith 
reposed by his fellow-citizens in his resources. His charities are 
numerous, and of the practical sort. He has acquired a consid- 
erable fortune through his profession, but lives quietly, and 
utterly without ostentation. In brief, he is one of the most use- 
ful and most respected of our citizens, as well as in the forefront of 
his chosen profession. He is the oldest member of the Luzerne 
county bar in active practice, and is still in full possession of all 
his normal mental vigor. Had his ambition led him in that 
direction, he might have occupied high political positions, but he 
always preferred the private station, and therein has achieved 
such honors as feW men have in similar pursuits had the mind, 
patience, and perseverance to lay up for themseves. 

Edward Inman Turner. 31 


Edward Inman Turner is a native of Plymouth, Pennsylvania, 
where he was born May 27, 18 16. , He graduated at Dickinson 
College, and immediately after commenced the study of law in 
the office of the late Hon. John Nesbitt Conyngham. He was 
admitted to the bar November 5, 1839, upon the recommendation 
of George Griffin, George W. Woodward, and O. Collins, the 
Examining Committee. Mr. Turner is a son of the late John 
Turner, also a native of Plymouth, and grandson of John Turner, 
who emigrated about the year 1780 from near Hackettstown, 
New Jersey. Mr. Turner is unmarried. Soon after his admis- 
sion to the bar he removed to St. Paul, Minnesota, but subse- 
quently returned to Plymouth, where he has been chiefly engaged 
in agricultural and mercantile pursuits. The late Hon. Samuel 
G. Turner was his brother. 


Edmund Lovell Dana was born at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 
January 29, 1817. His father was Asa Stevens Dana, a descend- 
ant of the Dana family that came to America about 1640. Its 
various n>embers all through the history of our country have 
borne a conspicuous and highly honorable part, as well in politi- 
cal positions they have occupied, as in the paths of science, law, 
and literature; and through the pre-eminent literary accomplish- 
ments of Richard H. Dana, the name has become endeared to 
every scholar and household throughout our land. To particu- 
larize, and give the name and history of the various leading and 
prominent men of this family, would lead too far from the pur- 
pose of this sketch, which is to give an account of the Danas of 
Wyoming, and particularly of Gen. Edmund L. Dana, a promi- 
nent member of that family. 

The name of Anderson Dana is first found at Wyoming in 
"a list of the inhabitants of Pittstown, April 30th, 1772," where 

32 Edmund Lovell Dana. 

he owned a share of the town. He soon sold out, purchased 
and removed to a farm at Wilkes-Barre, a part of which, includ- 
ing the old homestead, still remains in the possession of General 
Dana, and for which he holds a deed dated September nth, 
1772. When the enemy came to desolate the valley in 1778, 
he mounted his horse and rode through the settlement, arousing 
and urging the people to the conflict. Although exempt, he 
went out with the little force, acted as adjutant and aide to Col. 
Zebulon Butler on the field, and fell in the midst of the hottest 
of the strife. " He came from Ashford, Conn. ; was a lawyer of 
handsome attainments, and the leader in the establishment of free 
schools and a gospel ministry. He represented Wyoming in the 
Connecticut Assembly, and had just returned home when the 
news of the invasion reached the valley." He left a family of 
children, of whom his son Anderson became his successor in 
keeping the old homestead farm, and raised there a large family 
of children. The latter married a daughter of Asa Stevens, who 
fell in the battle. Stephen Whiton, son-in-law of the elder Ander- 
son, also fell in the battle. He was Deputy Sheriff at the time. 
Captain Hezekiah Parsons, the father of our respected citizen, 
Calvin Parsons, Esq., married his daughter, who was born several 
months after the battle. Anderson Dana, the elder, was the 
grandson of Jacob Dana, of Cambridge, Mass., where the family 
first settled. 

One of the sons of Anderson Dana, Jr., Asa Stevens Dana, was 
the father of Gen, E. L. Dana, the' subject of this sketch. His 
mother was Ann, daughter of Hon. Joseph Pruner, a descendant 
of one of the early German settlers of this State, and who settled 
in Hanover at an early day. In the spring of 18 19 the father of 
Gen. Dana removed to Eaton, now Wyoming county, opposite 
Tunkhannock, where he resided until his death. Here Edmund 
L., with a number of brothers and sisters, grew up, working on 
the farm and attending school in the winter. At the age of fifteen 
he began preparing for college at the Wilkes-Barre Academy, 
and entered the sophomore class in Yale College in October, 
183s, graduating in 1838. Immediately after graduating he was 
engaged as civil engineer on the North Branch Canal, where he 
continued until the 7th of April, 1839. At this time he began 

Edmund Lovell Dana. 33 

the study of law under Hon. Luther Kidder, and was admitted 
to the bar April 6th, 1841, upon the recommendation of Oristes 
Collins, Thomas Dyer, and Chester Butler, the examining com- 
mittee. He soon after entered the office of the late Hon. George 
W. Woodward, at one time Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, on his 
appointment to the bench, and took charge of his large business, 
which he successfully managed, and from that time to December, 
1846, was actively engaged in practice in the counties of Luzerne 
and Wyoming. 

In December, 1846, when a call was made by the government 
for troops to aid in prosecuting the war with Mexico, he tendered 
the services of the Wyoming Artillerists, of which company he 
was Captain, which was accepted; started by canal boat for Pitts- 
burg December 7, 1846, and on the i6th of December was there 
mustered into the United States service to serve during the war. 
His company was assigned to the First Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, and designated as Company L Upon the arrival of 
the advance transport and troops at Lobos Island on their way 
to Vera Cruz, Captain Dana was selected to make a survey of 
Lobos harbor. He and his command were at the subsequent 
landing of the troops participated actively in the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and his cpmpany was part of the troops assigned to receive 
the surrender of the city and the castle of San Juan D'UUoa. 
After the capitulation of the city and castle, he accompanied 
Gen. Scott into the interior of Mexico; was at the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, April i8th, 1847; accompanied the movement to, and 
occupation of Perote Castle and the cities of Jalapa and Pueb'la; 
in the siege of the latter was actively engaged, and for good and 
soldierly conduct there he received special mention in General 
Orders. He led the charge at the Pass of El Pinal; marched to 
the city of Mexico; remained there until peace in June, 1848, 
and returning was mustered out of service at Pittsburg July 20, 
1848. He and his company were welcomed home with the 
highest honors by an immense concourse of people. He at once 
resumed the practice of law. 

In 185 1 Gen. Dana was a candidate for Congress in the district 
composed of the counties of Wyoming, Luzerne, and Columbia. 
This was previous to the division of Columbia county, and before 

34 Edmund Lovell Dana. 

Montour was formed out of Columbia. His competitor, John 
Brisbin, was elected. In 1853 he was a candidate for State Sen- 
ator in the district composed of the counties of Luzerne, Colum- 
bia, and Montour. His opponent, Charles R. Buckalew, was 

At the breaking out of the war with the South, he held the 
commission of. Major General of the Ninth Division Pennsylvania 
Militia, and in the summer of 1862 was appointed by the Governor 
commandant of a camp of organization and instruction, located in 
Kingston township, and called Camp Luzerne. The 143d Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers was recruited and organized at this 
camp, and he was elected Colonel, Oc^ber i8th, 1862. On the 
7th of November, 1862, the regiment broke camp, proceeded to 
Harrisburg, where it was armed; thence to Washington, being 
assigned to duty in the northern defenses of Washington; .and 
thence to the front, February 17, 1863, going into camp at Belle 
Plain, where the regiment was attached to the Second Brigade, 
Third Division, First Army Corps, commanded by Gen. John F. 
Reynolds. On the 20th of April, Col. Dana, with his regiment, 
accompanied the division on an expedition to Port Royal, below 
Fredericksburg, when a feint was made of. crossing the river. 
On the 29th, with his command, he was exposed to a brisk can- 
nonade from the opposite bank of the river, the sharpshooters on 
both sides being very active. On the morning of May 2d 
marched to Chanccllorsville; arrived at midnight, passing in the 
last three or four miles many wounded borne from the front, and 
through woods lit up by the glare of bursting shells. The First 
Corps went into position on the extreme right of the army, on 
the Ely road towards the Rapidan, Col. Dana's regiment being 
on the left of the corps. After the battle, returned by a tedious 
march, and went into camp at Falmouth on the 8th. A month 
later the corps started on the Gettysburg campaign, and was the 
first infantry to reach the field. Bivouacking on Marsh creek, 
four miles from Gettysburg, on the night of June 30th, it moved 
forward on the morning of July ist, and soon heard the cannon 
of.Buford's cavalry engaging the enemy's advance. Sometime 
before noon the brigade went into position on a ridge beyond 
that on which the seminary stands, under a heavy fire, the 143d 

EtiMUND LovELL Dana. 35 

forming on the line of the railroad. Early in the action the 
command of the brigade devolved on Col. Dana. 

"A terrific fire of infantry and artillery was brought to bear on 
the position; but it wa.s manfully held, though the dead and 
wounded on every hand told at what a fearful cost. Repeated 
charges were made with ever fresh troops, but each was repulsed 
with fearful slaughter. Finally the enemy succeeded in flanking 
the position, and the line was pressed back a short distance, but 
made a stand in a field a little back from the railroad cut. Later 
in the afternoon the brigade was forced to retire to a position 
near the seminary. When this movement became necessary, 
under the pressure of overwhelming numbers, and the command 
was given, the color-bearer and many of the men were with diffi- 
culty made to face to the rear, seeming determined to die rather 
than yield the ground. In executing this movement the color- 
bearer of the regiment was killed, still clinging to his standard. 
This incident is mentioned by an English officer who was at the 
time with the. enemy, in an article in Blackwood for September, 
1863, Am. Ed., p. 377: 'Gen. Hill soon came up. . He said 

the Yankees had fought with a determination unusual to them. 
He pointed out a railway cutting in which they had made a good 
stand; also a field, in the center of which he had seen a man 
plant the regimental colors, around which the enemy had fought 
for some time with much obstinacy, and when at last it was 
obliged to retreat, the color-bearer retired last of all, turning 
round every now and then to shake his fist at the advancing 
rebels. Gen. Hill said he felt quite sorry when he had seen this 
gallant Yankee meet his doom.' The flag was rescued and 
brought safely off Col. Dana throughout the severe and pro- 
tracted contest moved on foot through the fire along the line 
wherever his presence was required. When all hope of longer 
holding the ground was gone, the brigade fell back through the 
town, and took position on Cemetery Hill, where the shattered 
ranks of the two corps which had been engaged were reformed." 
Bates' Hist. Pa. Vols., vol. iv., p. 488. 

The morning of July 2d opened with artillery and picket firing, 
and in the afternoon a severe attack was made upon the left of 
the line, in which Gen. Sickles' corps was engaged, and Col. Dana 
with his brigade was ordered to its support. The movement was 
effected under a heavy fire of shells, under which some loss was 
sustained, and a position taken on the left center, in open ground, 
where it rested for the night, having recovered several captured 
guns. At four o'clock on the morning of the 3d, a heavy artillery 

36 Edmund Lovell Dana. 

fire was opened along the whole front, which was increased at 
one P. M, so as to envelop the Union line, shells and solid, shot 
plowing the ground in every direction. Later in the afternoon 
the last grand infantry charge by Gen. Longstreet was made upon 
the left center, the strength- of which fell a little to the right of 
the position where the brigade lay. This charge, made with 
great force and bravery, and pressed with unusual persistency, 
was completely repulsed, large numbers were slain, many pris- 
oners taken, and the enemy, retiring broken, did not again venture 
to renew the battle. The loss of the brigade in killed, wounded, 
missing in action, and prisoners was more than half its entire 
strength. After the battle Col. Dana accompanied and led his 
command in the pursuit of the Confederate army, crossing at 
Berlin into yirginia. He participated in the movement, October, 
1863, to Centerville, and with his regiment and a battery of 
artillery aided in repelling a cavalry attack at Haymarket, Octo- 
ber 19. 

The losses of the First Corps were so great during this unex- 
ampled campaign, that it was broken up in March, and the rem- 
nants consolidated with the Fifth Army Corps. The 143d Regi- 
ment thus became part of the First Brigade, First Division, Fifth 
Army Corps. On the 4th of May, 1864, Col. Dana with his 
regiment marched on the Wilderness campaign, encamping at 
night near the house which Jackson had used for his headquarters 
at the battle of Chancellorsville. Early the next morning the 
march was resumed; the enemy, posted in the woods, was 
encountered in large force; the corps was formed in line of battle, 
and the fighting became severe. Col. Dana had his horse shot 
under him, was wounded, and taken prisoner with a number of 
his ofificers and men. He was conveyed that night to Orange 
Court House, thence to Danville and to Macon, Ga., and in June 
following to Charleston, S. C, and was one of the fifty officers, 
including Brigadier Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, and 
Majors, who were placed under the fire of our own guns, in retal- 
iation for some supposed violation of the usages of war by the 
Federal Government in the siege of that city. On the 3d of 
August, Col. Dana and his fellow prisoners were exchanged for 
an equal number of Confederates, released from confinement, and 

Edmund Lovell Dana. 37 

sent North, and early in September he rejoined his command 
before Petersburg. On the 1st of October, he was with his regi- 
ment in the movement upon the Vaughn road, and participated 
in the fighting of that day, and in the erection of breastworks in 
continuation of the line of investment. Returning to camp on 
the 4th, he was assigned to the duty of guarding Fort Howard 
and two batteries in the investing line. On the 8th of October, 
he was instructed to make and conduct an advance of the out- 
posts, skirmish and picket lines of the Fifth Corps. This was 
effected after a sharp encounter with the enemy's outposts, and 
for his conduct and management of the affair he was compli- 
mented by the General commanding the corps in the following 
official communication: 

Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, 
October g, 186^. 
Col. E. L, Dana, Com. i^-j^d Pa. Vol. 

Colotiel: The General commanding the corps directs me to 
express to you his satisfaction with the performance of your 
duties yesterday as commander of the line of skirmishers of the 
corps. Your duties were important, arduous, and of a highly 
responsible character, all of which you performed with credit to 
yourself and the command. 

I am, Colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Fred. I. Locke, Lt. Col., A. A. Gen. 
Through Brig. Gen. Baxter, Com. Fifth Division. 

He was at the first battle of Hatcher's Run, October 28th and 
29th; on the Weldon raid from the 7th to the 12th of December; 
and in the second Hatcher's Run battle of the 6th and 7th of 
February, 1865. The 143d, together with the 149th and 150th 
Pennsylvania Regiments, and 24th Michigan, all greatly reduced 
by hard fighting, and all amongst the most trusted troops, was 
detached from the corps, and sent on special service to Baltimore; 
thence the 143d was sent to Hart Island, to the duty of guarding 
the prisoners of war collected there, and of furnishing escort for 
conscripts, recruits, and convalescents as they were sent to differ- 
ent points. The war being ended, the regiment was mustered 
out of the service on the 12th and 13th of June, 1865, and reach- 

28 ■ Edmund Loveill Dana. 

jng Wilkes-Barre, was, with its officers, welcomed home, after 
three years' absence, with an enthusiastic reception. 

Col. Dana was retained in the service, detailed on court martial 
duty at Elmira, and later at Syracuse, N. Y. For long, faithful, 
and tried service he was brevetted Brigadier General, and was 
honorably mustered out of the service on the 23d of August, 
1865. His military record equals that of any other individual 
in northern Pennsylvania; it is great in extent, experience, and 
brilliancy. As an officer, his reputation is best attested by his 
old comrades in arms, the 143d Pennsylvania Regiment, who 
worship him with a devotion rarely surpassed. 

After the cessation of hostilities, he resumed the practice of 
the law, and in the fall of 1867 was nominated and elected over 
Hon. Henry, M. Hoyt, now Governor of Pennsylvania, who was 
his opponent, to the office of Additional Law Judge of the Elev- 
enth Judicial District of Pennsylvania, comprising the populous 
county of Luzerne. He took his seat on the 2d of December, 
1867, and served for the full term of ten years. For several 
years, in addition to presiding alternately with Judge Conyngham 
in the Courts at Wilkes-Barre, he also presided as an ex-officio 
Recorder in the Mayor's Court of the cities of Scranton and 
Carbondale. Prior to the expiration of his term, the following 
correspondence took place: 

Hon. Edmund L. Dana. 

Dear Sir: The undersigned, members of the bar of Luzerne 
county, hereby respectfully urge you to consent to be a candidate 
for re-election to the office of Additional Law Judge of this dis- 
trict. We do this in view of the very satisfactory, able, and im- 
partial manner in which you have discharged your official duties 
hitherto. We shall be glad to take all proper steps to secure 
your re-election. 

Andrew T. McClintock, Henry M. Hoyt 

Henry W. Palmer, Hendrick B. Wright, 

A. R. Brundage, Stanley Woodward 

Alfred Hand, L. D. Shoemaker, ' 

H. B. Payne, Charles E. Rice, 

Elliott P. Kisner, George R. Bedford 

George K. Powell, E. S. Osborne 

George B. Kulp, j. Vaughan Darling, 

Edmund Lovell Dana. 


T. H. B. Lewis, 
W. W. Lathrope, 
R. W. Archbald, 
E. Robinson, 
J. M. C. Ranck, 
E. G. Butler, 
Q. A. Gates, 
Charles Pike, 
R. C. Shoemaker, 
Paul R. Weitzel, 
Charles D. Foster, 
■J. A. Opp, 
Alexander Farnham, 
Joseph D. Coons, 
M. Cannon, 
Joseph E. Ulman, 
E. H. Painter, 
Benjamin F. Dorrance, 
David L. Patrick, 

E. P. Darling, 
William S. McLean, 
N. Taylor, 

A. H. Winton, 
Jabez Alsover, 
T. R. Martin, 
Harrison Wright, 
Edward H. Chase, 

F. M. Nichols, 

C. P. Kidder, 
S. B. Price, 

W. H. McCartney, 
P. J. O'Hanlon, 

D. S. Kaon, 
Lyman H. Bennett, 
Henry A. Fuller, 
Thomas H. Atherton, 
Allan H. Dickson, 

L. M. Bunnell, 
John O'Flaherty, 
George Sanderson, Jr., 
George S. Horn, 
D. W. Rank, 
W. H. Gearhart, 
L. W. Dewitt, 
Sheldon Reynolds, 

William P. Ryman, 
Charles H. Sturdevant, 
G. Mortimer Lewis, 
Mont. J. Flanigan, 
P. C. Gritman, 
Gustav Hahn, 
A. M. Bailey, 
Alfred Darte, Jr., 
L. B. Landmesser, 

E. V. Jackson, 
Isaac P. Hand, 
Jerome G. Miller, 

D. M. Jones, 
S. J. Strauss, 
Oscar J. Harvey, 

F. C. Sturges, 
A. D. Dean, 
F. E. Loomis, 
George W. Shonk, 
W. L. Paine, 
John A. Gorman, 

F. C. Mosier, 
H. Halves, 

E. W. Simrell, 
George Loveland, 
Andrew Hunlock, 
H. H. Coston, 

L. Amerman, 

M. J. Wilson, 

H. A. Knapp, 

James H. Torrey, 

Isaac J. Post,- 

W. G. Ward, / 

J. H. Campbell, 

S. P. McDivitt, 

Edward N. Willard, 

H. M. Hannah, 

A. Chamberlin, 

B. M. Espy, 

C. W. Kline, 
Charles E. Lathrop, 
John Espy, 

G. S. Stark, 
E. B. Sturges, 
Frank Stewart, 

40 Edmund Lovell Dana. 

C. L. Lamb, George S. Ferris, 

F. L. Hitphcock, Thomas Nesbitt, 

G. F. Bentley, H. M. Edwards. 

Wtlkes-Barre, April ii, iSyy. 
A. T. McClintock, H. M. Hoyt, Esqs., and others. 

Gentlemen: The communication signed by you and the 
members of the bar of Luzerne county, requesting me "to con- 
sent to be a candidate for re-election to the office of Additional 
Law Judge of this district," is received. The assurance it con- 
tains, that the manner in which my official duties have been dis- 
charged, during the past ten years, has merited your approval, is 
truly grateful. I had not intended to be a candidate for re-elec- 
tion. My purpose was, at the close of my judicial term, to retire 
from an office of some labor and of great responsibility. The 
wishes, however, of the bar, so generally expressed, together with 
intimations of their desire, by citizens in different portions of the 
county, have induced a reconsideration of that purpose; and, after 
reflection, I have concluded to assent to your request, that my 
name may be presented to the people of this judicial district for 
re-election as Judge, if it be their and your pleasure. 

I am, very sincerely, etc., 

Edmund L. Dana. 

The above petition contained the names of nearly the entire 
bar in 1877 of both political parties. The General was regularly 
nominated by the Democratic Convention, and when the Repub- 
lican Convention met they made no nomination for Judge, but 
instead passed the following resolution: 

"That this convention having entire confidence in the learning, 
integrity, and ability of Edmund L. Dana, as illustrated by his 
administration of the office of Additional Law Judge of this dis- 
trict in the past ten years, hereby cordially recommend him to 
the voters of Luzerne county for re-election." 

In the same year a new party sprung into existence, known as 
the Greenback-Labor party, which, by means of a most earnest 
and efficient organization and effort, swept the county of Luzerne 
like a tornado, and carried all their men into office over both the 
other political parties. Of course Gen. Dana went down with 
the rest. But his defeat did not detract from his high character 

Edmund Lovell Dana. 41 

and reputation as a jurist, or from the regard of his friends and 

In 1878 Judge Dana was induced by a large number of promi- 
nent citizens of both political parties in Lehigh county to allow 
his name to be used as a candidate for President Judge of that 
county. He consented, the Republican party making no nomi- 
nation, but he was defeated by Hon. Edwin Albright by a small 

General Dana is a man of fine culture, of scholastic tastes and 
acquirements, true and honorable in all his dealings, and a fitting 
representative of an old Wyoming family. Although not an 
active partisan, he has always acted with the Democratic party. 
For more than thirty years he has been connected with St. 
Stephen's Episcopal Church at Wilkes-Barre He is an ardent 
lover of field sport, indulges much in hunting and fishing, filling 
out his time snatched from the care of business in these his 
favorite pastimes. He was married in 1842 to Sarah Peters, 
daughter of Ralph Peters, Esq., and grand-daughter of Hon. 
Richard Peters, of Philadelphia. The Judge has one son, Charles 
Edmund, who has for some years been residing and traveling in 
Europe, engaged in the study of art, a study to which he is zeal- 
ously devoted, and in which he has made gratifying progress. 
He is married to Emily, only child of the late Peter T. Woodbury, 
who was a distinguished lawyer in the city of New York. He 
was the nephew of Hon. Levi Woodbury, LL. D., of New 

Gen. Dana is at present a member of the Council of his native 
city. He is the Corresponding Secretarj' of the Wyoming His- 
torical and Geological Society of Wilkes-Barre, and was its first 

42 William Penn Miner. 


William Penn Miner, who comes next on the list of our attor- 
neys in the order of their seniority, is the not unworthy scion of 
a house well known as lawyers, journalists; authors, and other- 
wise in public life in at least four of Pennsylvania's most popu- 
lous and important counties. In Bucks, Chester, Susquehanna, 
and Luzerne the Miners have been honorably and usefully con- 
spicuous figures. They are of Yankee origin; that is to say, the 
first we can trace were Yankees. 

Hon. Charles Miner, the father of William Penn Miner, was 
born in Norwich, Connecticut, and came to Pennsylvania in 1799, 
at the age of 19. His father, Seth Miner, held some lands (now 
in Susquehanna county) under the Connecticut claim. After his 
arrival, in February, 1799, Mr. Miner "worked ifi the sugar," as 
they phrased it. Currency being a not over-plentiful article in 
the young nation in those days, he was paid in sugar. Having 
earned one hundred and five pounds of the saccharine article, he 
strapped his earnings on his back, and trudged with it northward 
as far as the Wyalusing. Here he sold his sugar, bought 
provisions, and made a clearing three miles west of Montrose. 
Charles sold his improvements a very few years later, moved 
into Wilkes-Barre, and went to work with his brother Asher, 
who had established here T7ie Luzerne County Federalist. The 
brothers had served a portion of an apprer>ticeship to the printing 
trade in New London, Connecticut. For two years the Federalist 
was published under the firm name of A. & C. Miner, when 
Asher, who was the elder brother, removed to Doylestown. 
Charles was elected to the Legislature in 1807, and re-elected in 
1808, distinguishing himself as an active member on both occa- 
sions. In 1816 he sold out and went to West Chester, where he 
founded The Village Record, was elected to Congress, and served 
from 1824-28 inclusive, representing Chester, Delaware, and 
Lancaster counties, having for his colleague James Buchanan, 
afterwards President of the United States. Asher started the 
Doylestown Correspondent, now the Bucks County Intelligencer, 

William Penn Miner. 43 

and continued to conduct it successfully for twenty years; then 
he, too, went to West Chester, and from that time on until 1832 
the Record was run by the brothers in partnership. Charles 
returned to Wilkes-Barre in 1832, where, having first given him- 
self a national reputation through the compilation and publication 
of his " History of Wyoming," he died peacefully, October 26, 
1865. Asher returned, also, to Wilkes-Barre, near which he died 
at a green old age. 

It was from such stock as this came William P. Miner, who 
was born in Wilkes-Barre, September 8th, 1816, in the house at 
the corner of Union and Franklin streets, which was built by his 
father (now occupied by Mr. Thos. W. Robinson). His mother 
was Letitia, daughter of Joseph Wright, Esq., and granddaughter 
of Thomas Wright, Esq. Both of these were likewise publishers, 
so that the subject of this sketch came from families of news- 
paper men on both sides. The elder Wright started the Wilkes- 
Barre Gazette before the ushering in of the present century, and 
it was conducted by his son for a number of years. 

Wm. P. Miner was educated in the Academ}' at West Chester 
and ir» the old Wilkes-Barre Academy, and was an apt and ex- 
emplary student. He studied latv with his brother-in-law, Hon. 
Joseph J. Lewis, who was Commissioner of Internal Revenue 
under President Lincoln, and the Nestor of the Chester county 
bar, and was admitted to the bar in Chester county in 1840. He 
was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county August 3, 1841. In 
1846 he was elected Prothonotary and Clerk of the Courts of 
Oyer and Terminer and Quarter Sessions, and of the Orphans' 
Court of Luzerne county, as the candidate of the Whig party, 
with which his father and entire family had always been closely 
identified. He resumed the practice of the law at the expiration 
of his term of three years; but on April 19, 1853, he started the 
Weekly Record of the Times, when he may be said to have per- 
manently retired from practice. The daily edition of the Record 
of the Times was started by him, October 5, 1873, and continues, 
as our readers all know, in a flourishing condition to this hour. 
As the establishment of this paper indicates, when the Whig 
party ceased to exist, Mr. Miner became a Republican of a most 
pronounced type. 

44 William Penn Miner. 

We think it safe to assume that he never entertained any real 
love for the legal profession, though he was always conscientious 
and earnest in the management of such cases as came under his 
charge. Inheriting the trait, as already stated, from both his 
father's and mother's side, his natural favoritism was for the 
newspaper profession, in which he was ever zealous and enter- 
prising. His paper was a clean paper, too, scrupulously avoid- 
ing all disposition to sensationalism, invariably of a character fit 
to enter into the most exacting family in such regard. His lean- 
ing was to dealing with industrial subjects, which, his keen vision 
early discerned, constituted the very best literature, because the 
most useful, for the digestion of the readers of this immediate 
vicinity. The Record, as it was always briefly called, gave, in 
particular, every possible encouragement to the prosecution of 
the coal trade, and in that and other ways, as is beyond all ques- 
tion, has greatly accelerated and added materially to the growth 
and prosperity of Wilkes-Barre and the county generally. 

Mr. Miner is still busy with his pen, for, though he retired 
from the management of the Record in 1876, it is only the other 
day that we read, of his writing, a rernarkably exhaustive and 
interesting " History of the Coal Trade in Luzerne and Lacka- 
wanna Counties." He is a member of the Wyoming Historical 
and Geological Society, and was one of its charter members. 

Mr. Miner married Miss Elizabeth D. Liggett, of Philadelphia, 
on April nth, 1842, by whom he has had five children, four 
daughters, three of whom are still living, and one son, William B. 
Miner, well known to our citizens as a member of the Luzerne 
county bar. These constitute a happy family, now residing at 
the "Old Home," as the old homestead is called, located about 
three miles north of Wilkes-Barre, where it is the intention of 
Mr. Miner to pass his remaining days in quiet retirement, a com- 
fort to which his long, busy, and useful life well entitles him. 
Mrs. Miner died in 1871. 

Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 45 


Lazarus Denison Shoemaker is, in the order of seniority, the 
eighth on the list of resident attorneys admitted to practice in 
the Courts of Luzerne county since August, 1822, as appears 
from the Court Rules published in 1879. Of those still living 
and practicing, there are but two whose admission ante-dates his. 
He was born in Kingston, Luzerne county, on the 5th day of 
November, 1819, and is, therefore, at this writing, in the sixty- 
third year of his age. His father was Elijah Shoemaker, in his 
time one of the foremost citizens of the Wyoming Valley, and the 
owner of large landed estates within its precincts. The Shoe- 
makers are of what is generally called "good old stock." They 
are supposed to be of Holland origin, emigrating from thence, 
first to England, and afterwards to America. Arrived in this 
country, they located on the banks of the Delaware, in wjiat was 
first Bucks county, now Monroe, and were probably among the 
first settlers of that section, which, by the way, is known to have 
attracted a colony of the Hollanders from the Hudson as early 
as 1650. These hardy pioneers constructed, what they called, 
"The Mine Road," from the Hudson to the Delaware, one of 
the earliest of the country's thoroughfares, which must needs 
have been a substantial piece of work, since, as late as 1800, John 
Adams traveled it on his way to Congress, at Philadelphia, as 
being the best route from Boston. It got its name of "Mine 
Road" from the fact that the Hollanders were attracted to the 
region of the Delaware by the stories of Indians to the effect that 
there goodly stores of precious metals were to be gotten, and 
which stories resulted in the digging of the historical mines at 
Minisink. Some, from whose gathered data the earlier history 
of.our State has been made up (among them Stickney, Hazzard, 
and Nicholas Scull, the latter a Surveyor General of the Province 
about 1748), believed that these settlements were older than 
Penn's colony at Philadelphia. The Shoemakers must have been 
among the first comers. We find the name of Benjamin Shoe- 
maker, the great-grandfather of the subject of our sketch, in the 

46 Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 

Court records of 1752, as having been, with others, "summoned 
to serve on the grand inquest," and "made default in their appear- 
ance." He was afterwards, as appears from other records, 'chosen 
a Commissioner. This gentleman left the Delaware, and came 
to the Wyoming Valley in 1763, and was, therefore, one of its 
earliest settlers. After the first Massacre, however, he returned 
to the Delaware, and died there in 1775. His son, Elijah, the 
grandfather of the subject of our sketch, joined the emigrants 
from Connecticut, in 1776, under the auspices of the Connecticut 
and Susquehanna Land Company. He became a permanent 
and prominent settler, and here the most of his immediate 
descendants continue to abide. He was killed at the memorable 
Massacre at Wyoming, July 3d, 1778, leaving a son, Elijah 
Shoemaker, Jr., but six weeks old. This, then, so cruelly 
orphaned infant, lived to become the father of the present Mr. 
Shoemaker. He was born at Forty Fort, on May 20, 1778. The 
place is adjacent to the elegant residence which he subsequently 
erected, and which is now owned and occupied by Robert C. Shoe- 
maker, a nephew of Lazarus. His mother was Jane McDowell, 
daughter of John McDowell, of Cherry Valley, Northampton 
county, now Monroe. Mr. McDowell emigrated from Ireland in 
I73S> 'i"'^ earned for himself the gratitude of many worn and 
weary families whom he succored on their toilsome way from New 
England to Wyoming, and whose route took them by his house 
and through an almost unbroken wilderness. His grandmother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Depui, one of the earliest settlers of 
the vicinit}^of Stroudsburg. The Depuis were Huguenots from 
Artois, in the north of France. Elijah, during the pendency 
of the disputes as to the title to the land of the valley, cleared a 
portion of that which he had purchased with money left him by 
his father of the Susquehanna Company, built an unpretentious 
habitation, and engaged in farming in a small way. It was while 
his affairs were in this condition that Elijah, Jr., was born and ^he 
Massacre of Wyoming occurred; wherein he acted as Lieutenant 
in the little band of patriots, and was slain. The widow and her 
babe were left in very poor circumstances, for practically every- 
thing in their little home had been carried off or destroyed by 
the British and savages. Mrs. Shoemaker was a woman of much 

Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 47 

energy, however, and succeeded by her perseverance and inge- 
nuity in caring for her boy until he became old enough to care 
for her. Before the son had attained his majority, the Connecticut 
question had been settled, and he was the possessor of a large 
and valuable farm. This he managed with great ability and 
thrift, ultimately erecting upon it a mansion, which is still pointed 
out as a model of good taste and convenience. In 1814 he was 
elected Sheriff of Luzerne county. A biographer says of him, 
that he "performed the duties of the position with great satisfac- 
tion to the people. At that time the settlers were poor, and 
many of them burdened with debt. By his leniency in the per- 
formance of his duty, and by his own individual aid, many were 
enabled to save their homes. He was a strong man physically 
and intellectually, and was brave and fearless in time of danger. 
His education was limited, being only such as could be acquired 
at the country school hou^e; yet he had sufficient culture and 
learning to make him a good and useful citizen and an honest 
man of the olden time. In July, 1829, he was seized with a fever, 
which caused his death after a few days' sickness, in the fiftieth 
year of his age. He left a fine estate, still occupied by his 
descendants, and a family of nine children — six sons and three 
daughters. His widow survived him two years. They both 
sleep in the beautiful cemetery at Forty Fort, near the place 
which knew them so well in life, and which is fragrant to their 
posterity with sweet memories of the past.'' The maternal grand- 
father of Mr. Shoemaker was Col. Nathan Denison, a native of 
New England, who, in 1769, married Elizabeth Sill, in a log cabin 
situated within the present city of Wilkes-Barre. This is recorded 
as the first marriage of whites that was ever celebrated in the 
Wyoming Valley, and Lazarus Denison, a son of this marriage, 
and father of the late Hon. Charles Denison, was the first white 
child ever born between its hills. The Denisons trace their 
ancestry back nearly three centuries to William Denison, who 
was born in England about 1586, and who came to America and 
settled at Roxbury, Mass., in 1631. "A record of the descend- 
ants of Capt. George Denison, of Stonington, Conn., with notices 
of his father and brothers, and some account of other Denisons 
who settled in America in the colony times," is a book of over 

48 Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 

400 pages, compiled by John Denison Baldwin and William Clift, 
and recently published. In this book are contained the names 
of 6,403 descendants of the original William; yet the compilers 
say, in their preface, that "with longer time and more zealous 
co-operation on the part of some of the descendants, we could 
have added largely to the list of family records." Among those 
mentioned are many who achieved distinction in the various 
walks of life, some in letters, some in law, others in the pulpit, 
others in public office, and still others in the tented field and in 
the bloody wars with the mother country and with the Indians, 
whose untamed and treacherous ways kept in a constant state of 
precariousness the hold of our earlier settlers on their properties 
and their lives. George Denison, a brother of Lazarus' mother, 
was a distinguished lawyer among such competiiiDrs as Judges 
Gibson, Conyngham, Bowman, and Mallery, and was elected to 
the State Legislature for several sessions, and to Congress for 
two terms. He took a high rank in both bodies. Charles 
Denison, a cousin, was also a lawyer of marked ability, and was 
three times elected to Congress. 

Coming from a union of two such families, it would have been, 
indeed, .strange had not Lazarus Denison Shoemaker within him 
the elements out of which successful and useful men are made. 
There flows in his veins English, Irish, French, and Dutch blood, 
and all of it good blood. His preliminary education was pro- 
vided at the celebrated Moravian school, Nazareth Hall, Beth- 
lehem. From here he was sent to Kenyon College, at Gambler, 
Ohio. At this college ex-President Hayes and the present Vice- 
President, David Davis, were in their time students, as also 
Andrew T. McClintock, Esq., of this city, and Hon. Edwin 
M. Stanton, Secretary of War under President Lincoln. From 
Kenyon, Mr. Shoemaker entered the Freshman class of Yale 
College, in 1836, and graduated with honors in 1840. His col- 
legiate course being thus brilliantly concluded, he engaged in the 
study of the law with Gen. E. W. Sturdevant, in Wilkes-Barre. 
He was a patient arid painstaking student, the General says, and 
in 1842 passed a highly creditable examination, and was admitted 
to the bar in August of that year. Since that time he has been 
in continuous practice of his profession here, excepting when 

Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 49 

called away for the performance of official duties, to which his 
superior abilities made it the pleasure of the i)eople to assign 
him. In 1866 he was nominated by the Republican party as 
their candidate for State Senator, and though the district was at 
that time, as, indeed, it has almost always been, strongly Demo- 
cratic, his personal excellence attracted to him from the latter 
party a sufficient following to compass his election by a majority 
of over two hundred. He was assigned a place, in the first year 
of his term, on the Committee of the Judiciary (General), and in 
the second year became its Chairman, a positon which he held 
until the expiration of the term. He was a working Senator, 
and labored zealously at all times for what he deemed the best 
interests of his constituents and the State. He was instrumental 
during these three years in having placed upon the statute books, 
among others, two acts, which all must admit were conceived in 
wisdom and a sincere desire to secure to the people, first, a purer 
and safer administration of justice in our Courts; and second, a 
protection against illegal voting, and a consequent honest expres- 
sion of the will of the people at the polls. These statutes were, 
"An Act for the better and more impartial selection of persons 
to serve as jurors in each of the counties of the Commonwealth," 
under which each party in every county elects one Jury Com- 
missioner, and what is familiarly known as "The Registry Law." 
If these measures have not achieved all that was designed in their 
enactment, the fault lies not in the acts themselves, but in the 
failure of their enforcement. Mr. Shoemaker acquitted himself 
so satisfactorily as a State Senator, that upon his return to his 
constituents he was nominated for Representative in Congress 
for the Twelfth Congressional District. This was in 1870. The 
campaign was a highly exciting one, being vigorously contested 
on both sides. It ended in a triumph for Mr. Shoemaker by a 
majority of 1,220. Two years later he was re-elected by a still 
more flattering support. At Washington, again he was, though 
not much of an orating, an indefatigable working member, as 
many who profited by his mediation there will gladly attest. He 
was Chairman of the Committee on Revolutionary Claims and 
Claims of the War of 181 2, and was a member of the Committee 
on Claims, and of the Judiciary. At the expiration of his second 

50 Lazarus Denison Shoemaker. 

term in Congress he came back to Wilkes-Barre, and resumed 
his law practice. He has held no public position since, excepting 
that of Prison Commissioner, to which he was first appointed by 
Judge Harding, and reappointed by Judge Rice. 

In addition to having been, as thus detailed, a leading lawyer 
with a large and successful practice, and an official of the sort 
whose acts justify the public confidence, Mr. Shoemaker has 
occupied a conspicuous place in the banking, industrial, and other 
corporative enterprises of the valley. Among other positions 
held by him in this connection have been a Directorship in the 
Wyoming Insurance Company, and the Presidency of the Wyo- 
ming Valley Manufacturing Company and of the Second National 
Bank. He is Pres-ident of the Board of Trustees of the Franklin 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church, of which' he is a consistent 
member, and is also President of the Wyohiing Camp Meeting 
Association of the M. E. Church. He is also a Trustee of the 
Home for Friendless Children, and a Director of the Crystal 
Spring Water Company. He has also been a member of the 
School Board and Town Council of this city. 

His wife, whom he married in 1848, was Esther W. Wadhams, 
a daughter of the late Samuel Wadhams, of Plymouth, one of 
the earliest of the Shawneeites (a descendant of John Wadhams, 
who came to America in 1650, and settled in Wsthersfield, Con- 
necticut), and sister of ex-State Senator Elijah C. Wadhams and 
Calvin Wadhams, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre. Mr. and Mrs. Shoe- 
maker have one son and five daughters living. The son, Levi, is 
a graduate of Yale, and the eldest daughter, Clorinda, is the wife 
of Irving A. Stearns, the well known civil and mining engineer 
of this city. His third daughter, Caroline I., married William G. 
Phelps, a son of John C. Phelps, Esq., of this city. 

Personally, Mr. Shoemaker is universally liked. He has a 
temper which it seems impossible to ruffle, a genial good nature 
that is pictured in a pair of the merriest, twinkling eyes, and a 
countenance almost constantly wreathed in smiles. With such 
a disposition, an excellent though far from bulky physique, a 
family of whom any father might be proud, and a handsome in- 
come, he bids fair to live to an honored and contented old age. 

Samuel McCarragher. 51 


The erect bearing and elasticity of step of Samuel McCarragher 
would lead few to suppose that he is in his sixty-fourth year, but 
the fact is he was born in Princeton, N. J., on November loth, 
1818. His father was John McCarragher, whose birthplace was 
in the County Tyrone, Ireland, and who emigrated to this coun- 
try just two years before Samuel was born. When the latter was 
a boy of six, the parents removed to Wilkes-Barre, where Mr. 
McCarragher has chiefly resided since. His preliminary educa- 
tion was had at the old Wilkes-Barre Academy, from whence he 
was sent to Lafayette College, where he graduated. He read 
law with Hon. Luther Kidder, and was admitted to the bar 
November 7th, 1842, or within three days of his twenty-fourth 
birthday. In 1847-48 he was District Attorney, or, more prop- 
erly. Deputy Attorney General for Luzerne, by appointment of 
the then Governer, Shunk. A year later he was elected, as a 
Democrat, Clerk of the Courts of Quarter Sessions and Oyer 
Terminer, and of the Orphans' Court, which offices he held for 
three years. On January 22d, 185 1, he married Eliza G. Simp- 
son, by whom he has had four children, only one of whom, a 
daughter, is still living. Mr. McCarragher left the Democratic 
party in 1856, and has ever since affiliated politically with the 
Republicans. He has been fortunate in a worldly way, having 
accumulated considerable property, and has thereby been enabled 
o retire from the active practice of his profession. He enjoys 
the high esteem of all his neighbors and acquaintances. 

52 Steuben Jenkins. 


Steuben Jenkins, lawyer, farmer, historian, and antiquarian, is 
one of the best known, and certainly one of the most useful men 
in Luzerne county. His ancestry on both sides was from New 
England. His paternal great-grandfather was John Jenkins, Sr., 
who, though born in Kingston, R. I., came to Wyoming from 
Colchester, Conn., with the first company of settlers under the 
King Charles II. grant, in 1762, as the first general agent of the 
settlement, an appointment conferred upon him by the Connect- 
icut Susquehanna Company. He made the discovery of coal at 
Wyoming in 1762, and reported the same to the company, who, 
at their meeting at Windham, April 17, 1763, voted to "reserve 
for the use of the company all beds and mines of iron ore and 
coal that may be within the towns ordered for settlement." 
He was a surveyor and conveyancer by profession, and made its 
first surveys; drafted most or all of. its early public documents; 
was its first magistrate or justice of the peace, and its first presid- 
ing or chief judge of court; and was five times sent as its repre- 
sentative to the Colonial Assembly of Connecticut. Wyoming 
was then called Westmoreland, and made part of Litchfield 
county. Conn. — a circumstance which may seem a little strange 
to this generation. He it was who presided at a "town meeting 
legally warned," as the following from Miner's "History of 
Wyoming" attests: 

"At a meeting of ye proprietors and settlers of ye town of 
Westmoreland, legally warned and held in Westmoreland, August 
1st, 177s, Mr. John Jenkins was chosen moderator for ye work 
of ye day. 

"Voted, that this town does now vote that they will strictly 
observe and follow ye rules and regulations of ye Honorable 
Continental Congress, now sitting at Philadelphia. 

" Resolved by this town, that they are willing to make any 
accommodations with ye Pennsylvania party that shall conduce 
to ye best good of ye whole, not infringing on the property of 
any person, and come in common cause of liberty in ye defense 

Steuben Jenkins', 53 

of America, and that we will amicably give them ye offer of join- 
ing in ye proposals as soon as may be. 

"Voted, this meeting is adjourned until Tuesday, ye 8th day 
of this instant, August, at one of the clock in ye afternoon,.at this 

"This meeting is opened and held by an adjournment August, 
the 8th, 1775. 

"Voted, as this town has but of late been incorporated and 
invested with the privileges of the law, both civil and military, 
and now in a capacity of acting in conjunction with our neigh- 
boring towns within this and the other colonies, in opposing ye 
late measures adopted by Parliament to enslave America; also, 
this town having taken into consideration the late plan adopted 
by Parliament of enforcing their several oppressive and unconsti- 
tutional acts, of depriving us of our property, and of binding us 
in all cases without exception, whether we consent or not, is con- 
sidered by us highly injurious to American or English freedom; 
therefore do consent to and acquiesce in the late proceedings and 
advice of the Continental Congress, and do rejoice that those 
measures are adopted, and so universally received throughout 
the continent; and in conformity to the eleventh article of the 
association, we do now appoint a committee to attentively observe 
the conduct of all persons within this town touching the rules and 
regulations prescribed by the Honorable Continental Congress, 
and will unanimously join our brethren in America in the com- 
mon cause of defending our liberty. 

"Voted, that Mr. John Jenkins, Joseph Sluman, E?q., Nathan 
Denison, Esq., Mr. Obadiah Gore, Jr., and Lieut. William Buck, 
be chosen a committee of correspondence for the town of West- 

On July 3d, 1778, he and his family, except his eldest son, 
John, were prisoners in Jenkins' Fort, with Stephen Harding's 
family and others — some sick and some wounded. He died 
at the "drowned lands," in the Minisink region, in the fall of 

His son, the grandfather of Steuben, was Col. John Jenkins, Jr., 
and was born November 27, 1751, in New London, Conn. He 
was also a surveyor and conveyancer, lawyer, school teacher, 
constable, and agent of the Susquehanna company at Wyoming. 
He came to the valley with his father in 1769, and at once took 
an active part in the Pennamite and Revolutionary wars. He 
was taken prisoner by the Indians in the latter part of November, 

54 Steuben Jenkins. 

1777, carried to Niagara, and in the spring to Montreal and 
Albany, whence they proposed taking "him to Kanadaseago to a 
•grand council for disposition. On the way he escaped, and after 
great fatigue and suffering from hunger reached home. He sub- 
sequently joined Capt. Spalding's company as a Lieutenant; went 
with Col. Hartley to Tioga Point in the latter part of September, 

1778, through an almost impenetrable wilderness, with streams 
swollen by the equinoctial rains then prevailing, and was an active 
participant in the battle at Indian Hill, below Wyalusing. The 
next year, in April, he waited on Gen. Washington, and with him 

I planned the Sullivan campaign. He served in that campaign as 
chief guide of the army, and received the thanks of General 
Sullivan in general orders for his gallant conduct and important 
services in the battle of Newtown, August 29th, 1779. On the 
2Sth of February, 178 1, he set out with his company to join 
Gen. Washington at headquarters on the Hudson, and arrived on 
the nth of March; was engaged in the battle of King's Bridge, 
July 3d, I78i,and when the army marched for Yorktown accom- 
panied them; was at the surrender of Cornwallis, October 17th, 
178 1, serving under Baron Steuben. Returning with the army- 
to the Hudson the same' fall, and the war being really at an end, 
and becoming tired and disgusted with the inactivity and weari- 
ness of camp life, he, on the 1st of March, 1782, resigned his 
commission, and returned home to the defense of his family and 
friends from the barbarity of the savages, who still infested that 
locality, and the antagonism of the active and embittered Pen- 
namites. He was an active, leading man in all the struggles of 
the settlers against the Pennamites, firm and unyielding in his 
adherence to their rights, never compromising, never surrender- 
ing, and when the rights of the settlers were in good part gained, 
he refused to accept, because it was not all he claimed and be- 
lieved their due. He married Bethia Harris, of Salem, Conn., in 
Jenkins' Fort, on June 23d, 1778, ten days before the memorable 
massacre, and just twenty days after he had returned from his 
captivity among the Indians. He held many local and county 
offices after the war, among the latter those of Commissioner 
and member of the General Assembly, besides carrying on exten- 
sive farming operations and iron smelting, and acting for some 

Steuben Jenkins. 55 

time as Surveyor General and General Agent of the Connecticut 
Susquehanna Company. He was also made a Major, and 
afterwards promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel of the Militia. 
He was elected to the office of High Sheriff as a Democrat in 
1796, but the next highest on the return was a Federal, and he 
got the commission from a Federal Governor — aided somewhat 
by the Pennamite influence. His home was in Exeter township,, 
on the site of the old battle ground, where he died, March 19th, 
1827, aged 75. He had five sons and three daughters. 

One of the sons, James, was born January 29th, 1796, at 
Wyoming. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Samuel 
Breese, a soldier of the Revolutionary war. He commenced 
business at Wyoming, as a merchant, in May, 1826, continuing 
many years, and became very successful. He died August 8th, 
1873, aged Tj years and 7 months. These were Steuben's father 
and mother. The latter carried in her veins the blood of many 
distinguished New England and other families. On her side, 
Mr. Jenkins traces his ancestry from John Haynes, who was the 
first Governor of Connecticut, in 1639, through Hon. Samuel 
Wyllys, of Hartford, Conn., before whose door stood the famous 
Charter Oak, and who married Ruth, daughter of Governor 
Haynes; through Rev. Abraham Pierson, founder and first Presi- 
dent of Yale College, and his son, Rev. John Pierson, one of the 
first Board of Trustees of Princeton- College, and Rev. Timothy 
Woodbridge, of Hartford, Conn. His mother was a cousin of 
Hon. Sidney Breese, Chief Justice of Illinois, and a United States 
Senator from that State, and also of Samuel Finley Breese Morse, 
the inventor of the first practical working telegraph. Through 
his grandmother, Bethia Harris, he is a direct lineal descendant 
of James Harris, of New London, Conn., who came to this 
country and settled in Boston, somewhere about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, and a recent published record of whose 
descendants gives the names of 1,973 persons, a number of them 
well known citizens of New England and elsewhere. The name 
Harris occurs upon the paternal side also, as do those of Gardner, 
OtiS( Rogers, Stanton, Thomas, Denison, Jacobs, and Rowland. 

He (Steuben) was born September 28th, 18 19, at his grand- 
father's homestead, and the most of his life has been spent in the 

56 Steuben Jenkins. 

vicinity hallowed and made historically classic by the above, his 
ancestors. The site, as already stated, is that of the Wyoming 
battle ground. He was educated in the common schools and at 
Oxford Academy, N. Y., where he attended six months, and 
about the same length of time the Academy at Bethany, Wayne 
county. Pa. He began the study of the law with the late Hon. 
Hendrick B. Wright, on the 23d of June, 1845. Being possessed 
of unremitting industry, a portion of the time during which his 
studies were continued was spent in teaching school in Pittston 
and in his father's store at Wyoming. On the 3d of August, 
1847, on the motion of his preceptor, and the certificate of 
Henry M. Fuller, Charles Denison, and H. W. Nicholson, 
Examining Committee, he was admitted to practice in the several 
Courts of Luzerne county. He was with Colonel Wright as 
student, and subsequently as partner, just eight years, when, his 
health being impaired by too strict application to business, he 
was offered and accepted charge of the Foreign Mail Bureau, 
in the General Post Office, at Washington, where the labor was 
much less onerous. This position he retained two years, when 
he returned to Wyoming, and, in conjunction with his brother, 
James, established the banking house of Jenkins & Brother; but 
soon recognizing that a financial crisis (which, it will be remem- 
bered, came in 1857) was impending, was prudently impelled'to 
the closing up of the business, and in 1858 he resumed the prac- 
tice of the law. During this time he was twice, namely, in 1856 
and 1857, chosen a member of the State Legislature, wherein he 
s.erved on several important committees, and took decided posi- 
tions with reference to all the leading measures. In 1863 he was 
chosen clerk and counsel to the County Commissioners, which 
positions he retained continuously until 1870. Besides beino- a 
safe and ready legal adviser for the Commissioners, his records 
made while in this position are models of beauty, for Mr. Jenkins 
is an elegant penman. Few, if any, masters of the chirographic 
art excel him. Since 1870 his time has been divided between 
farming and historical and antiquarian pursuits, though he still 
finds opportunity to practice law. As a local historian and gath- 
erer of Indian relics, fossils, minerals, shells, and other matters 
having especial reference to the early and sanguinary history of 

Steuben Jenkins. 57 

the valley, it is not too much to say that Mr. Jenkins leads most 
living workers. He has one of the best and largest collections 
in the country — a fact familiar to competitors, far and wide. 
They are the rich fruits of many years of arduous as well as intel- 
ligent labor and research. As a historian, it may be remarked 
that he prepared and delivered the historical address at the 
Wyoming Monument at the commemorative exercises on the 
Centennial Anniversary, July 3d, 1878, and the historical address 
at the looth Anniversary of the Battle of Newtown (Sullivan's 
victory over the British, Indians, and Tories), August 29th, 1879; 
and besides contributing liberally to the press and a number of 
publications for years past, he has accumulated an immense 
amount of material for a History of Wyoming, which he is now 
preparing for publication. In this connection, it should be noted 
that in tracing the genealogies of all the early settlers of Wyoming 
of any note, he has, by dint of years of the most laborious effort, 
succeeded in resurrecting many highly important facts that have 
escaped predecessors in the same line of inquiry. His library 
contains 2,500 volumes and 2,000 pamphlets, mostly of an histo- 
rical character, and many of them rare publications. He is a 
member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and other 
kindred societies. 

In addition to all the other positions we have enumerated as 
having been held by him, Mr. Jenkins. has been 22 years Secretary 
of the Wyoming Bible Society, 16 years a Director and Secretary 
of the Forty Fort Cemetery Association, 16 years Secretary of 
the Wyoming Monument Association, 18 years Trustee of the 
Luzerne Presbyterian Institute, 12 years Trustee of the Wyotning 
Presbyterian Church, 7 years School Director of Wyoming and 
Secretary of the Board, 7 years Director of the First National 
Bank of Pittston, 3 years a Prison Commissioner for Luzerne 
county, 7 years Secretary of the Board of Prison Commissioners, 
7 years a Justice of the Peace for Kingston township, and 20 
years in the Agricultural Society of Luzerne county. He is also 
Treasurer of the Trustees of Kingston township. 

Mr. Jenkins married, on the 24th of February, 1846, Catharine 
M. Breese, who was born July 27th, 1822. By her he has had 
four children, one son and three daughters, now living at Wyo- 

58 David Snyder Koon. 

ming. Elizabeth, his second daughter, is married to William S. 
Jacobs, of Wyoming. 

This is the record of a certainly busy life — a life busy, too, in 
works of good. But those which by most men would be looked 
upon as onerous tasks, Mr. Jenkins seems to regard as pleasant 
recreations. Others' work is his play. That, at least, would 
appear to be a fair interpretation to put upon the vast amount of 
work he has undertaken without murmur, and successfully 
accomplished. It is not many such men any community can 
boast; for, in addition to all this, Mr. Jenkins is a pleasant man- 
nered and spoken gentleman, who is never so absorbed by his 
labors but that he has time for a friendly hand-shake and kindly 
word or two with the unusually large number who are pleased to 
call him friend, or for an occasional hour with some musical 
instrument, on a number of which he is, with his other accom- 
plishments, a skillful performer. 


Among the veterans of the Luzerne bar is David Snyder Koon, 
of Pittston, who was a practicing attorney and prominent man 
when many of our present leading lawyers were still in swaddling 
clothes. Mr. Koon is of Knickerbocker Dutch origin, the name 
havirfg been originally Kuhn. His father, Henry, settled in New 
York City, and was a soldier of the war of 1812. He went to 
his grave with the mark of an enemy's bullet on him, which he 
received at the battle of Plattsburg, where he was badly wounded. 
David was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., on September 9th, 
1 8 18. His education was secured by a two years' attendance at 
the common schools of Greenfield and Carbondale, now Lacka- 
wanna county, in a printing office, and in teaching school, upon 
which avocation he entered when yet a very young man. He 
read law in the office of the late Judge D. N. Lathrope, of Car- 
bondale, and was admitted to the bar on January sth, 1848, the 

David Snyder Koon. 59 

Examining Committee at the time being composed of Harrison 
Wright, Charles Denison, and J. J. Slocum, all now deceased. 
Mr. Koon has been in the continuous practice of his profession 
ever since, either in Carbondale, Providence, Pittston township, 
or Pittston borough, excepting during eight months, when he 
held the position of Cargo Inspector on the State Canal, at the 
Beach Haven office, to which he was appointed by the Canal 
Commissioners in 1853. It was an office of great importance in 
those days, and during the short term for which Mr. Koon held 
it over ^200,000 of the State's moneys passed through his hands. 
At the expiration of the eight months he was appointed Collector 
for four years, at Pittston, but as the State works were sold as 
soon as the new division of the North Branch Canal became 
navigable, which was shortly thereafter, he was not called upon 
for the performance of any active duties in the position. Mr. 
Koon served two terms in the State Legislature, sessions of 
1 866- 1 867. At the first election he received a majority of 600 
votes, and at the second had 3,600 over his highest opponent. 
He has held numerous other local positions, and as nearly as he 
can calculate has had, from the fact that he has occupied several 
positions at the same time, about one hundred and forty-five years 
of office. He was four years Postmaster at Providence under the 
Polk Administration, two years United States Deputy Revenue 
Assessor under President Johnson, and has repeatedly run the 
gamut of the township and borough offices in Carbondale and 
Pittston. He was Judge, Inspector, and Clerk of Elections sev- 
enteen years. Justice of the Peace ten years. Director and Secre- 
tary of the Poor Board over thirteen years. Township Attorney 
for Pittston fifteen years, School Director twice, State and County 
Tax Collector three times, etc., etc. These are not extraordinarily 
high offices, to be sure, but it speaks volumes for a man's repu- 
tation with those who should know him best, his immediate 
neighbors, that he should have been called upon to fill so many 
of them so frequently. Mr. Koon married, in January, 1849, 
Eliza A., only daughter of Amasa Hollister, of Covington town- 
ship, one of the numerous Hollisters from Connecticut, who 
settled in Wayne and Luzerne counties, and has two children. 

6o Franklin Jared Leavenworth. 


Perhaps the majority of his fellow-citizens are not aware that 
Franklin Jared Leavenworth is a regularly graduated attorney 
and member of the bar of Luzerne county, but such is neverthe- 
less the fact. Mr. Leavenworth was born in Delaware City, 
Delaware, on January 24th, 1827, and is consequently at this 
writing in the fifty-sixth year of his age. His father was Jared 
Leavenworth, a native of New Haven, Conn., and of English 
extraction. Mr. Leavenworth, the subject of our sketch, was 
educated at the Towanda Academy, and came to Wilkes-Barre 
in 1843. Shortly afterwards he entered the office of the late 
Luther Kidder, Esq., as a student at law, and was admitted to the 
bar January loth, 1848. He began to practice immediately after 
his admission, and in a short time succeeded in establishing a 
first-rate legal business, but at the expiration of three years 
opportunities were offered him in other walks of life which prom- 
ised much more liberal pecuniary rewards, and he bade farewell 
to his clients and entered upon those pursuits, succeeding so well 
that he never afterwards resumed practice. He is now engaged 
in the coal, real estate, and mercantile business, with offices under 
the First National Bank. In fact, Mr. Leavenworth may be said 
to be one of Wilkes-Barre's solid men, foremost in more than 
one of its leading enterprises, and the possessor of a handsome 
property, wherein, in the enjoyment of the companionship of an 
interesting family, it will be his happy privilege to tranquilly 
spend the evening of a useful life. 

George Loveland. 6i 


George Loveland, who is among the senior members of our 
bar, was born in Kingston, November 5th, 1823, when our sister 
borough, instead of being the handsome town it now is, con- 
sisted of but a few straggHng, wooden houses. His father, Eh'jah 
Loveland, came here in 18 12, from Norwich, Vermont. His 
mother is of the ninth generation of the descendants of Thomas 
Buckingham, one of the Puritan fathers, who emigrated from 
England to Boston, Mass., among the first of his class, in June, 
1637, and who is the ancestor of the vast family of American 
Buckinghams, so many of whom have gone high up the ladder 
of distinction in the professions and in politics in various sections 
of the Union. George's preparatory education was received at 
home and in the Dana Academy, after which he was sent to 
Lafayette College, in which latter institution he was distinguished 
by an earnest disposition to learn and an enviable capacity for 
acquiring knowledge. After leaving Lafayette, he taught school 
for a period of about three years, when, tiring of that avocation, 
he entered upon the study of the law in the office of Gen. E. W. 
Sturdevant. He was admitted to practice August 19th, 1848, 
upon the recommendation of H. W. Nicholson, H. M. Fuller, 
and Charles Denison, Examining Committee, and has following 
his profession ever since. Mr. Loveland was married at Lyme, 
Conn., on September 29th, 1869, to Miss Julia Lord Noyes, a 
grand-niece of George Griffin, Esq., once a prominent lawyer 
here, and afterwards a leading member of the New York bar, now 
deceased. His only sister is the wife of Governor Henry M. 
Hoyt. Mr. and Mrs. Loveland have two children living, Charles 
Noyes and Josephine Noyes. Mr. Loveland is a gentleman of 
excellent attainments, but being of an exceptionally retiring dis- 
position, and having small need of the pecuniary rewards of an 
active practice, has never figured very conspicuously in legal 
conflicts, albeit he has achieved considerable in the way of office 
work, in which branch of legal labor he certainly excels. He is 

62 Asa Randolph Brundage. 

a useful citizen and a devout Christian, having been made an 
Elder of the Presbyterian Church while living in Kingston, an 
office he continues most acceptably to fill in this city, of which 
he is now a resident. Mr. Loveland is of the sixth generation of 
the descendants of Thomas Loveland, who settled at Wethers- 
field (now Glastenbury), Conn., in 1674, on the last piece of land 
(No. 44) of the first survey in Connecticut of lands purchased 
from the Indians. 


One of the best known of Luzerne's citizens, as well as one of 
the leading practitioners at its bar, is Asa Randolph Brundage, of 
Wilkes-Barre. Like most of our older attorneys, Mr. Brundage 
is descended from an early settler. Israel Brundage, the first of 
the name of whom there is any record in this country, was born 
in England, and emigrated to America in 17 13. From his loins 
have come a very numerous and, in every branch of it, a highly 
respectable family, not a few of whom have achieved eminent 
distinction in various walks of life. Four Brundages, Asa's 
grandfather and three granduncles, fought in the Revolutionary 
war on the side of independence, serving gallantly all the way 
through that memorable struggle. His father, Moses S. Brun- 
dage, who was born near Bloomfield, N. J., bore arms in the second 
and final conflict with the mother country, in 1812, doing duty 
as a commissioned officer with the American forces on Staten 
Island. Some years after the close of the war, namely, in 1820, 
he came to Luzerne, and located in the village of Conyngham, 
where, as farmer, miller, and merchant, he soon became the fore- 
most citizen of the place. Every rural community has among 
its citizens some one man to whom the rest look up as a sort of 
leader and general adviser. To that station the elder Brundage 
was, by common consent, allotted by the people, and he held 
it, undisputed, for many years. He was a devout and prom- 
inent Methodist. At his home always tarried the ministers of 
that faith when they came to Conyngham to preach its doctrines, 

Asa Randolph Brundage. 63 

and that home was long known, for miles. in all directions, as 
■"The Methodist Tavern." Asa's mother was Jane, daughter of 
Richard Brodhead, Sr., and sister of Richard Brodhead, Jr., 
one time United States Senator from Pennsylvania, and known 
throughout the nation as one of the ablest members of that body. 
The Brodheads were originally of Yorkshire, England. The 
founders of the American branch of the family came over the sea 
as early as 1632, and representatives thereof were public men in 
the Empire State more than a century since. Grandfather Brod- 
head settled in Pennsylvania, on the Delaware, in Monroe county, 
near Stroudsburg, and gave his name to the well known Brod- 
head's creek, in that vicinity. Daniel Brodhead was one of the 
earlier Surveyors General of the Commonwealth, and another 
member of the family lies buried in the Moravian Cemetery, at 
Bethlehem, between two Indians. J. Romaine Brodhead, the 
historian, of the State of New York, and James O. Brodhead, of 
Missouri, are also members of the family. 

Asa was born at Conyngham, March 22d, 1828, and left the 
paternal roof when but fourteen years of age, to accompany to 
Mississippi the Rev. T. C. Thornton, who had been one of the 
Faculty at Dickinson College, and had become President of 
Centennary "College, at Brandon, in the State named. He 
entered Centennary, which, even at that early day, accommodated, 
at times, as many as five hundred students, and served a five 
years' course, when he graduated, being chosen as the valedicto- 
rian of a class of two hundred. His education thus brilliantly 
completed, he came to Wilkes-Barre, and at once entered the 
law office of the late Col. Hendrick B. Wright, under whose tuti- 
lage he prosecuted his studies with the utmost industry, and with 
signal success. He was admitted to the bar, after passing a 
critical examination at the hands of Harrison Wright, O. Collins, 
and H. W. Nicholson, Esqs., on April 2, 1849. 

In 1853 he married Frances B. Bulkelejr, daughter of the late 
Jonathan Bulkeley, who was of the seventh generation of descend- 
ants of "Peter Bulkeley, the Puritan," who came to this country 
from Woodhill, England, in 1630, and settled, with a few com- 
panions, in Massachusetts, in a place first named by them Con- 
cord, where he died, in 1659. A paragraph in Neal's "History 

64 Asa Randolph Brundage. 

of the Puritans," relative to Peter Bulkeley, reads thus: "He was 
a thundering preacher, and a judicious divine, as appears by his 
treatise 'Cy/Zz? Covenatii,' \M\\\ch. passed through several editions." 
This book was dedicated "To the Church and Congregation at- 
Concord," and to his nephew, "The Rt. Honorable Oliver St. 
John, Lord Ambassador of England to the High and Mighty 
Lords, the States General of the United Provinces of the Nether- 
lands; also Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas." Jonathan 
Bulkeley, the father of Mrs. Brundage, was a midshipman in the 
United States navy about the commencement of the century, and 
assisted in the capture of Francois Dominique Toussaint, the 
Haytian general, in the island of San Domingo. He was elected 
Sheriff of Luzerne county in 1825. Two children have been the 
fruit of this marriage, the eldest of whom, Richard B. Brundage, 
is at present a student at law in 'his father's office. The other 
■child is a daughter. 

After being admitted, Mr. Brundage rose rapidlj;- in his profes- 
sion, and in 1855 was a contestant in the Democratic Convention 
with ex-Judge Edmund L. Dana and others for the nomination 
for District Attorney. After a sharp contest, he carried off the 
honors of the candidacy. His Republican opponent at the polls 
was the late Judge W. W. Ketcham, whom he defeated, being 
the only candidate on his ticket who succeeded in achieving an 
election. His term proved to be an exceptional one' in the matter 
of the large number of important crin^nal cases that came on for 
trial during its continuance. These included, among others, two 
capital cases, in which Reese Evans and James Quinn were 
respectively defendants. Mr. Brundage brought all his skill and 
energy to their prosecution, and both were convicted and hanged. 
Besides having been District Attorney, he has held a number of 
local offices, and has been frequently mentioned in his party for 
Judge, Congressman, and other high positions. He was the 
choice of the Luzerne Convention of 1880 for Congress, but 
retired from the Conference when it became evident that Lacka- 
wanna county would not recede from her demands. He has 
been many times the delegate of his party to State and National 
Conventions, on the floors of which he has delivered some stir- 
ring addresses. 

Charles Isaac Abel Chapman. 65 

As an attorney, Mr. Brundage has but few. peers at this or any 
other bar in the State. He is a fluent speaker, and very effective 
before a jury. Many retain a lively recollection of his eloquent, 
but unavailing, defense of the murderer Muller, and nearly every 
reader will recall some one or more of his many other brilliant 
efforts in the criminal and other Courts. His well known capac- 
ity, and the untiring zeal and energy which he brings to the 
maintenance of the rights of those by whom his professional 
services are employed, have attracted to him a large and profita- 
ble clientage, of the continued enjoyment of which the liveliest 
competition is not at all likely to deprive him. He has frequently, 
too, been employed in civil suits, one of which, in behalf of the 
county, he recently recovered a handsome judgment against the 

Mr. Brundage is a communicant of St. Stephen's Episcopal 
Church of this city, and for twenty-five years has been one of its 

Personally, Mr.Brundage is one ofthepleasantest of gentlemen, 
and of a most affable demeanor, besides being a brilliant conver- 
sationalist. He is still in the full vigor of a robust manhood, 
and the possessor of a competency, which ought to make the 
remainder of his journey of life a pleasant one. 


There are many, even of the intimate friends of Charles Isaac 
Abel Chapman, who are surprised when informed that he is an 
attorney at law, but it is nevertheless a fact that he was found 
qualified and regularly admitted to membership of the Luzerne 
county bar, January 8th, 1850. Mr. Chapman is a native of 
Wilkes-Barre, in which city he was born on the 9th of October, 
1826. His father, Isaac A. Chapman, was a native of Norwich, 
Conn., and a civil engineer by profession. " He married," to use 
the son's language, "my mother (Rebecca D. Jennison), a New 

66 Charles Isaac Abel Chapman. 

London girl, bringing her from Troy, N. Y., to Wilkes-Barre, 
four years previous to my birth." His youth had been one of 
privation and hardship, which he had, however, successfully . 
surmounted, achieving in his young manhood a position in the 
service of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, of whose 
early 'work he had principal charge, under the late Josiah White, 
with whom he had projected what is claimed to have been the 
first railroad, and "navigated" the first rail car that ever ran on 
this continent. In partnership with the late Charles Miner and 
Jacob Cist, he began the mining of coal, near Mauch Chunk, as 
early as 1814, one of the very first adventures of the kind ever 
made in the anthracite region. He died while in this service, 
and when the subject of our sketch was but an infant. 

Shortly after his death, Mrs. Chapman, in conjunction with 
Miss Sarah E. Trott (afterwards Mrs. Judge George W. Wood- 
ward), opened and taught the first female seminary in the 
borough of Wilkes-Barre. She subsequently was married to 
Eleazer Carey, Esq., .of Pittston, who assisted young Chapman 
to a liberal education, sending him, when he had grown old 
enough, to the Academy, taught then by Dr. Orton, and after- 
wards by Professors Siewers, Dana, and others. Having been 
prepared at this institution, he entered Lafayette College as a 
sophomore, and graduated in 1846 in a class of eighteen, among 
whom were Judge Henry Green, of the Supreme Court of the 
State; Rev. Chas. Jones, of Staten Island, N. Y., and Rev. Chas. 
Wood, of Philadelphia. He read law one year with Washington 
McCartney, Esq., of Easton, but was prostrated by inflamma- 
tory rheumatism, attended with opthalima, which debarred him 
from the pursuit of his chosen professjon. He was admitted to 
practice, but under the counsel of his physician soon relinquished 
his law books, and took to field duty as an axeman under Wm. 
R. Mafifet, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre, who was then superintending 
the construction of the Pennsylvania Coal Company's railroad 
from Pittston to Hawley. Upon the completion of that work, he 
accepted employment on the unfinished North Branch Canal 
extension for a year, and subsequently assisted Mr. Maffet and 
ex-Governor John F. Hartranft in the location of the North 
Pennsylvania Railroad. After this last survey, he spent a winter 

Charles Isaac Abel Chapman. 67 

as transcribing clerk in the State Senate, at Harrisburg, and the 
following year was commissioned Lieutenant and Quartermaster 
of the 131st Pennsjdvania Volunteers. During his term of service 
he was most of the time acting Brigade Quartermaster under 
Major-General Humphries, participating in the actions at Frede- 
ricksburg, Antietam, and Chancellorsville. At the close of the 
war, he returned to the profession of land surveying, which he 
has followed at intervals ever since. 

Mr. Chapman was a pioneer Republican, and in 1856 was the 
first candidate of that party in Luzerne for the lower house of the 
State Legislature. He was, of course, defeated. Three years 
afterwards he ran for the office of Recorder, and in the fall of 
1880 was the regular Republican candidate for County Surveyor, 
but in each contest his Democratic opponent was successful. 

The elder Chapman was a devoted student and a vigorous 
writer, and compiled and published the first "History of the 
Wyoming Valley," a book which has been more or less a guide 
to all his successors in that line of research and authorship. The 
son inherited much of his father's literary tastes, and has written 
largely and intelligently on all manner of subjects. He's a 
Bachelor of Arts, a Master of Arts, and has for a number of years 
been a member of the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society. He is a remarkably fluent stump speaker, being given 
to a sort of sledge-hammer oratory that seldom fails to evoke the 
plaudits of an audience, particularly of the working classes. The 
same degree of intensity and fierceness of expression enters into 
his frequent contributions on political and other topics to the 
local press. He is as nearly fearless as possible in the utterance 
of his convictions, and while at times extremely radical, is given 
credit by all who know him for perfect sincerity. 

In answer to an inquiry as to his spiritual faith, Mr. Chapman 
says: "I have no religion to boast of but am a firm believer in 
the divinity of Jesus Christ and the innate depravity of man, 
including lawyers, priests, and politicians." 

Mr. Chapman was married, on the i6th of February, 1854, to 
Martha S. Blanchard, fourth daughter of John Blanchard, grand- 
son of Captain Jeremiah B. Blanchard, who' commanded Pittston 
Fort at the time of the Massacre. Mr. and Mrs. Chapman have 

68 David Luddington Patrick. 

three children, two sons and a daughter. The sons, Maxwell 
and Blanchard, are engaged in gold mining in Mexico. The 
daughter is unmarried. Mr. Chapman is a resident of Port 
Blanchard, in the township of Jenkins. 


There are but few citizens of Luzerne county unacquainted 
with David Luddington Patrick. Quiet, unassuming, though 
good natured to a fault, combining, in short, all those qualities 
which go to make men popular with their fellow-men, the name 
and face of David L. Patrick are known, and the man is liked, 
from one end of the county to the other. 

Mr. Patrick was born near Farmer's Mills, Dutchess county, 
N. Y., on January 8th, 1826. His father was David Patrick, a 
farmer, who was a native of Putnam county, in the Empire State, 
and a descendant of Capt. John Patrick, a Scotchman, who came 
to this country from England, in 1630, with his brother, Capt. 
Daniel Patrick, in the company of John Winthrop, who, in that 
same year, was Governor of the Colony of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Patrick settled, however, in Connecticut, and from him came a 
numerous progeny, which quickly diffused itself throughout the 
country — North, South, East, and West. The grandfather of the 
subject of our sketch was also named John Patrick. A relative 
married Jemima Tyler, a sister of Governor Tyler, of Virginia, 
who was father of John Tyler, afterwards President of the United 
States, succeeding to that exalted position upon the death of 
President Harrison, upon the same ticket with whom he had 
been elected Vice-President in the great "Tippecanoe and Tyler 
too " campaign. The elder David removed from New York to 
what is now Wyoming county, in 1831, and who afterwards 
purchased lands in Abington township, from which place he 
subsequently departed for the far West, dying on his farm at 
Clearwater, Wright county, Minn., June i, 1877, at the advanced 

David Luddington Patrick. 69 

age of eighty-five years. He had served with distinction as a 
Lieutenant in the second war with Great Britain. David L. was 
educated in the common schools and at the Madison Academy, 
Waverly, Pa. He came to Wilkes-Barre in 1848, and read law 
with H. W. & G. B. Nicholson, tutors under whose direction 
no young man of average good parts could fail to acquire a rea- 
sonably thorough knowledge of the law and familiarity with its 
practice. His admission came August 5th, 1850, after he had 
passed a very creditable examination at the hands of the com- 
mittee, H. B. Wright, Harrison Wright, and O. Collins. It was 
not long after this that Mr. Patrick began to attract the favorable 
notice of his fellow-citizens. He took an active interest in poli- 
tics, his sympathies being inherited from his antecedents with the 
Democratic party, and in 1855 he was placed in nomination by 
that party for the office of Clerk of the Courts of Luzerne county, 
to which office he was subsequently elected by a handsome 
majority, serving the full term of three years. At the expiration 
of his term, in 1858, so well had he acquitted himself of the 
duties with which he was entrusted, he was placed in nomination 
for the still more important and lucrative office of Prothonotary, 
and again he was triumphantly elected. As Prothonotary, he 
was in all respects efficient, and being attentive and obliging, he 
made an exceedingly popular official. He was elected Burgess 
of the borough of Wilkes-Barre in 1868, and served the full term. 
Mr. Patrick was-cmarried on the 15th of June, 1852, to Polly 
A. Griffin, a daughter of Elias Griffin, a well known farmer of 
Abington, then Luzerne, now Lackawanna county. The couple 
have had five children, three sons and two daughters. Horatio 
N., the eldest, read law with his father, and is now practicing 
in Lackawanna county. 

70 Garrick Mallery Harding. 


Garrick Mallery Harding was born in Exeter, Luzerne county, 
July 12, 1830. He is descended from the Puritan stock of New- 
England, his ancestors having, away back in the early dawn of 
the Republic, left the stormy beaches of Massachusetts to settle, 
finally, amid the more sheltered and inviting silences of Pennsyl- 
vania. In glancing at the genealogical record of this branch of 
the Harding family, many interesting facts are found which con- 
nect them, not only with the sacrifices demanded in the early 
development of this continent, but also with the stirring and 
patriotic episodes linked with the struggles for freedom and the 
preservation of the doctrines of liberty. Among the first men- 
tioned of the ancestors of the subject of this sketch is. Stephen 
Harding, who, in 1669, was a freeman in Providence, R. I., 
and a Baptist in religion. The next was his fourth son, Stephen, 
who probably first saw the light of day at Providence, after 1680. 
He was a sea captain, a man of wealth in middle life, and from 
his acquaintance and transactions, evidently one of the first per- 
sons in the colonies. In his latter days misfortune overtook him. 
He engaged largely in commerce, lost heavily, and retired at last 
to end his days on his farm. The third son d''the latter was also 
a Stephen. He settled first ia Colchester, Conn., about 1750, 
where his children were born. Subsequently in 1774, he removed 
to the Wyoming Valley, and settled on the west bank of the 
Susquehanna, in what is now Exeter, Luzerne county. Exeter 
bears the same relation to Wyoming that Concord, in Massachu- 
setts, bears to Bunker's Hill. Bunker's Hill became classical 
ground through the early struggles of the colonists, which began 
at Concord, and Wyoming's classical history dates from the 
Massacre, which had its beginning at Exeter, wherein two of 
Mr. Harding's ancestors were slaughtered. He died October 
II, 1789, aged 66. He commanded Fort Wintermoot in the 
Wyoming Massacre. He had nine sons and three daughters, of 
whom the eighth son, John, born about 1765, was the grandfather 

Garrick Mallery Harding. 71 

of Garrick M. Harding, and the only survivor of that family in 
the Wyoming Massacre. The father's name was Isaac. He 
removed to Illinois in 1846, and subsequently was elected as one 
of the Judges of the County Court of Lee county. He died at 
Pawpaw Grove, Illinois, in 1854. 

Garrick M. Harding attended Franklin Academy, in Susque- 
hanna county, and Madison Academy, at Waverly, and after- 
wards entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle, Pa. Being quick 
to learn, and possessing an active mind, he readily advanced 
to the highest place in his classes, and graduated with distin- 
guished honors. After leaving school, he began the study of 
law under the careful tutorship of Hon. Henry M. Fuller. This 
was in 1848. Two years later he was admitted to the Luzerne 
bar, on the same day with D. L. Patrick. The bar of Luzerne 
county at that time was conspicuous for the strength and ability 
of its members, among whom were the Hon. Geo. W. Woodward, 
ex-Chi?f Justice of the Supreme Court; Hon. Luther Kidder and 
Hon. Oristus Collins, ex-Judges of the Court of Common Pleas; 
Hon. Hendrick B.Wright, Hon. Henry M. Fuller, Lyman Hakes, 
Harrison Wright, and H. W. Nicholson, men of great acquire- 
ments and marked ability. The active energies that had served 
him so well in the elementary preparations of his chosen pro- 
fession aided him largely in subsequent legal battles, which 
demanded the clearest comprehension of law, and the most inti- 
mate familiarity with judicial methods. Of fine personal appear- 
ance, robust and ruddy; with an eloquence that never failed to 
, magnetize, he was a power before juries, and this naturally secured 
for him a large and lucrative practice. From 1850 to 1856 he 
was in partnership with Hon. Henry M. Fuller. In 1858 he was 
elected District Attorney of Luzerne by the Republicans, after a 
hotly contested campaign, in which Gen. Winchester, a popular 
Democrat, was defeated by 1700 majority, although the county 
was largely Democratic. In 1865 he formed a partnership with 
his former student, Henry W. Palmer, now Attorney General of 
Penn.sylvania, which continued until 1870. After a long and 
constantly developing practice, he was, on the 12th of July, 1870, 
his fortieth birthday, appointed by Governor Geary President 
Judge of the Eleventh Judicial District, to fill a vacancy caused 

72 Garrick Mallery Harding. 

by the resignation of Hon. John N. Conyngham. In the fall of 
the same year he was unanimously nominated by the Republicans' 
of Luzerne for the same position, and the successful issue of that 
campaign gave ample evidence of his popularity, he having 
defeated the late George W. Woodward, ex-Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, by a majority of 2365. On the bench, Judge 
Harding displayed those active qualities which had been a distin- 
guishing feature of his life, and the promptness with which he 
dispatched business, the constant attention he gave to the duties 
demanded, the fearless methods that he employed, all linked with 
an integrity of purpose that was undeviating, gained for him the 
highest respect of the bar, and the wide plaudits of the people. 

Probably the most startling incident in Judge Harding's career 
was the attempt made by certain parties to impeach him in the 
early part of 1879. It was startling because it was a complete 
surprise to everybody. The friends of the Judge were, probably, 
annoyed to a greater extent than he was when the proceedings 
were instituted, and not a few of his political enemies looked 
with contempt upon the effort to disgrace him. The attempt at 
impeachment was widely commented upon in the leading press of 
the country, while the metropolitan editors joined in a universal 
condemnation of the movement. When it was first reported that 
a petition was circulating asking for Judge Harding's impeach- 
ment, none believed that the authors contemplated bringing the 
matter before the Legislature. The petition did not contain the 
name of a single member of the bar of either Luzerne or Lackawanna 
county, nor is there to be found on it the name of a single man of 
prominence, and with the exception of a very few which were fami- 
liar by reason of having been before him in the Court of Quarter 
Sessions, the names were not recognised as those of residents in this 
section. Mr. Ricketts, the prosecutor, had great difficulty in get- 
ting the petition before the Legislature. Not a single member 
of the Legislature from this county, of either political party, would 
touch it. The charges against Judge Harding bore upon their 
face the open evidence of their malignity, and at one time it was 
seriously questioned whether the mere publication of them did 
not in itself constitute the worst kind of a libel, that warranted 
immediate action. That Judge Harding courted the fullest and 

Garkick Mallery Harding. 73 

freest investigation, the following letter, addressed to Hon. Benj. 
L. Hewitt, Chairman of the General Judiciary Committee, proves; 

My Dear Sir: Your favor of yesterday, inviting me to appear 
with counsel for the purpose of cross-examination of witnesses 
in the preliminary inquiry about to be made respecting charges 
preferred me, involving both my personal and official 
character, is at hand. Allow me to thank you, and through you 
to thank the members of your committee also, for the courtesy 
thus extended. 

My official duties at this time will not permit of my personal 
attendance, but my counsel. Gen. McCartney and Stanley Wood- 
ward, Esq., will appear in my stead. 

I have but a single request to make in connection with the 
proposed inquiry, and that is, that your committee will allow my 
accuser the widest possible latitude for investigation consistent 
with your views of right in the premises. 

Very respectfully, 

April I, iSyg. Garrick M. Harding. 

The committee gave the latitude requested. Mr. Ricketts did 
his best to bring some witness forward to swear that the charges 
of the petition were true, but all to no purpose. As one journal 
remarked at the time, "Not a single one of the charges preferred 
against Judge Harding, and declared by Mr. Ricketts to be sus- 
ceptible of proof, was established. Such an utter, complete, 
absolute failure was never before witnessed anywhere in a pro- 
ceeding aspiring to a dignity beyond that of a broad farce." The 
sub-committee of the House reported that there was no ground 
for impeachment in the case under the constitution and the laws. 
Their report was a virtual indorsement of the following editorial 
expression: "The case has had just such an ending as we pre- 
dicted it would have. Judge Harding stands fully and com- 
pletely vindicated of all the foul charges brought against him. 
It is eminently fitting that it should end in an ignominious fail- 
ure — a farce so broad as to cover with shame and confusion the 
men who instigated the proceeding." 

In the fall of 1879, after nearly ten years of hard work on the 
bench. Judge Harding tendered his resignation as President 
Judge, to take effect on the first of January following. As he 
was quite earnest in his desire to retire, the Governor accepted 

74 Henry Martyn Hoyt. 

his resignation, and appointed Stanley Woodward, Esq., to fill 
the vacancy. Judge Harding at once resumed the practice of 
law, and he is at this writing busily engaged in the practice of 
his profession. 

In private life, Judge Harding is generous and charitable; 
devoted to his family and his books; a faithful friend and an out- 
spoken opponent. In fine, he is a worthy representative of those 
men whose stout hearts and arms made the valley of Wyoming 
classical ground, and whose vigor of body and mind, force of 
character, and native integrity still bloom and flourish among 
their children. 

Judge Harding was married on the I2th of October, 1852, to 
Maria M., daughter of John W. Slosson, of Kent, Litchfield 
county, Conn. Mr. and Mrs. Harding have had a family of three 
children, two sons and a daughter. John Slosson, his eldest son, 
is a graduate of Yale College, and is now a student at law in his 
father's office, and expects to be admitted to the bar in a few 
weeks. Harry, his youngest son, is in the Freshman class in 
Yale. The daughter, their eldest child, is the wife of William 
W. Curtin, only son of Hon. Andrew G. Curtin, ex-Governor of 
Pennsylvania. Mrs. Harding died January 27th, 1867, and the 
Judge has been a widower ever since. 


Henry Martyn Hoyt, now Governor of Pennsylvania, was born 
in Kingston, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, June 8, 1830. He 
is a descendant of Simon Hoyt, who was the first member of 
the Hoyt family who immigrated to New England. In Drake's 
" History of Boston," we find "Simon Hoyte" on the " List of 
the names of such as are known to have been in Salem and about 
the north side of the Massachusetts Bay before and in the year 
1629." The name of "Simon Hoytt" appears on the first list of 
"such as took the oath of freemen" in Massachusetts,. May i8v 

Henry Martyn Hoyt. 75 

1631. We find "Symon Hoite" mentioned in the Dorchester 
records in 1633. On the 8th of October, in the same year, 
"Symon Hoyte'' was chosen one of that town's committee to 
■'see to" fences "for the east fielde." 

Walter Hoyt, son of Simon, born about 16 18, was in Windsor 
in 1640. From there he went to Fairfield county, Connecticut, 
and was one of the early settlers of Norwalk, where the name 
was frequently spelt Haite or Hyatt. He was a fence viewer 
therein 1655, and a deputy to the October sessions of the General 
Court in 1658, 1659, and 1661. He was confirmed as sergeant 
of a company at Norwalk by the "General Court of Election, 
Hartford, May 19, 1659." He was a deputy in May and October, 
1667, and one of the proprietors named of the town of Norwalk 
confirmed by the General Court in 1685. He died about 1698! 

John Hoyt, son of Walter, was born July 13, 1644, at Windsor, 
Connecticut. He was a freeman in Norwalk in 1669. He 
removed to "Paquiack," or Danbury, before June, 1685. Rev. 
Thomas Robbins, in a century sermon, delivered in Danbury, 
January i, 1801, says John Hoyt was one of the eight original 
settlers of Danbury in 1685. The births of five of his children 
are recorded at Norwalk from 1669 to 'Jf^ with the spelling Haite. 

Thomas Hoyt, son of John, was born at Norwalk, January 5, 
1674, and died before 1749, but was living in 1727. 

Comfort Hoyt, son of Thomas, was born February 20, 1724. 
He lived in Danbury, and died May 19, 1812. His tombstone 
states that he and his wife " lived together in the married state 
62 y." 

Daniel Hoyt, son of Comfort, was born May 2, 1756. He was 
a farmer; lived in Danbury, Conn., and Kingston, Luzerne 
county, Pa. He died in 1824. He was a freeman in Danbury 
in 1778. He removed to Pennsylvania about 1795. 

Ziba Hoyt, son of Daniel, was born September 8, 1788, in 
Danbury, Conn. He afterwards removed to Kingston, Luzerne 
county. Pa., where he died, December 23, 1853. He wgis First 
Lieutenant of the "Wyoming Matross," an artillery organization 
connected with Col. Hill's Regiment, Pennsylvania Militia. He 
left for the western frontier in i8i3,and his bravery and coolness 
in the campaign about Lake Erie has become a matter of history. 

■j6 Henry Martyn Hoyt. 

Colonel Hill, in his report to General Tarryhill of one of the 
engagements, says: 

"I cannot close this report without bearing testimony of the 
good conduct of this company. This being the first time the 
company was ever under fire, it was hardly to be expected that 
their conduct would come up to the standard of tried and prac- 
tical veterans. Great praise is due to Capt. Thomas and Lieut. 
Hoyt for their cool bravery and soldier-like bearing." 

Lieut. Hoyt afterwards accompanied Gen. Harrison to the 
river Thames, where he participated in that battle. The British 
were under Gen. Proctor, and the Indians under Tecumseh. 

These were the ancestors of Henry M: Hoyt. At a family 
reunion, held at Stamford, Conn., in 1866, at which there were six 
hundred persons of the name of Hoyt present, Gen. Hoyt said: 

" I come from Pennsylvania, strong and great, the keystone of 
the federal arch; I come as one of her delegates, as a 'Pennsyl- 
vania Dutchman,' if you please, and, if necessary, to -vindicate 
her thrift, her steadfastness, and her institutions, not in competition 
or contrast with Connecticut, but as a co-equal and a co-worker 
in the field of ideas, of which New England is not the exclusive 
proprietor. We are all 'Yankees,' and the Yankee should, will, 
and must dominate the country and the age. These hills have 
borne great crops of great men — which at last is the best pro- 
duct — men attuned to the keynote of our social structure: the 
importance, the inviolability, the integrity of the manhood of the 
individual. I am in entire accord with all I have heard said here 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts; but, within the proper limits 
of 'State rights,' I am for my own Commonwealth. I revere 
and love the solidity of the mountains, the men, and the civiliza- 
tion of the State of my bijrth. I hold that my grandfather did a 
smart thing, if he never did a great thing, to wit, when he left 
Danbury, Fairfield county, Connecticut, and went to the Wyom- 
ing Valley, in Pennsylvania." 

Bishop Peck, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Gen. W. T. 
Sherman and Senator John Sherman are relatives of Governor 
Hoyt, their mothers being Hoyts, as are also Hon. Joseph G. 
Hoyt, , of Maine; Dr. Enos Hoyt, of Framingham, Mass.; Dr. 
William H. Hoyt, of Syracuse, N. Y.; Rev. James Hoyt, of 
Orange, N. J.; Rev. Cornelius A. Hoyt, of Oberlin, Ohio; Rev. 
James W. Hoyt, of Nashville, Tenn.; Rev. O. P. Hoyt, D. D., of 
Kalamazoo, Mich., and other distinguished Hoyts. 

Henry Martyn Hoyt. jj 

General Hoyt remained at home working on iiis father's farm 
until the age of fourteen, when he entered the old Wilkes-Barre 
Academy, and subsequently Wyoming Seminary, where he pre- 
pared for college. He entered Lafayette College, at Easton, Pa., 
where he remained for two years. At the end of that period, 
through the retirement of Dr. Junkin, the college was for a while 
closed, and Mr. Hoyt then entered Williams College, at Williams- 
town, Mass., and graduated in 1849. In 1850 he was a teacher 
in the Academy at Towanda, and in the subsequent year he 
returned to Kingston, having been elected Professor of Mathe- 
matics in the Wyoming Seminary, which position he held for 
another year. He also taught the Graded School in Memphis, 
Tenn., for one year. Subsequently he became a student at law 
in the office of the late George W. Woodward, ex-Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. After the appointment 
of Judge Woodward to the bench, Mr. Hoyt continued his 
studies in the office of the late Hon. Warren J. Woodward, and 
was admitted to the Luzerne county bar April 4, 1853. In 1855 
he was a candidate for District Attorney on the Whig ticket, but 
was defeated by Gen. Winchester by a small majority, and in 
1856 he took part in the Fremont campaign. 

In 1 86 1 Gen. Hoyt was active in raising the 5 2d Regiment of 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. The national cause found no more 
ready supporter than Mr. Hoyt, and he was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the 52d Regiment in August, 1861. In 
1863 he was appointed Colonel. On the Peninsula he was of 
Naglee's Brigade, and participated in the reconnoissance from 
Bottom's Bridge to Seven Pines in advance of the whole army, 
and commanded the party which constructed the bridges across 
the Chickahominy. When the battle of Fair Oaks opened, he 
rendered signal service by communicating to Gen. Sumner the 
exact position of the Union troops, joining Sumner's column as 
it moved to the support of Heintzelman in that battle, and fight- 
ing under him to the end. This brigade had the honor of being 
selected to hold the enemy in check at the passages of the 
Chickahominy, and when recalled joined Franklin at White Oak 
Swamp, in both situations exhibiting the most undaunted courage, 
At the close of this campaign. Col. Hoyt was ordered first to 

78 • Henry Martyn Hoyt. 

North Carolina, and thence to South Caroh'na, where he was 
engaged in the siege of Fort Wagner, the first serious obstacle 
to the reduction of Charleston. The operations were laborious, 
and conducted under the terrible fire of the enemy, and the more 
wasting effect of the summer's heat. For forty days the work 
was pushed. When all was ready a hundred heavy guns opened 
upon devoted Wagner, and the troops were held in readiness to 
assault. Col. Hoyt having been assigned the task of charging 
Fort Gregg; but before the time for the movement had come, the 
enemy evacuated and the stronghold fell without a blow. In 
June, 1864, a plan was devised to capture Charleston by surpris- 
ing the garrison guarding its approaches. The attempt was 
made on the night of July 3d, 1864. The following extract from 
the Charleston Mercury, of July 6th, 1864, says: 

"The second column, under the immediate command of Col. 
Hoyt, of the 5 2d Pennsylvania Regiment, attacked the Brooke 
gun and landing in overwhelming numbers. Lieut. Roworth, of 
the 2d South Carolina Artillery, was compelled to fall back, after 
himself and men fighting bravely. The enemy, cheered by this 
success, with their commander at their head waving his sword, 
advanced in heavy force upon Fort Johnson, but there they were 
received with a terrific fire by the light and heavy batteries on 
the line." 

The " ovenvhelming numbers'' therein referred to were Hoyt's 
mte hundred and twenty men against \\\& four hundred Confederate 
garrison. Col. Hoyt was highly complimented for his deport- 
ment in this action by a General Order issued by Gen. Foster, 
commanding. In this encounter Col. Hoyt and nearly the whole 
of the command were captured. Gen. Foster says: 

"Col. Hoyt bestows unqualified praise on the officers and men 
who landed with him; of these seven were killed and sixteen 
wounded. He himself deserves great credit for his energy in 
urging the boats forward and bringing them through the narrow 
channel, and the feeling which led him to land at the head of his 
men was the promptings of a gallant spirit, which deserves to find 
more imitators." 

Gen. Schemmelfinnig said of Col. Hoyt, after recounting the 

"After this you placed yourself at the head of the column, and 
led them most gallantly, faithfully carrying out, as far as possible 

Henry Martvn Hoyt. 79 

with the small number of men who landed with you, the orders 
given you by me. Had you been supported, as your brave con- 
duct deserved, it would have ensured the success of the important 
operations then being carried on in front of Charleston." 

Col. Hoyt, with other Union officers, was sent to Macon, 
Georgia, and subsequently to Charleston. While enroute from 
Macon to Charleston Col. Hoyt, with four other ofificers, escaped 
from the cars. After several days and nights of wearisome, but 
fruitless, efforts for liberty they were recaptured by the rebels 
with the aid of bloodhounds. He was one of the fifty officers, 
including Brigadier Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, and 
Majors (Gen. Dana and Lieut. Col. Conyngham being among 
the number), who were placed under the fire of our own guns in 
retaliation for some supposed violation of the usages of war by 
the Federal Government in the siege of that city. After his 
exchange he returned to his regiment, and at the close of hostil- 
ities, which occurred not long afterwards, resumed the practice 
of his profession. Col. Hoyt was breveted Brigadier General 
for meritorious conduct, and his old comrades join heartily in 
declaring that it was well earned. 

In 1866 Col. Hoyt was elected a member of the School Board 
of this city in connection with Hon. Henry W. Palmer, and dur- 
ing his incumbency the present Franklin street school building 
was erected. Hon. D. L. Rhone and Geo. B. Kulp were also 
members of the same board, and principally through their efforts 
the present Washington street school building was erected. This 
was before the election of Messrs. Hoyt and Palmer to the 
School Board. 

In 1867 he was appointed Additional Law Judge of the county 
of Luzerne. His record on the bench was of the first order. 
He was able, fearless, faithful, and dignified. In the fall of the 
same year he re'ceived the nomination of the Republican party 
for the same position, and, although running largely ahead of his 
ticket, was defeated by Gen. Dana, the Democratic candidate. 
The county, at that time, was strongly Democratic. 

Gen. Hoyt's reputation as a lawyer is second to none. His 
legal knowledge is not only broad and comprehensive, but accu- 
rate to the slightest detail. His arguments are concise, logical. 

So Henry Martyn Hoyt. 

•and philosophical — too much so, perhaps, for success before 
juries, but of the utmost value and importance in legal discus- 
sions before the courts. He is truly learned in the law. As a 
counselor, he is preeminently valuable. During the time he 
practiced at the bar his advice was sought after by his brethren 
in important and critical emergencies, and, when given, all who 
knew him knew it might be relied upon. His knowledge of the 
fundamental principles was so thorough that the greatest respect 
was always expressed by lawyers for even an "off-hand" opinion 
on matters under discussion at the various meetings of tl^e mem- 
bers of the bar. He was attorney for many of the large banking, 
mining, and railroad corporations. But his education and study 
were by means confined to legal matters. Mathematics, in its 
highest branches, is his favorite pursuit; while history, philoso- 
phy, science, theology, and general literature are alike studied 
with great zeal and relish, all contributing abundantly to 
enrich a mind well capable of enjoying their most hidden 

The training which Governor Hoyt received in early life as 
farmer boy, as scholar, and as teacher, always within the influence 
of his father's example? taught him, at least, the value of thor- 
oughness and accuracy in whatever is undertaken. And it may 
well be stated, as characteristic of the man, that to whatever sub- 
ject he has given his attention he has spared no effort to reach 
the very marrow of it, and understand it in all its details. His 
library is large, and extends over a very broad field of literature. 

In 1869 Col. Hoyt was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the counties of Luzerne, and Susquehanna, but resigned the 
position in 1873. 

In 1S75 he became Chairman of the Republican State Com- 
mittee, and he conducted the campaigns of that and the succeed- 
ing year with success. 

In 1878 he was nominated by the Republican party for the 
position of Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. It was at the 
time of the greatest excitement in the State on the question of 
the resumption of specie payments. Many believed that no one 
could be elected on an unqualified hard money campaign; but 
the General, scorning all subterfuges, sounded the keynote of the 

Henry Martyn Hoyt. 8i 

campaign in his first address by declaring: "Professing to be 
an honest man, and the candidate of an honest party, I believe in 
honest money." In June of the same year, in some remarks he 
made at the Du Quesne Club, at Pittsburg, he used the identical 
language. We make this statement because it is generally sup- 
posed that Hon. Galusha A. Grow is the author of the sentiment. 
He was elected by a large plurality, and inaugurated January 14, 
1879. H's term is for four years, he being the first Governor 
who, in pursuance of the new constitution, serves for that period. 
The oath of office was administered by the late Hon. Warren J. 
Woodward, his former instructor, and then a Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State. 

Subsequent to his election, Governor Hoyt wrote for the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania a "Brief of a Title in the 
Seventeen Townships in the County of Luzerne: A Syllabus of 
the Controversy between Connecticut and Pennsylvania." 

Being positive by nature in all the habits of his mind, he is 
naturally positive in his political views; but in all political dis- 
cussion he has shown that his positiveness is not a result of 
partisan bitterness, but a conclusion from a thorough and careful 
study of the constitution and history of his country. 

His official correspondence and veto messages abundantly 
illustrate the accuracy of thought and legal ability above men- 
tioned. They are models of conciseness, and, so far as they go, 
are studies in the science of government. No bill was ever 
passed over his veto; but, on the contrary, the vetoed bill inva- 
riably showed a loss of strength after the reasons for the veto 
had been made known. 

During Governor Hoyt's administration no extraordinary or 
unusual opportunity has presented itself for the display of execu- 
tive ability, but it will be marked as among the most peaceful and 
successful the State has enjoyed. At the time of his inaugura- 
tion, through a variety of causes, the treasury was in an unsatis- 
factory condition, several hundred thousand dollars of dishonored 
school warrants being afloat for want of sufficient funds for their 
redemption. By wise adjustment of the revenue laws, and a 
vigorous collection of delinquent taxes, the finances of the State 
have been brought into excellent condition, so that now every 

82 Henry Martyn Hoyt. 

demand is promptly met, and when he retires sufficient funds 
will be on hand for every purpose of governmental expense, 
besides large annual additions to the sinking fund. The State 
debt falling due during his term has been refunded at very favor- 
able rates of interest, so that hereafter an annual saving of several 
hundred thousand dollars will be made in the interest account. 
The credit of the State has never been so good as at the present 
time, and is fully equal to that of the general government. 

A valuable reform in the method of punishing persons con- 
victed of first offences, especially the young, has been adopted 
through the exertions of Governor Hoyt, and is to be carried 
into effect at the reformatory prison now in process of construc- 
tion at Huntington. To this subject of the punishment of con- 
victs. Governor Hoyt has given thorough examination and study. 
Through his influence exclusively the General Assembly were 
induced to change the plan of building a state penitentiary into 
one for constructing a reformatory on the most approved and 
successful models, for the purpose of providing a place where 
unfortunate criminals, not yet hardened in crime, might be 
brought under good influences, and at the end of their terms of 
punishment have a chance, at least, of restoration to society as 
useful and honest citizens. Whatever benefit results from this 
wise humanitarian effort, the State will owe to the forethought 
and industry of Governor Hoyt. 

The extirpation of the so-called medical college, located in 
Philadelphia, which, by the sale of bogus diplomas, had, for a 
long period, brought disgrace on the State and Nation, as well 
as the destruction of upwards of two hundred fraudulent insur- 
ance companies, had the active co-operation and support of the 

In addition to the literary work already mentioned. Governor 
Hoyt has deliyered a number of addresses on different occasions 
which have secured for him the reputation of being the most 
scholarly and cultivated Executive the State has ever had. Nota- 
bly, one at the opening of the Pan-Presbyterian Synod in Phila- 
delphia, and one at an agricultural fair at the same place. The 
first attracted very general attention from theologians of this and 
other countries there assembled as displaying a remarkable fami- 

Henry Martyn Hoyt. 83 

Uarity, not only with all church history, but also with the tangled 
and abstruse theological dogmas, disputes, and doctrines of 
ancient and modern times — not usually within the knowledge of 

Among the last and most valuable of his acts will be regarded 
in the history of our times his opposition to a system of personal 
politics, which had grown to such proportions as to threaten the 
integrity and freedom of our institutions. In his letter declining 
to act as chairman of a distinctive political meeting while holding 
the office of Governor, written during the campaign of 1882, he 
stated. his convictions, and asserted "the inherent right of the 
freemen of a Republic to declare the ends and aims of public 
conduct.'' He rose to the height of the inspiration of the founders 
of this Republic in his declaration that " where in all the space 
between abject submission and rebellion, no place is given for 
appeal, argument, or protest, revolution is an appropriate remedy." 
And he only repeated the lessons of the history of the abolition 
movement and many others when he asserted that "peace will 
never come until the moral forces in politics which you have 
organized prevail," His position was taken with great pain at 
the thought of the po.ssibility of offending some sincere friends; 
but being satisfied of his duty, and knowing better than they 
could the dangers arising from the political system which used 
public trusts solely for private and personal schemes, he sounded 
the alarm, and took his place, as he did in the attack on Charles- 
ton, in front of his friends. However much men may, in the 
excitement incident to a hard political struggle, differ from him 
in judgment, no man, friend or foe, can deny the moral courage 
behind the act. As to that there is no room for debate. 

In conclusion of the summary of the characteristics of Governor 
Hoyt, here feebly portrayed, we would say that in him there is 
not only the intellectual power manifest in his writings and his 
labors at the bar, but there is a rare intellectual and moral candor, 
an honesty of thought, an unselfishness of purpose, and a warmth 
of affection, known best to them who know him best, and appre- 
ciated by his friends. In conversation, he always says something 
worth remembering. It is a flash of insight into some object or 
other. Wit, energy, determination, sincerity, are his characteristic 

84 Alexander Farnham. 

qualities — a man who believes least of all in idle complainings 
and questionings. Dilettanteism has no place in his composition. 
Sincere in his conviction of the beneficence of the results, he has 
shown himself willing to adopt the best methods effectual for 
their attainment. If no sufficient aid of the kind most desirable 
is present or assistant, yet in no case is the alternative of idle 
laissez faire and complaint to be adopted. With clear insight 
into the heart of things, both as to their present bearing and 
future prospects, he has never been known to avoid a responsi- 
bility, or betray a friend. His unselfishness appears at times like 
a lack of self-appreciation, which might be, if it has not already 
been, taken advantage of by scheming, if less able, associates. 

Governor Hoyt was married on the 25th of September, 1855, 
to Mary E. Loveland, daughter of Elijah Loveland, a native of 
Vermont, but who removed to Kingston in 1812. Her mother 
is of the ninth generation of the descendants of Thomas Buck- 
ingham, one of the Puritan fathers, who emigrated from England 
to Massachusetts among the first of his class, in June, 1637, and 
who is the ancestor of the vast family of American Buckinghams, 
so many of whom have gone high up the ladder of distinction in 
the professions and in politics in various sections of the Union. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt have three children living, one son and two 
daughters. The son, Henry M., studied law in Philadelphia 
with Hon. Wayne MacVeagh, and graduated in the law depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania. He is now a practicing 
lawyer in Pittsburg. 


Like the larger number of those who have achieved especial 
distinction in the several' walks of life in this section of Pennsyl- 
vania, Alexander Farnham, the subject of our present sketch, 
conies of New England ancestry. He was born January 12th, 
1834, in Carbondale, at that time in Luzerne county, now Lack- 
awanna, and one of the oldest cities of the State — the sixth, we 

Alexander Farnham. 85 

believe, in point of age. His father was John P. Farnham, a 
native of the town of Oxford, N. Y., who was educated as a phy- 
sician, and removed to Carbondale when quite a young man, 
where he practiced his profession for a few years. His health 
failing him, he subsequently engaged in mercantile pursuits. His 
grandfather was a Captain in the Revolutionary war, and having 
been captured by the British, was imprisoned in one of the prison 
ships in New York harbor, and died soon after his release by 
reason of the hardships incurred. His father was Samuel Farn- 
ham, a native of Hampton, Conn., who afterwards lived in New 
London, from whence he removed to Oxford, N. Y., where he 
married Sarah Balcom, whose father was Colonel of a New Hamp- 
shire regiment during the Revolutionary war. The Farnhams 
are of an old English family, some of whom came with the first 
installment of Puritans to this country, and it is from them that 
this branch of the family descended. John P. Farnham married 
Mary Frances Steere (the mother of Alexander), of Norwich, 
N. Y., who was a daughter of Mark Steere, of Providence, R. I., 
who for several years prior to the war of 18 [2 was engaged in 
the West India trade, and who during that war was captured in 
his own ship, the Comet. He was kept a prisoner in Jamaica, 
West Indies, for about a year, and was subsequently released by 
reason of his ship being captured in neutral waters. After the 
war he removed to Norwich, N. Y., where his father owned a 
large body of land, including the present site of the town. The 
father of Mark Steere was one of the Judges of Rhode Island, 
and his grandfather was Chief Justice of that State. 

Mr. Farnham was educated at Madison Academy, Waverly, 
Pa., and at Wyoming Seminary, Kingston. It is here worthy of 
remark, parenthetically, that the last named institution has laid 
the educational ground-work upon which the good names and 
reputations, and the business and professional successes of no 
small number of the very best men this portion of the State has 
produced, have been builded. The late Hon. Winthrop W. 
Ketcham was at this time one of the professors of Wyoming 
Seminary, and was Mr. Farnham's first Latin teacher. Young 
Farnham, having determined to enter the legal profession, sought 
and secured admission to the National Law School, at Ballston 

86 Alexander Farnham. 

Spa, N. Y., from which he graduated while yet in his minority, 
receiving his diploma from the hands of the late Chancellor 
Walworth. His studies for the bar were still further pursued in 
the office and under the tutelage of the then well known and 
successful law firm of Fuller & Harding, consisting of the late 
Hon. Henry M. Fuller and ex-Judge Harding. He was admitted 
just one day after becoming of age, that is, on January 13th, 1855, 
on the recommendation of Warren J. Woodward, Volney L. 
Maxwell, and Andrew T. McClintock, by whom he had been 

At this time Mr. Farnham was quiet and unobtrusive, almost 
to an awkward shyness; but that he was well grounded in the 
law, as they say, and patient and persevering in the advocacy of 
a cause, soon made itself generally apparent, and it was not 
long until he had gathered about him an important and profitable 
clientage. He is a Republican in politics, and in 1870 was 
made the candidate of that party for District Attorney, but at the 
election ensuing was defeated by his Democratic opponent, the 
late E. L. Merriman. Three years later he was again made the 
nominee, and after a somewhat exciting canvass scored a victory 
over John B. Collings, who had been placed in nomination for 
the position by the Democrats. Too much can scarcely be said 
in praise of Mr. Farnham's conduct of this office. Upon the 
expiration of his term, we wrote: 

We can say that he discharged his duties well, and that he 
retires with the entire confidence of the people. He managed 
the business of the office with consummate tact and ability, and 
has probably gained more popularity out of the difficult and 
trying position than any officer who ever preceded him. His 
efforts in behalf of the cause of morality, by the suppression, to a 
large extent, of a variety of crime, made him the terror of evil- 
doers, and all parties respect him for the firmness he displayed. 
But few men occupying a similar position ever retired with a 
brighter record, or more respected and esteemed by all classes 
with whom he came in contact in the official discharge of his 
duties, than Mr. Farnham. 

We have learned of nothing since the date on which the fore- 
going was written that would warrant us in unsaying a word it 
contains. He was a faithful Commonwealth's attorney. He 

Alexander Farnham. 87 

recognized and fully appreciated the too frequently ignored fact, 

that he had been retained by the people to see that their laws 
were faithfully executed, and offenders against them were brought 
to bar, and, if found guilty, punished. He fulfilled the Jefifer- 
sonian idea: "He was honest; he was capable." 

While yet District Attorney, in 1874, Mr. Farnham's name 
was prominently mentioned in connection with the candidacy of 
his party for Additional Law Judge, but the nomination was 
finally tendered Gen. E. S. Osborne. Again, in 1877, when Judge 
Dana was made the nominee of the two parties, and again, in 
1879, when Judge Rice carried off the honors, Mr. Farnham was 
backed by considerable following, who felt that he would have 
been acceptable to the people as a candidate, and faithful to them 
on the bench, as he undoubtedly would. After the formation of 
the new county of Lackawanna, many of its most prominent 
Republicans solicited the use of his name as a candidate for the 
Judgeship there, but he politely but positively refused. He has 
also been spoken of as a Republican candidate for Congress for 
the Twelfth district, and would have been accorded that honor 
had he evinced a willingness to accept it. He was a delegate to 
the Chicago Convention, where the late President Garfield was 
nominated, and distinguished himself there as an ardent leader 
of the Blaine forces. 

Mr. Farnham married, July i8th, 1865, Augusta, daughter of 
the late Rev. John Dorrance, D. D., of this city. Dr. Dorrance 
was descended from Rev. Samuel Dorrance, a Scotch Presbyte- 
rian divine, who graduated from Glasgow University in 1709, 
and was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Dumbarton in 
171 1. Eleven years later he emigrated to America, and settled 
in Voluntown, Connecticut, where he continued in the active 
performance of his ministerial duties until his decease, in 1775. 
His son, George Dorrance, was a Lieutenant Colonel of the 
Militia of Wyoming, and was killed at the memorable Massacre. 

■ His grandson, who was Mrs. Farnham's father, succeeded Rev. 

' Dr. Murray, better known as "Kirwin," in the charge of the 
Presbyterian Church, at Wilkes-Barre, in August, 1833, and con- 
tinued in that charge until his death, in 186 1. He was a man of 
much more than ordinary talent and character, and was honored 

88 Edward Payson Darling. 

with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the College of New 
Jersey, at Princeton. Mr. and Mrs. Farnham have three chil- 
dren, two sons and a daughter. 

Though always doing a large legal business, Mr. Farnham has, 
nevertheless, found time to take upon himself, and creditably 
perform, many social, neighborly, and municipal duties. In con- 
nection with the latter, he has served one term in the Board of 
Directors of the Third School District, and is at present a mem- 
ber of the City Council and Chairman of the Law and Ordinance 
Committee, and by reason of his professional knowledge and 
care in deciding as to the meaning of the law, he is a valuable 
member of that body. He is a progressive Councilman and a 
man of excellent judgment, and rarely, if ever, takes the wrong 
side of a question affecting the city's interests. 

Though still, as in his younger days, a man of exceptionally 
reserved demea,nor, disinclined, almost to a fault, to obtrude him- 
self upon public attention in any way, his professional services 
are always in demand (he has been and still is associated with 
many of the most important causes ever argued in our Courts), 
and socially is extensively regarded as a gentleman of worth and 
culture. He is, in brief, a good lawyer, a good citizen, and a 
good neighbor. 


Thomas Darling was the paternal greatgrandfather of Edward 
Payson Darling, the subject of the present sketch. He was 
either the first American ancestor of the family, or his immediate 
descendant. Th? family is of English extraction, and the first 
of the name to reach this country was among the earliest of the 
early New England arrivals. The exact date of his coming is ' 
not, however, known. Thomas Darling married Martha Howe, 
a niece of Lord Howe, the commander of the British forces in 
America during the Revolutionary war. 

Edw/^rd Payson Darling. 89 

His son, the grandfather of Edward Payson, was Eliakim Dar- 
ling, whose birth occurred in New Hampshire, in 1767. He 
married Ruth Buck, of Buckport, Maine, who was born in 1775, 
and died in 1855. Eliakim moved to Buckport, Maine, at an 
early age, where he became an extensive ship-builder and owner, 
in which he drove a thriving trade with several foreign countries. 
During the war of 1812 he was captured by the British while 
attempting to run the blockade of the New England coast, but as 
it was after peace had been declared, although not known at the 
time in this country, his ship and its contents were soon after 
released. He died at the age of sixty-six, in good circumstances. 

His son, William Darling, who was the father of Edward 
Payson, was born in Buckport, Maine, but removed, when a very 
young man, to Reading, Berks county. Pa., where he was admitted 
to the bar, and entered actively into the practice of the law. He 
was a lawyer of fine parts, and held a leading position in the 
Courts for many years. In 185 1 he was a United States Com- 
missioner to the World's Fair, at Crystal Palace, London, and 
during that year delivered a series of addresses at Exeter Hall, 
in that city, on the relations of the two countries. The Earl of 
'Shaftesbury presided on these occasions, and the addresses elic- 
ited wide-spread notice and comment in both countries. He 
retired from active practice when but forty years old. He had 
been previously appointed President Judge of the Berks district, 
but "his health failing shortly after, he resigned the position, 
though he nevertheless lived to the comparatively advanced age 
of seventy-eight years. He was also a Vice-President of the 
American Sunday School Union from its organization until the 
time of his death. 

Edward Payson's mother was Margaret Vaughan Smith, the 
daughter of John Smith, of Berks county, who was owner of the 
Joanna furnace, in that county, a noted establishment at an early 
day. In 1832 the Joanna furnace was being operated by William 
Darling, and, as appears from a report made to the Auditor 
General of that year, employed one hundred and sixty-eight men. 
The furnace was owned by Mrs. Darling, to whom it descended 
from her father. John Smith was the son of. Robert Smith, of 
Chester county, Pa., who was the son of John and Susanna Smith, 

go Edward Payson Darling. 

who emigrated from the north of Ireland in 1720, and settled in 
Uwchlan township, in the county last named. Robert was born 
at sea during the voyage over. He was of the sturdy, plucky, 
and enduring sort who constituted the main reliance of this now 
great country through the troublesome years of its infancy. 

In an article written by Joseph S. Harris, Esq., and published 
in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, we are 
indebted for the following sketch of the Smith family: 

" Little is known of the history of the Smith family prior to 
their emigration to Pennsylvania, except that the family name 
was originally Macdonald, and that the branch of it from which 
Robert was descended formed an important part of the earliest 
Scottish emigration across the North Channel into Ireland in the 
time of James I. of England. Near the end of the seventeenth 
century, Robert Smith's grandfather lived in the northeastern 
part of Ireland. Just before the battle of the Boyne, as the sol- 
dier king, William III., was personally reconnoitring the locality 
which was soon to become famous, his horse cast a shoe. There 
was, of course, no farrier in attendance to replace it, but Mac- 
donald, in whose neighborhood the accident occurred, and who, 
like many other farmers in thinly peopled districts, volunteered 
to repair the injury, shod the horse, and so enabled' the King to 
proceed. His neighbors, who, like himself, were in sympathy 
with the cause of which William was the champion, dubbed 
Macdonald 'the Smith.' Such a change of name would not now 
be considered a compliment, as Smiths are so numerous that the 
name confers no special distinction, but in that district there was 
a surfeit of Macdonalds; all the possible changes had been rung 
on the name, and still there were hardly enough names to indi- 
vidualize the members of the clan. Smith was a novelty, and 
the branch of trade it represented has always been an honored 
one, especially in primitive sopiety, and this particular Scotchman, 
proud to have his name linked with that of a great man and a 
decisive battle, as that of Boynevvater was soon known to be, 
accepted the cognomen, and handed it down to his posterity as 
the family name. The Macdonalds held their lands in Ireland 
by tenant right, and while they, with the rest nf their country- 
men, were subduing the savage land which they now called 
home, they lived in peaceful obscurity. But when the colonists 
had won for themselves prosperity, that prosperity invited the in- 
terference both of their landlords and of the English government. 
Being Presbyterians, they resisted the legislation by which their 
rulers attempted to establish uniformity of ritual throughout the 

Edward Payson Darling. » 91 

island, and when by the Sacrament Test, as it was called, they 
were required to pay tithes to the Established Church; when 
marriages by their own clergymen were declared null, and the 
issue of such marriages illegitimate; when they were forbidden 
to bury their dead by the rites of their owi* church, or to have 
teachers of their own faith; when they were debarred from all 
positions of power or trust, and heavily taxed on their produc- 
tions and traffic; and when, in addition to these governmental 
oppressions, the absentee landlord took occasion, as the leases 
expired, greatly to increase the rents, these sturdy colonists, who 
had in one century turned the most desolate part of Ireland into 
a garden, and its most lawless district into an abode of peaceful 
and happy industry, decided again to abandon their homes, and 
to seek others beyond the seas; where, under Penn's mild and 
beneficent rule, permanent prosperity might be hoped for as the 
reward of honest toil; where they could build houses and reclaim 
land for the benefit of themselves and their children, and where 
they might worship God in the way that their customs and their 
consciences dictated. 

"Such were the causes that led to the Scotch-Irish emigration 
to Pennsylvania in the first half of the eighteenth century, which 
gave to that colony so many of its best citizens. Among the 
first of these emigrants were the parents of Robert Smith — John 
and Susanna — who left their homes in 1720, one year after the 
enforcement of 'The Test,' and whose special grievance was, not 
the raising of the rent of their homestead, but the absolute refusal 
of their landlord to renew their lease unless they would comply 
with the requirements of that hated act. 

"The company was composed, as the beginning of such an 
emigration is apt to be, of the best class of the Scotch settlers in 
Ireland, men of property and education, maijy of them being 
clergymen and fine scholars, who, for years afterwards, furnished 
the most eminent teachers of the classical and theological schools 
in the southeastern part of Pennsylvania. 

"Though the voyage was stormy, and unusually long even for 
those days of dull sailors, tradition tells of no losses of life on 
the journey, while there was certainly one life gained, for Robert 
Smith was born at sea. Immediately after landing at Philadel- 
phia, the emigrants pushed westward thirty miles into Chester 
county, and passing by the fertile Great Valley took up lands to 
the northward in the hilly country of Uwchlan township, in a 
locality long known as the Brandywine settlement. 

" With her brother John came Mary Smith, who married 
Alexander Fulton, rempved to Little Brittain, Lancaster county. 

92 Edward Payson Darling. 

and to whom in due time was born a grandson, Robert Fulton, 
who has indissolubly linked his name with the history of steam 

"Nothing is remembered of the early life of Robert Smith. 
His father died in 1760, and his mother in 1767; the homestead 
fell to Robert, who prospered there, as wise and diligent men did 
in those days. Sergeant Robert Smith is reported in the public 
records of the time as 'going to Reading to be qualified,' when, 
in 1757, the war between the French and English made the 
Indians restless and aggressive on the whole Pennsylvania border, 
and called out large bodies of militia in that peaceful colony. 
His next appearance is in the commencement of the Revolution, 
in August, 1775. The colony had but a small navy, and the 
chief reliance for the defense of Philadelphia was on obstructions 
to be placed in the channel of the Delaware river. Numerous 
plans were offered, and after discussing them thoroughly it was 
decided to place a line of chevaux-de-frise across the channel. 
At the date last mentioned, Robert Smith was thanked by the 
Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania for a model of a 
machine for handling chevaux-de-frise, and was soon after 
directed by the same body to report on the merits of the rival 
plans of Govett and Guion for building them. The next year the 
work was taken up in earnest, and in June, 1776, the Council 
instructed him to take charge of and sink the proposed defenses. 
He remained in charge of these works for nearly a year, during 
which time he was also engaged in planning the land fortifications 
which were included in the same line of defenses. While engaged 
in these military defenses, he was also called to aid in raising the 
civil bulwarks of the State, and sat in the Convention which, on 
the 28th of September, 1776, adopted the first State Constitution 
of Pennsylvania. 

" Robert Smith was at this time a man of considerable means, 
of great energy and extensive influence, and when, after the first 
flush of enthusiasm with which the colonists entered upon the 
Revolutionary war had passed away, the necessity of organizing 
and discipling the forces who were to conquer freedom for a con- 
tinent was recognized, he was considered the fittest man to do 
this work for his county, then the second in importance in the 
State, and was accordingly called, on the 12th day of March, 
1777, by the Supreme Executive Council, to the responsible post 
of Lieutenant of Chester county. This office, whose name and 
duties were analogous to those of the King's Lieutenants in the 
counties of the mother country, gave him, with the rank of 
Colonel, the charge of raising, arming, and provisioning the mili- 
tary contingent of his district, and in every way preparing the 

Edward Payson Darling. 93 

troops to take the field. They remained under his command till 
they were called into active service. 

"The selection proved a wise one. The Scotch-Irish were 
generally of good fighting material, and the circumstances under 
which they had left their old homes made them have no hesita- 
tion in taking up arms against the British government. Colonel 
Smith had had some experience in military affairs and in admin- 
istration, and would no doubt have taken the field, but that he 
was somewhat past the prime of life, and had grown too large 
(weighing over 250 pounds) to undergo the fatigues of service at 
the front. He seems through this period of his life to have been 
somewhat of a pluralist, though it may have been to aid him in 
the discharge of his duties as County Lieutenant that he was 
elected Sheriff of Chester county, March 29, 1777, and appointed 
Justice of the Peace, March 31, 1777. The latter office he held 
for a number of years, and he was re-elected to the former, 
November 21, 1778. In October, 1783, he was one of the two 
persons elected by the people, as the custom then was, for the 
office of Sheriff, but the Governor, in whom was vested the final 
choice, selected William Gibbon, the other candidate. 

"As illustrating the temper of the time, and especially the feel- 
ings of those who were his nearest neighbors, the following inci- 
dent is worthy of note. When in the spring of 1776 Pennsylvania 
was called on for her quota of the troops needed to defend New 
York against the advance of the British under Howe, the Rev. 
John Carmichael, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Brandy- 
wine Manor, preached one Sunday the country's claim to the 
services of her sons with such vigorous eloquence, that every 
man of his congregation enlisted, and that summer, while they 
fought the bloody battle of Long Island, women reaped the 
harvests at their homes in Uwchlan. 

"Col. Smith retired from the position of County Lieutenant, 
March 21, 1786, which he had held for nine most eventful years, 
and from all public offices, except that of a Trustee of the State 
Loan Office, which he retained for about a year after this time. 
He served for one term in the State Assembly in 1785. In the 
latter part of 1787, being then sixty-seven years of age, and no 
longer in robust health, he retired to his farm, twelve years of 
uninterrupted public life having led him to covet the quiet of 
home, and his private affairs, which had been so long neglected, 
requiring his attention. 

"His life was prolonged for sixteen years more, till 1803, and 
his death was caused by a paralytic stroke. He is remembered 
as a man of upright and decided character, but of winning man- 
ners, and from having so long been in official positions, so 

94 Edward Payson Darling. 

respected and confided in by his fellow-citizens, as to be con- 
stantly called on as an adviser in difficulties and an arbitrator in 
disputes. He was a staunch Presbyterian, an Elder, and a pillar 
in the church of which the Rev. John Carmichael was pastor, and 
he brought up his family after the most approved Scotch fashion. 
Reading the scriptures and prayer were an important part of the 
daily routine of the home life, and a large part of each Sunday was 
devoted to the study of the bible and the Westminster catechism. 
" He married, December 20, 1758, Margaret Vaughan, daughter 
of John Vaughan, of Red Lion, Chester county, who survived 
him long, dying in 1822, at the age of eighty-seven. Of their 
children, Jonathan was for many years honorably and prominently 
connected with the First and Second United States Banks, and 
with the Bank of Pennsylvania, as their cashier; Joseph was an 
iron and shipping merchant of Philadelphia, and John (the grand- 
father of the subject of our sketch) was an iron-master, owning 
the Joanna furnace, near the line between Chester and Berks 

The late Gen. Persifer F. Smith was a grandson, as was also 
Persifer F. Smith, for so many years reporter for the Supreme 
Court of the State. 

A daughter of Robert Smith married Rev. Levi Bull, D. D., 
an eminent clergymen of the Episcopal Church, and who was-at 
the time of his decease the oldest Episcopal minister in the 
Diocese of Pennsylvania. He was rector of St. Mary's Church, 
in Chester county, for nearly fifty years. He was a grandson on 
his maternal side of John Hunter, who was a member of the first 
vestry of St. Peter's Church, in Great Valley, Chester county. 
Dr. Bull was the son of Col. John Bull, of Revolutionary memory, 
who was one of the twelve members of Philadelphia county that 
met in Provincial Convention in January, 1775, and one of the 
four members that represented Philadelphia county in the Con- 
vention that framed the Constitution of the State, and which was 
adopted the 28th of September, 1776. He was a gentleman of 
considerable eminence in his day, and at one time was the owner 
of the mill and plantation of Charles Norris, where is now the 
present borough of Norristown. 

Another daughter married Rev. Nathan Grier, who succeeded 
Rev. John Carmichael as pastor of the Brandywine Manor 
Church. He was the son of Nathan and Agnes Grier, early 

Edward Payson Darling. 95 

emigrants from Ireland, who settled in Plumstead, Bucks county, 
Pa. His brother John was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1776. Mr. Grier was the grandfather of Rev. N. G. 
Parke, of Pittston. 

Out of such ancestry came Edward Payson Darling. He was 
born in Robeson township, Berks county, on November 10, 1831, 
and was educated at New London Cross Roads Academy and at 
Amherst College, graduating from the latter in 185 1. The New 
London Academy was established by Rev. Dr. Francis Allison 
in 1743. It became justly celebrated, and served to aid in fur- 
nishing the State with able civilians, and the church with well 
qualified ministers. Among those who were wholly or partially 
educated here were Charles Thomson, Secretary of the Conti- 
nental Congress; Dr. John Ewing, Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania; Dr. David Ramsay, the historian; the celebrated 
Dr. Hugh Williamson, one of the fr^mers of the Constitution of 
the United States and historian of North Carolina, and three 
signers of the Declaration of Independence — Governor Thomas 
McKean, George Read, and James Smith. He read law in 
Reading, and was admitted to the bar there on November 10, 
1853. In 1855 he removed to this city, and on August 13, of 
that year, became a member of the Luzerne bar, at which he 
quickly rose to a foremost position. He has never held nor 
sought political preferment; has, in fact, never taken an active 
hand in politics in any way. In all civil questions, involving 
commercial, real estate, and corporation law, he stands among 
the foremost in his profession, as is attested by two facts: first, 
that he has a larger number of students than any brother lawyer; 
and, second, that he is executor and trustee of many of the largest 
estates in the county. He holds many business positions of great 
responsibility, being a Vice-President of the Wyoming National 
Bank and of the Miners' Savings Bank. He is also a partner in 
the banking house of F V. Rockafellow & Co. He is one of the 
Directors of the Wilkes-Barre Gas Company, a Trustee of the 
Wilkes-Barre Female Institute, a Trustee of the Wilkes-Barre 
Academy, and a Trustee under the will of the late Isaac S. Oster- 
hout of the " Osterhout Free Library," and was one of the appli- 
cants for the charter recently granted by the State, under which 

96 Edward Payson DARLTna 

the finishing hnk in the new through line of railroad from Boston 
to Chicago, of which the new North and West Branch forms a 
part, is to be erected. By his associates in all these business 
enterprises and trusts, his clear conception of the law and admir- 
able judgment and tact are highly valued. 

Mr. Darling married, on September 29th, 1859, Emily H., a 
daughter of Nathaniel Rutter, Esq., of this city, who has borne 
him three children, Mary R. and Emily C, who are now being 
educated in Germany, and Thomas, who is at present in the 
Freshman class at Yale College. Mrs. Darling died during the 
last year. 

The bulk of the creditable work of this world is accomplished 
by two very different kinds of men. The one includes the dash- 
ing, quick-witted, never- hesitating, always-to-the-fore kind, for 
whom the obstacles which beset all paths seem to possess a sort 
of fascination, and who gQ,^t them instanter, on a full tilt, and 
with a nerve and courage conspicuous to and winning the plaudits 
of all. The others are seldom thought by the masses to possess 
extraordinary talents. But to those who know them intimately, 
in place of quick wit, they present never-erring judgment, and in 
place of mere dash, an industry that never tires. Obstacles cause 
them to hesitate, but only long enough to determine the method 
by which they can be surely surmounted. They don't win 
applause, but they enlist confidence. They are paid, not with 
huzzas, but with trusts. If anywhere a record of what each 
accomplishes is kept, the balance will be found to be largely on 
the latter's -side. 

A brother of Edward Payson, Henry Darling, D. D., is now 
the President of Hamilton College, at Clinton, N. Y., a very 
wealthy educational institution, being possessed of property val- 
ued at ^700,000. His first wife was the sister of ex-Judge Strong, 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was Moderator 
of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 1881. 
Hon. Charles E. Rice and Elliot P. Kisner, Esq., are graduates 
of Hamilton College. J. Vaughan Darling, Esq., of the Luzerne 
county bar, is also a brother. 

Stanley Woodward. 97 


Stanley Woodward, at present Additional Law Judge of 
Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, is of the stock of the earliest of 
the New World pioneers. He was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
on the 29th day of August, 1833, on the property now owned by 
Hugh Murray, on Northampton street. His mother also was 
born in the same house. Many of the Woodwards have figured 
conspicuously and honorably in our National history, inheriting 
the qualities which made such distinction possible from an ances- 
try remarkable for their advanced faith in America, and patriotic 
devotion to her institutions. 

The earliest of the name to cross the water, of whom we have 
record, was Richard Woodward, who emigrated from Ipswich, 
England, on April 10, 1634, nearly two hundred and fifty years 
ago, with his wife. Rose, and his sons, George and John. He 
was one of the earliest "proprietors" of the town of Watertown, 
Massachusetts, wherfe he was admitted a freeman, September 2, 
1635. His eldest son, George, was admitted to like title, honors, 
and rights. May 6, 1646, and in 1674 was elevated to the position 
of Selectman. 

John Woodward, grandson of Richard, and son of George, 
settled in Newton, Massachusetts, at an early age. His first wife 
was Rebecca, daughter of Richard Robbins, of Cambridge. He 
married- a second time Sarah Bancroft, of Reading, in that State, 
on July 7, 1686. 

Richard Woodward, great-grandson of the first Richard, and 
son of John, was born December 26, 1677. He purchased some 
land in Canterbury, Connecticut, on November 8, 1708, as some 
old records show, and probably moved thereto about that date, 
but of this there is no absolute certainty. Amos, his son, was 
born at Newton, April 2, 1702, and died January 29, 1753, at 

Enos Woodward, son of Amos, was born January 31, 1726. 
About a year before the Declaration of Independence, he removed 
from his Yankee home to the Wallenpaupack, in what is now 

gE Stanley Woodward. 

Pike county, Pennsylvania. It was a wild, border country at that 
time, of course, and the brave pioneer was greatly harassed by 
the Indians, and frequently during the Revolutionary war driven 
off by them, but he as invariably returned, made his clearing, 
and farmed it, reared his family, and died and was buried there. 
His wife survived him many years, and when she, too, was called 
away from a peaceful old age, her remains were interred at Cherry 
Ridge, in Wayne county. 

Abishai Woodward, son of Enos, was born at Canterbury, 
Connecticut, January lo, 1768, and was consequently but seven 
years old when his father entered the North Pennsylvania forests. 
Raised amid such surroundings, and coming of such sturdy 
parentage, he could not but imbibe early courageous convictions 
and self-reliant habits, which made him, as a man, distinguished 
among his neighbors. He was married in Paupack, October 6, 
1789. A few years after this he lost his left hand by an accident, 
which, unfitting him for the stern physical toil of the farmer of 
those days and in those parts, he set himself to acquire the 
Icnowlege necessary for school teaching. Having achieved this, 
he removed to Bethany, Wayne county, aftd opened a school. 
Here, besides caring for his school, he was successively Constable, 
Deputy Sheriff, Justice of the Peace, Sheriff, and Associate Judge, 
in all which positions he never once forfeited his own self-esteem, 
but earned the love and admiration of all his fellow-citizens. He 
died on his farm, near Bethany, November 27, 1829, 

His son, George Washington Woodward, was born after the 
father removed to Bethany, on March 26, 1809, and was educated 
at Geneva Seminary and Hobart College, Geneva, New York. 
From here he was transferred to the Wilkes- Barre Academy, 
then under the charge of Dr. Orton. He studied law with 
Thos. Fuller, of Wayne county, and with Hon. Garrick Mallery, 
at Wilkes-Barre. He was admitted to the bar August 3, 1830, 
and married, September 10, 1832, Sarah Elizabeth, only daughter 
of George W. Tratt, M. D. In 1836 he was elected a Delegate to 
reform the Constitution of the State. In 1841 he was appointed 
President Judge of the Fourth Judicial District, composed of the 
counties of Mifflin, Huntington, Centre, Clearfield, and Clinton. 
In 1844 he was the caucus nominee of the Democratic members 

Stanley Woodward. 99 

of the Legislature of Pennsylvania for United States Senator, but 
was defeated in the election by Simon Cameron, the candidate of 
the Whigs and of a faction representing the Native American 
party. In 1845 he was nominated by President Polk a Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, but his confirmation was 
defeated in the Senate. In 1852 Governor Bigler appointed him 
3. Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and in the fall of 
that year he was elected for the full term of fifteen years. In 
1863 Judge Woodward became the Democratic candidate' for 
Governor of the State against Andrew G. Curtin, but he was 
defeated by a majority of 15,000, although Luzerne county gave 
a majority of 2,786 in his favor. For four years prior to the 
expiration of his term of ofifice on the Supreme bench, he acted 
as Chief Justice, by virtue of the seniority of his commission. 
In 1867 and 1868 he was elected to represent the Twelfth District 
in the Fortieth and Forty-first Congress. In 1873 he was elected 
as a Delegate-at-Large to the last Constitutional Convention on 
the Democratic ticket. He died in Rome, Italy, May 10, 1875. 
The present Judge Woodward, and subject of this. sketch, is 
the eldest son of the deceased Chief Justice. He was prepared 
for college at the Episcopal High School of Virginia, located near 
Alexandria, Va., and at Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, where 
Governor Hoyt was his instructor in Latin and Greek. From 
here he went to Yale College, where he distinguished himself 
particularly in the literary and forensic departments of the college 
course, this fact being marked by his winning several prizes for 
excellence in English composition, and by his election at the 
hands of his classmates as editor of the Yale Literary Magazine, 
the oldest college magazine in the United States, and which is 
still in full vigor and a leading publication. He was also a mem- 
ber of the famous college fraternity, known as the "Skull and 
Bones Society," to which honor his eldest son, John Butler 
Woodward (now a Senior at Yale), has succeeded him. Mr. 
Woodward graduated from Yale College in 1855. He began the 
study of the law in New tlaven, during his senior year, and upon 
graduation entered the law ofifice of his cousin, Hon. Warren J. 
Woodward, afterwards Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania, now deceased. He was admitted to the bar of Luzerne 

loo Stanley Woodward. 

county August 4, 1856. Hon. A. T. McClintock moved for his 
admission, just twenty years later than his own, which was upon 
motion of Hon. George W. Woodward, the father. Warren J. 
Woodward had just been appointed to the President Judgeship 
of the district composed of the counties of Wyoming, Columbia, 
and Sullivan, and Mr. Woodward succeeded at once to a consid- 
erable practice, retaining many of the old clients, as well as the 
old office of his father and cousin. He has often, however, nar- 
rated the pangs which he endured when a former client would 
call and politely ask for the papers in some case, which he felt it 
necessary to entrust to "some older lawyer." From the time of 
his admission until his appointment to the bench by his former 
instructor and life-long friend, Judge Woodward enjoyed a large 
and lucrative practice, having been for most of the time one of 
the counsel of the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad 
Company, the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg Railroad Company, 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, and the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, and having besides a large miscellaneous 
practice. . 

Judge Woodward for many years has been one of the Trustees 
of the Home for Friendless Children, and his wife is one of the 
lady managers. He was attorney and solicitor of this institution 
for ten years, his services having been entirely gratuitous. 

During the late civil war he was Captain of Company H, Third 
Pennsylvania Regiment of Militia. He remained in this service 
at this time about two months. This was in 1862, and was 
known as the Antietam campaign. In 1863 he was Captain of 
Company A, Forty-first Regiment of Pennsylvania Militia. This 
was in the Gettysburg campaign, and he remained at the front 
then for three months. Such men as Edward P. Darling, William 
L. Conyngham, John Richards, and Jerome G. Miller were pri- 
vates in Capt. Woodward's company. In one of the campaigns 
he raised his company in one night. 

In 1865 Mr. Woodward was a candidate for the State Senate 
on the Democratic ticket, but was defeated by Hon. L. D. Shoe- 
maker by over two hundred majority. 

In 1872 he was a candidate for Congress in the district com- 
posed of the counties of Luzerne and Susquehanna, having Mr. 

Stanley Woodward. loi 

Shoemaker again as his competitor, and he was again defeated. 
The county of Susquehanna was more largely Republican than 
Luzerne was Democratic. 

In 1879 Mr. Woodward was appointed Additional Law Judge 
of Luzerne county to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Hon. Garrick M. Harding. This appointment was made by 
Governor Hoyt, and was a grateful recognition of Mr. Wood- 
ward's abilities at the hands of a political opponent. In the fall 
of 1880 he received the nomination for Additional Law Judge at 
the hands of the Democratic party for the period of ten years, 
and was elected by a majority of nearly one thousand over both 
his competitors, Hon. Hubbard B. Payne, Republican, and Agib 
Ricketts, Esq., National. 

Judge Woodward's connection with the Wilkes-Barre Fire 
Department began in 1857, when he joined the Good Will Fire 
Company as a private. Two years later he was elected Assistant 
Engineer, and upon the retirement of Walter G. Sterling, Esq., 
was made Chief Engineer, in which capacity he continued to 
serve until his resignation, in 1879, the department meanwhile 
having been reorganized as a paid fire department. During his 
administration it was classed by the Board of Underwriters as 
among the most efficient in the country, being placed by them,- 
with six other cities, in the first class. The reputation thus 
acquired it continues to maintain. On Judge Woodward's retire- 
' menffrom the Fire Department, the City Council unanimously 
passed the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, After twenty-one years of continuous service in the 
Fire Department, during which time he has earned the highest 
meed of praise for efficient, honorable, and faithful public service, 
Hon. Stanley Woodward, Chief Engineer of the Fire Department 
of the city of Wilkes-Barre, has tendered his resignation as a 
member of the Fire Department of this city; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the long and faithful service of Chief Engineer 
Woodward has impressed itself so thoroughly on the Fire 
Department, that this Council, representing the citizens and tax- 
payers of the city of Wilkes-Barre, feels reluctant to part with 
him in his official capacity, or to sever his connection therewith. 
A natural fireman and an executive leader. Chief Woodward has 
brought the department lately under his control to such efficiency 
that the citizens and property-owners, as well as the Board of 

102 Stanley Woodward. 

Underwriters, have at all times expressed a sense of safety from 
the ravages of fire, unequalled under any other Chief Engineer, 
and co-equal with that of any other city in the country. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the people o/ this city, represented 
by this Council, are most cordially tendered to Chief Woodward, 
and while we regret that he has tendered his resigination, we part 
with him with the assurance of our sincerest personal regards, 
and our warmest wishes for his future welfare and success in 
whatever position he may occupy, either in public or private life. 

Resolved, That we congratulate Chief Woodward upon his recent 
elevation to the bench, and the-people of the county upon their 
acquisition of the service of a tried and faithful public servant. 

From i860 to 1863 Judge Woodward represented the Second 
ward in the Council of the borough of Wilkes-Barre. 

During the latter part of 1855 and early part of 1856 he edited 
the Luzerne Union, then owned by Mr. Bosee. 

In 1876 Governor Hartranft appointed Mr. Woodward one of 
his aids, with the rank of Colonel. 

In 1878 Colonel Woodward was a member of the Executive 
Committee having charge of the Wyoming Centennial Celebra- 
tion. He procured the subscription of more than one-half of the 
funds raised to defray the expenses, and was Chief Marshal of 
the grand parade on July 4th of that year, which will long be 
remembered as the most remarkable demonstration ever witnessed 
in Northeastern Pennsylvania, and at which President Hayes and 
a portion of his cabinet were present. 

Judge Woodward married June 3, 1857, Sarah Richards Butler, 
daughter of Col. John Lord Butler, and great-granddaughter of 
Col. Zebulon Butler, whose name is interwoven with all the 
history of the Revolutionary war, and particularly with that por- 
tion of it known as the Wyoming Massacre. The first Court 
held in Luzerne county was at the house of Col. Zebulon Butler. 
Judge Woodward now owns the property, which is located at the 
corner of River and Northampton streets. On her mother's 
side, Mrs. Woodward is a descendant of Thomas Richards, one of 
the Puritan fathers of New England. Her grandfather. Deacon 
Samuel Richards, was Captain of a company in the Connecticut 
line during the Revolutionary war. He marched from Farming- 
ton, Conn., to Boston in time to participate in the battle of Bunker 

Stanley Woodward. 105 

Hill, and served throughout the entire war. He kept a journal, 
or diary, of every day's occurrences, which is still in the posses- 
sion of his daughter, Mrs. Butler, the mother of Mrs. Woodward,- 
and which is regarded, of course, as a relic of great value. It 
contains, among other things, a graphic description &f the execu- 
tion of Major Andre, of which he was an eye witness. As an 
interesting co-incidence, it may be mentioned that Col. Zebulon 
Butler and Capt. Richards, the one the paternal and the other 
the maternal ancester of Mrs. Woodward, were both stationed at 
West Point at the same time during the war, and were on terms 
of intimate friendship. Capt. Richards was a member of the 
Cirrcinnati Society, and his certificate of membership is in posses- 
sion of the family. He married April 27, 1796, Sarah Welles, 
daughter of Jonathan Welles, of Glastenbury, Conn., by his wife, 
Catharine Saltonstall, granddaughter of Thomas Welles, great- 
granddaughter of Samuel Welles, and the great-great-grand- 
daughter of Thomas Welles, the immigrant. Roswell Welles, who 
was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county in 1787, the year of 
its organization, was a son of Jonathan Welles, and the great-uncle 
of Mrs. Woodward. Mrs. Richards' mother was the daughter 
of Roswell Saltonstall, of Branford, by his wife, Mary (Haynes) 
Lord, the daughter of John Haynes, A. M., of Hartford, and 
granddaughter of Rev. Joseph Haynes, A. M., of Hartford, and 
great-granddaughter of John Haynes, Governor of Massachusetts- 
in 1635, and the first Governor of Connecticut, in 1639. Roswell 
Saltonstall was the son of Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, of New 
London, who was the son of Colonel Nathaniel Saltonstall, of 
Haverhill, and grandson of Richard Saltonstall, of Ipswich, and 
great-grandson of Sir Richard Saltonstall, embassador from Eng- 
land to Holland. Mr. and Mrs. Woodward have had a family of 
three children, a daughter, who died in infancy, and two sons, 
John Butler, who is now, as before stated, a Senior in Yale 
College, and George Stanley, who has just prepared for the 
Freshman class in the same institution. 

It is not too much to say that Judge Woodward is a note- 
worthy member of a noteworthy race. In every sphere of life to 
■ which either duty or inclination has called him, he has shown 
himself possessed of the qualities that shine. At the bar, in the 

104 Stanley Woodward. 

army, as a fireman, and on the bench, he has labored with an 
adaptabihty of merit and temperanient to his situation and its 
requirements that have always brought success. As an advo- 
cate, he has impressed juries with his eloquence, no less than 
with his thorough understanding of the rights and wrongs of the 
causes he has essayed to 'discuss, and won verdicts against what 
seemed almost insurmountable obstacles. In pleading to the 
court, his capacity to develop all the strong points in his client's 
favor, and present them at once tersely and vigorously, has upon 
all occasions brought him deserved compliment, and generally, 
what was still better, a judicial affirmance of the law as he under- 
stood and rendered it. As a soldieir, he united the qualities of a 
successful disciplinarian with those which invariably brought him 
the good will and esteem of his command. As a fireman, he 
was cool-headed, deliberate, and wise in discretion, and untiring 
and fearless in execution. The fire department, under his guid- 
ance, always had the confidence, as well as the respect, of the 
pbpulace. On the bench, though, comparatively speaking, he 
has but newly come to it, he has already exhibited, not only a 
remarkable familiarity with the fixed principles and rulings of the 
law, but a perspicacity, independence, and justice of conception 
in adjudicating new points, that prove him eminently fitted for 
the high and responsible station he occupies. 

Personally, he may be said to be liked by everybody, and to 
like everybody. His uniform courtesy and unvarying good 
nature make him a welcome addition to the best social circles. 
His unusual powers of repartee, and remarkable capacity for 
saying happy things in after-dinner and other extempore speeches, 
contribute, in no small degree, to the popularity he enjoys with 
all who have the good fortune of his acquaintance. Tall, fine 
looking, the picture of good health, he is likely to be preserved 
to a long life of usefulness to the public, and advantageous com- 
panionship to his family and unnumbered friends. 

Agib Ricketts. 105 


Agib Ricketts was born in Orangeville, Columbia county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1833. He is the son of the late Elijah Green 
Ricketts, an old settler of Columbia county, and is of English 
and Scotch extraction. In his young days he entered Wyoming 
Seminary, after which time he taught school in his native place, 
subsequently graduating at Dickinson College, at Carlisle, Pa. 
He then entered the law office of William G. Hurley, at Blooms- 
burg, and was admitted to the bar of Columbia county in 1856, 
and on the 6th of January, 1857, was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county, where he has been in continual practice since. 

On May 17, 1862, Mr. Ricketts was appointed Chief of Police 

of the borough of Wilkes-Barre. It was during his term in this 

office that he arrested the late Hon. Ezra B. Chase, at one time 

Speaker of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, and 

at that time District Attorney of the county; Ira Davenport, a 

prominent merchant of Plymouth, and Geo. B. Kulp. Speaking 

from personal knowledge, the writer, as one of the persons 

arrested, has never learned the cause of his arrest, although more 

than twenty years have passed since the event. Mr. Ricketts 

claimed that it was by virtue of the following order of the War 


August 8, 1862. 

Ordered, that all . . Chiefs of Police of any town, city, or 
district, be and they are hereby authorized and directed to im- 
prison any person or persons who may be engaged by any act of 
speech or writing in discouraging volunteer enlistments, or in 
any way giving' aid and comfort to the enemy, or any other dis- 
loyal practice against the United States. 

Edwin M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War. 

Messrs. Chase, Davenport, and Kulp were arrested on Friday 
evening, August 29, 1862. They applied next day before Judge 
Conyngham for a writ of habeas corpus. Mr. Ricketts claimed 
until the following Wednesday for time to make answer, when 

io6 Agib Ricketts. 

he quoted the above order as his justification. Judge Conyng- 
ham remanded the prisoners to the custody of the Sheriff, claim- 
ing that the President had suspended the writ of habeas corpus^ 
when, as a matter of fact. Congress had not passed the act author- 
izing the President to suspend the writ, until March 3, 1863. 
The following are the words of the law enacted at the last named 

"That during the present rebellion the President of the United 
States, whenever, in his judgment, the public safety may require 
it, is authorized to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas 
corpus in any case throughout the United States, or any part 

It was estimated that over four thousand persons were arrested 
during the month of August, 1862, but the exact number waS; 
never given, as the War Department issued an order " that the 
names of parties arrested should not be published." The arrest of 
the persons named caused great excitement and iiidignation, and 
led to the resignation of Mr. Ricketts as Chief of Police, as 
appears from the following letter of his to the Town Council: 

Wilkes-Barre, October 77, 1862. 
Gentlemen of the Town Council: You will please accept my 
resignation of the position of Chief of Police of this borough. 
Having been told by members of your body that they considered 
me incompetent to discharge the duties of the office with proper 
judgment, and requested, therefore, to resign, it would be pre- 
sumption to retain it. It was impossible to resign at once in 
obedience to this request, as it would have then seemed disloyal 
and a shrinking from grave duty, but now recent action of the 
War Department has removed this difficulty. Permit me to 
return grateful thanks to those of you who have sustained me so 
manfully in the discharge of my duty. 


A. Ricketts. 

During the three days, from Wednesday until Saturday, that 
Messrs. Chase, Davenport, and Kulp were under arrest, they 
amused themselves in the following manner: Mr. Chase in visit- 
ing Camp Luzerne, at Mill Hollow, where the 143d Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers were encamped, and in assisting Col. 
Hannum in editing the Luzerne Union; Mr. Davenport in visiting 

Agib Ricketts. 107 

friends and relatives in Wilkes-Barre; and the writer in visiting 
Scranton, Pittston, and other places in the valley. On Saturday 
morning they came to the conclusion that the whole matter was 
a farce, and they returned to their respective places of business, 
and that was the last they ever heard of the arrest. As almost 
every Chief of Police in the United States had arrested from 
three to five men under similar circumstances, it became neces- 
sary for the War Department to issue the following order: 

September <?, 1862. 
Arrests for violations of these orders and for disloyal practices 
will hereafter be made only upon my express warrant, or by 
direction of the Military Commander or Governor of a State. 

Because of the arrests by the Chiefs of Police throughout the 
North, the Democratic party carried the States of New Jersey, 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois in 1862, and 
after that time very few arrests of citizens were made. 

During the Antietam campaign, Mr. Ricketts was Captain of 
Company I, Third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. He left 
for the seat of war on September 13, 1862, and remained in the 
service about three weeks. 

In 1878 Mr. Ricketts presented a petition to the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania for the impeachmeut of the late Hon. Charles P. 
Waller, President Judge of Wayne county, and in 1879 for the 
impeachment of Hon. Garrick M. Harding. It is needless to 
say that none of the charges alleged as cause for impeachment 
were sustained. 

In 1880 he was the Independent or Labor Reform candidate 
for Additional Law Judge of Luzerne county. In a total poll of 
nearly 25,000 votes, he received 470. 

In 1862 Mr. Ricketts married Annie Piper, of Carlisle, Pa. 
The couple have a family of five children, two sons and three 

It is not the purpose of the writer of these papers to carp or 
criticise. Any attempt in that direction in the case of the gen- 
tleman whose biography is above briefly outlined would be con- 
strued as prompted by a desire for revenge, arising out of the 
circumstances of the arrests that have been alluded to, but we 
can honestly say that we entertain no such desire. Nevertheless, 

io8 Agib Ricketts. 

we feel that our task would be far from complete, our outlinings 
of the characters and records of our brothers of the legal frater- 
nity of Luzerne much short of accuracy, were we to refrain, even 
in this case, from the general summarizing with which all the 
previous sketches have ended. 

Agib Ricketts is manifestly a man of great natural ability. He 
is a student of wonderful industry. He has been a great reader, 
not only in the field of jurisprudence, but of general literature; 
is a ready and concise writer, and an excellent speaker; has a 
remarkable memory, and a moral and physical courage that 
make him wholly insensible to fear. Yet there is an erratic 
something that has always stood between him and success in his 
profession and in general life; that has resulted in his being dis- 
tanced by men of far less capacity, and far fewer of the qualities 
that usually achieve the victories of the professional arena, and 
that has caused him to net a much narrower margin of material 
gain than would seem to be the legitimate earnings of such ex- 
ceptional talents and energies as he undoubtedly possesses. He 
will quote the law of Moses against the Jew; will cite the teach- 
ings of Christ to correct the erring Christian; has, seemingly, a 
formidable array of the best authorities in support of every posi- 
tion he assumes; but very often they are like symmetrical and 
beautiful arches, perfect in every particular, saving only that they 
have defective keystones. 

Personally, Mr. Ricketts is all that a gentleman should be under 
ordinary circumstances. He is a delightful companion among 
those with whom he has had no cause of contention. It is only 
when his apparently irresistible inclination to exaggerate his own 
grievances or those of his clients is upon him, that he is led into 
unfairness and injustice to his fellows — to the effort for the incar- 
ceration of the innocent citizen, an'd the pulling down of the 
unoffending judge. 

Calvin Wadhams. 109 


The family of Wadham had its origin in Devonshire, England, 
and its name from the place of its residence, Wadham, which 
signifies "home by the ford," in the parish Knowston, near the 
incorporated town of South Molton. Lyson, in his " Magna 
Brittanica," says: "The manor of Wadham, at the time of the 
Domesday survey, in 1086, belonged to an old Saxon by the 
name of Ulf, who held it in demesne since the time of Edward 
the Confessor, 1042. It was not improbable that he, Ulf, might 
be the ancestor of Wadham, of which this was the original resi- 
dence. William De Wadham was freeholder of this land in the 
time of King Edward I., 1272, and both East and West Wadham 
descended in this name and posterity until the death of Nicholas 
Wadham, founder of Wadham College, Oxford, in 1609, when it 
passed to his sisters' families, and is still in possession of their 
descendants. Merrifield, in Somersetshire, came into possession 
of Sir John Wadham, Knight, by his marriage with Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of Stephen Popham, and was inherited by 
their son. Sir John Wadham, whose descendants were called 
'Wadham, of Merrifield.' The principal places of residence of 
this family in England were in the counties of Devon, Somerset, 
and Dorset." 

Calvin Wadhams, the subject of this sketch, is a native of 
Plymouth, in Luzerne county, where he was born, December 14, 
1833. He is a descendant of John Wadham, or Wadhams, as 
the name is now spelled, who came from Somersetshire, England, 
as early as 1650, and settled in Wethersfield, Conn., as may be 
seen from deeds of purchase of lands and other records of the 
town. He died there, 1676. 

John Wadhams, son of Joh.n, born July 8, 1655, also died in 

Noah Wadhams, son of John, was born August 10, 1695, and 
removed from Wethersfield to Middletown, Conn., in 1736, thence 
to Goshen, Conn., about 1773, where he died, 1783. 

1 10 Calvin Wadhams. 

Noah Wadhams, son of Noah, was born May 17, 1726, and 
was educated at the College of New Jersey, now at Princeton, 
then at Newark, N. J., where he graduated. His diploma, dated 
September 25, 1754, is now in possession of the above-named 
Calvin Wadhams, his great-grandson. It bears the name of 
Rev. Aaron Burr (father of Aaron Burr, who was, in 1801, Vice- 
President of the United States) as President of the College. 
"The document is the surviving witness of three generations past 
and gone, and a testament, also, of the times of George III., and 
when the present State of New Jersey was one of the colonies of 
his realm." Mr. Wadhams studied theology at New Haven, 
Conn., receiving the degree of A. M. from Yale College, 1758. 
He was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church, and 
settled as the first pastor of the New Preston Society, in the 
towns of New Milford and Washington, Conn., at its organization, 
in 1757, and continued his pastoral relations to that society for 
eleven years. At a meeting of the Susquehanna Company, in 
Connecticut, in 1768 "the standing committee was directed to 
procure a pastor to accompany the second colony, called the 
'first forty,' for carrying on religious worship and services, 
according to the best of his ability, in the wilderness country," 
and Rev. Noah Wadhams was chosen for that purpose. He had 
married Elizabeth Ingersoll, of New Haven, November 8, 1758, 
and they had a family of small children. " Leaving his family 
at their home in Litchfield, he embarked with his flock in 1769, 
amid the perils which lay before them on the distant shore of the 
Susquehanna, in a wilderness made more forbidding because of 
the savage people who were in possession of the valley." He 
continued his pastoral relations, interrupted by an occasional 
visit to his family in Litchfield, until the year succeeding the 
Wyoming Massacre, when he removed them to Plymouth. 
There he faithfully pursued his religious duties, holding meet- 
ings in Plymouth and other and distant parts of the county, dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. He died May 22, 1806. 

Calvin Wadhams, son of Rev. Noah, was born December 22, 
1765. He was one of the prominent business men of the county, 
and his success was remarkable. In frugality and industry, he 
was a genuine type of the men of his time, and his labor, econ- 

Calvin Wadhams. i i i 

omy, and good judgment made up the rule of his long and pros- 
perous life. He was a religious man, whose charity and hospi- 
tality were all embracing. He married, February lo, 1791, Esther 
Waller, of Connecticut, and he died April 22, 1845, aged 80 years. 

Samuel Wadhams, son of Calvin, and father of the subject of 
this sketch, was born in Plymouth, August 21, 1806. He inher- 
ited largely the energy, character, and views of his father; was a 
man of good business qualities, even tempered, and of friendly 
disposition. He married, April 7, 1824, Clorinda Starr Catlin, of 
New Marlboro, Mass., and he died, December 15, 1868, as he 
had lived, an upright and worthy Christian member of society. 

The subject of this sketch graduated at the College of New 
Jersey (Princeton) in 1854, exactly one hundred years after his 
great-grandfather graduated from the same institution. He studied 
law with Hon. L. D. Shoemaker, and was admitted to the bar 
April 6, 1857. He married, October 8, 1861, Fanny D. Lynde, 
a native of Wilkes-Barre, daughter of John W. Lynde, a native of 
Putney, Vt. Her maternal grandfather was Capt. Josiah Cleve- 
land, of Revolutionary memory. They have had four children, 
Mary Catlin, Lynde Henderson, Frank Cleveland, all of whom 
are now deceased, and Raymond Lynde, who was born September 
25, 1872. 

Mr. Wadhams is one of the oldest members of the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society, having been elected during 
the first year of its existence, on the 6th of September, 1858. 
He was chosen its Secretary in i86i,and served for eleven years, 
with the exception of two years, when he was Corresponding 
Secretary. At the annual meeting, February 11, 1873, he was 
elected President of the society, and served for one year, with 

Mr. Wadhams was one of the corporators and first managers 
of the Wilkes Barre Hospital, and took an active part in the 
direction which brought about its present success. 

As a memorial to their deceased children, Calvin Wadhams 
and Fanny, his wife, erected Memorial Church, one of the prin- 
cipal church edifices in Wilkes-Barre, at a cost of ;^i25,ooo. 
Their object in so doing is fully set forth in the following extract 
from the deed conveying the property : 

1 1 2 Calvin Wadhams. 

Whereas, Mary Catlin Wadhams, who was born July 20, 1862, 
and who died January 16, 1871; Lynde Henderson Wadhams, 
who was born April 8, i864,^and who died February g, 1871; 
and Frank Cleveland Wadhams, who was born May 7, 1868, and 
who died January 14, i87i,were all children of Calvin Wadhams 
and Fanny D. L. Wadhams, and were taken away by death early 
in life, leaving their parents at the time childless. And the said 
Calvin Wadhams and Fanny D. L. Wadhams desiring to com- 
memorate the brief lives of their children, and feeling accountable 
as parents, not only for the influence exerted by their children 
while on earth, but for the perpetuation of good influences after 
they have gone to their reward, and anxious to do some act 
as representing. the good works which they hoped of and from 
their children had the latter attained mature years, have erected 
in the city of Wilkes-Barre a church for the worship of Almighty 
God, intended as a house of prayer for all people. 

And in connection therewith a congregation was gathered and 
a church organization duly effected, February 24, 1874, the 
membership numbering forty-two. 

In the fall of 1870 Mr. Wadhams organized a Sunday-school 
in the upper part of town, which rapidly increased in member- 
ship, and at the organization of the church became attached 
thereto, he remaining Superintendent a number of years. 

The work on the church was begun on Tuesday, May 21, 
1872, and on Saturday, July 20, same year, the tenth anniversary 
of Mary Catlin Wadhams' birth, the corner-stone was laid with 
appropriate religious services. The motives actuating Mr. and 
Mrs. Wadhams in erecting this church are very clearly expressed 
in a paper which was read on the occasion of the laying of the 

These children were not permitted to live long enough to 
exert much influence for good in the world. We, therefore, desire 
to enlarge that influence by erecting this edifice for the worship 
of God. We feel that as our children can no more speak for 
Jesus here, they may have a representative to do it for them; and 
as they cannot go about doing good, the money that would have 
been theirs may be profitably spent in getting others to go about 
doing good for them. 

The church was publicly dedicated to the worship of Almighty 
God April 8, 1874, the tenth anniversary of the birth of Lynde 
Henderson Wadhams. Mr. Wadhams formerly presented the 

Calvin Wadhams. 113 

church to the Board of Trustees, by whom it was accepted, sub- 
ject to the following conditions : 

1st. That the same shall be kept and maintained as a place for 
the worship of Almighty God. agreeably to the principles of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in its doc- 
trines, ministry, forms, and usages. 2d. That the same shall be 
used only for religious purposes, and shall not be used for any 
secular purpose whatever. 3d. That said Memorial Church shall 
keep and maintain the buildings and premises in thorough order 
and repair. 4th. That the buildings and furniture be kept rea- 
sonably insured. 5th. That every tenth pew in the church edifice 
shall remain forever free, and shall not be liable to any charge 
or assessment for any purpose whatever. 6th. That the said 
Memorial Church, in case of the death or inability of the said 
grantors, shall keep in thorough order the lot in Hollenback 
Cemetery in which lie buried the said three children of the said 
Calvin Wadhams and Fanny D. L. Wadhams, his wife. 

On May 7, 1874, the sixth anniversary of the birth of Frank 
Cleveland Wadhams, the first pastor was installed. 

Many of Mr. Wadhams' relatives are and have been well and 
favorably known, some of them as occupants of important posi- 
tions in this and other parts of the country. Hon. E. C. Wad- 
hams, late State Senator for this district, is a brother; Hon. L. D. 
Shoemaker, ex-Congressman, a brother-in-law, and Sam F. Wad- 
hams, one of the ^oung members of the Luzerne bar, a nephew. 
The late Moses Wadhams, Esq., of this city, was also a brother.. 
Rt, Rev. Edward Prindle Wadhams, Bishop of the Diocese of 
Ogdensburg, is also a relative. 

Mr. Wadhams had an attack of paralysis in May, 1882, from 
which he has never wholly recovered. Previous to that time he 
was an active business man and enterprising citizen, solicitous for 
the city's welfare, and never loth to contribute of his means and 
time and effort to advance its interests. 

It is needless to add to the facts above detailed, that he is a 
man of most generous impulses. What he gave away for good 
purposes, out of the great charity of his heart, when he was 
wealthy, would have left him still so, had it been retained by 
him. He works now in his profession, not much as an advocate, 
but industriously as an office lawyer, seemingly not at all em- 
barrassed or hindered in any way by an eyesight so defective that 

114. John Richards. 

it compels him almost to bury his head in the paper he is read- 
ing, or on which he is writing. He has many friends, and just 
enough enemies to affirm his possession of that quality of self- 
respect without which a man is not a man. 


John Richards, of Pittston, is a native of Woodstock, Vermont, 
where he was born August i6, 1830. He is a descendant of 
Thomas Richards, a Puritan, as to whom almost nothing can be 
gathered from the available records but his name. The exact 
time of his birth, arrival, and death is uncertain. From the ages 
of his children, and the "advanced age' of his widow, in 1671, 
he is supposed, however, to have been born about 1600-5. His 
name does not occur on any record of Massachusetts or the 
Plymouth colony. This, considering the generally complete state 
of these records, makes it certain that he did not first settle at 
Cambridge, but might have tarried some years at Weymouth, 
and have afterwards joined Mr. Hooker, some of whose flock 
first settled at Weymouth, and subsequently at Cambridge. He 
was not of the one hundred original purchasers of Hartford, but 
one of the sixty-two original settlers to whom '" were granted 
lotts, to have onely at the town's courtesie, with liberty to fetch 
woode, and keep swine or cowes on the common." The vote 
conferring the privilege passed February 10, 1639, when his wife 
was a widow. It was no doubt intended as a legal security to 
his heirs of what had been possessed by consent in his lifetime; 
nor was it then an uncommon use of a representative name. He 
did not, probably, arrive at Hartford before 1637, and as he seems 
to have made no improvements, and as no use of his name in 
any record implies that he was alive even in 1638, he no doubt 
died soon after his arrival, and probably with those who fell, in 
1637, in the Pequod war. 

John, son of Thomas, was born in 1631. He married Lydia 
Stocking, and settled on the homestead in Hartford, where he 

John Richards. 115 

served as collector of a tax of i^io, "appointed" by the town in 

Thomas, Deacon, son of John, was born at Hartford in 1666. 
He settled in the old homestead in Hartford, and was styled 
"Mr." in 1 701, and in 1693 was by a vote of the town allowed to 
set a shop, which he was building, three feet in the highway. In 
1701 he was chosen lister and ratemaker and chimney-viewer for 
the south side of Little River, and in 17 1 3 grand-juryman. He 
married October i, 1691, Mary, daughter of Deacon Benjamin 
Parsons, of Springfield, and November 10, 1695, was with her 
received to full communion in the church at Hartford. He died 
April 9, 1749. 

Thomas, son of Deacon Thomas, was born April 3, 1694, and 
June 16, 17 17, married Abagail Turner, of Hartford. He resided 
in Southington, Conn., but probably died east of the line, in 
Wethersfield, Conn. 

Samuel, M. D., son of Thomas, was born October 22, 1726, at 
Hartford. When he was but one year of age his parents removed 
from Hartford to Southington, where he was brought up on a 
farm, with only the most scanty op[)ortunities for education. At 
the age of eighteen years he joined the expedition to Cape 
Breton, where, as a servant to a physician in the hospital estab- 
lished for New England troops, he had free access to medical 
books, and witnessed many operations and modes of treating dis- 
ease. After his return he continued his medical studies and 
observations, and eventually devoted himself to practice, and rose 
to eminence in the profession. In December, 1747, he married 
Lydia Buck, whose parents were from Scotland, where she was 
born in April, 1725. Dr. Richards died November 10, 1793. 

Samuel, Deacon, son of Dr. Samuel, was' born September 17, 
1753, at Canaan, Conn. Of his youthful history nothing is 
remembered, but he is presumed, by some means, to having ob- 
tained uncommon advantages for education. During the Revo- 
lutionary war he served in the army as an ensign, was in several 
battles, and at West Point at the capture and execution of Andre. 
Before the close of the war he retired on half pay, and afterwards 
received a pension, and was a member of the Cincinnati. He 
settled in Farmington, Conn., as a merchant, where he held the 

ii6 John Richards. 

office of post-master for thirty-one years, and did business as a 
merchant until near the time of his death, which came to him at 
the- age of eighty-eight years. He often served in town offices, 
and repeatedly represented Farmington in the Legislature of the 
State, and was highly respected for his discernment, sound judg- 
ment, probity, and responsibility. He married April 22, 1782, 
Sarah Gridley, who died March 16, 1795, and his second wife, 
Sarah Wells, April 27, 1796. She was the daughter of Jonathan 
Wells, of Glastenbury, Conn., by his wife, Catharine Saltonstall, 
and the granddaughter of Thomas Wells, and the great-grand- 
daughter of Samuel Wells, and the great-great-granddaughter 
of Thomas Wells, the emigrant. Mrs. Richards' mother was the 
daughter of Roswell Saltonstall, of Branford, by his wife, Mary 
(Haynes) Lord, the daughter of John Haynes, A. M., of Hartford, 
and granddaughter of Rev. Joseph Haynes, A. M., of Hartford, 
and great-granddaughter of John Haynes, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, 1635, and the first Governor of Connecticut, 1639. 
Roswell Saltonstall was the son of Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, 
of New London, who was the son of Col. Nathaniel Saltonstall, 
of Haverhill, and grandson of Richard Saltonstall, of Ipswich, 
and great-grandson of Sir Richard Saltonstall, embassador from 
England to Holland. In a funeral sermon preached by President 
Lord, of Dartmouth College, on the occasion of the death of 
Rev. John Richards, D. D., the son of Samuel Richards, he used 
the following language: " His father was an officer of the Revo- 
lution, a good Christian, and an honest man. He was a deacon 
of the church, held responsible offices in the General and State 
Governments, and was a pattern of the civic and Christian virtues 
of the old school, which has now nearly passed away. An intel- 
ligent friend characterized him as the best specimen of the old 
Puritan stock of New England that he had known. He com- 
manded his children and his household after him to fear God." 
Deacon Richards' only daughter by his second wife was Cornelia, 
who married November 9, 1826, John Lord Butler, of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., grandson of Colonel Zebulon Butler. Her daughter 
Sarah is the wife of Hon. Stanley Woodward, of this city. Mr. 
Richards died at Wilkes-Barre, December 31, 1841. 

Rev. John Richards, D. D., the father of the subject of our 

John Richards. 117 

sketch, was the only son of Deacon Samuel by his second wife, 
Sarah Wells. He was born March 14, 1797, at Farmington. 
President Lord, in a discourse at his funeral, said: "At the age 
of seventeen, being then a clerk in the neighboring city of Hart- 
ford, and intended for mercantile pursuits, he came under the 
ministry of the venerable Dr. Strong. He was greatly instructed 
and moved by the preaching of that distinguished man. His 
mind 'became profoundly engaged upon the great doctrines of the 
gospel, and after many spiritual conflicts his heart was bowed to 
Christ. Then he returned to Farmington, resolved upon a differ- 
ent pursuit of life, and said with his characteristic, abrupt, and 
unstudied air, ' Father, I want to study and to preach the gospel.' 
'Twas said and done. He became, in due time, a student at 
Yale. During his junior year, being then more quickened in his 
religious feelings, he made pr'ofession of his faith. He grad- 
uated with honor in 1821 ; at the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
Mass., in 1824; was then for one year an agent of the American 
Board of Foreign Missions; from 1827 to 1831 an honored 
pastor at Woodstock, Vt. ; then till 1837 an associate editor of 
the Vermont Chronicle, and in 1841 was installed as pastor of the 
church at Dartmouth College." He married in June, 1828, 
Emily Cowles, the sister of Hon. Thos. Cowles, of Farmington. 
She was the daughter of Zenas Cowles, a merchant of Farming- 
ton, who was the son of Solomon, who was the son of Isaac, 
who was the son of Samuel, who was the son of John Coles, 
one of the seven original members of the church at Farmington 
at its foundation, October 13, 1652. Mr. Richards died March 
29, 1859. 

Mr. Richards, the subject of our sketch, graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 185 1. He studied law at Hartford, Conn., with John 
Hooker and Hon. Joseph R. Hawley, and was admitted to the 
bar of Hartford county in 1853. His health failing, he went in 
the field with a corps of engineers, and remained for three years. 
In 1856 he removed to Pittston, and was employed by his rela- 
tives, John L. and Lord Butler, at their coal works in Pittston, 
and in 1857 was supercargo of the first boat of coal shipped at the 
opening of the extension of the North Branch Canal from Pittston 
to Elmira, N. Y. He then entered the office of A. T. McClintock, 

ii8 John Richards. 

and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county April 5, 1858. 
He practiced law until 1863, when he became a private in Capt. 
Stanley Woodward's company of Pennsylvania Volunteers. He 
became sick, and was in the hospital at Chambersburg for some 
considerable time, and has never fully recovered. 

In 1870 Mr. Richards resumed the practice of his profession, 
and ever since then has remained actively engaged thereat. He 
is not an eloquent speaker, and makes no pretensions to forensic 
excellence or elegance. He is, however, a patient and persever- 
ing reader and student, and a conscientious practitioner of the 
law, and is, therefore, always well equipped as a counsellor to 
advise clients safely and judiciously as to the best methods of 
enforcing their rights and defending their interests in the courts- 
Time was when only the great orators, the men of marvelous 
eloquence, who talked tears to the eyes of jurors and court 
loungers, were recognized as leaders in the profession of law, 
when, in fact, it was possible for but few others to achieve therein 
either distinction or a competence. The finished elocutionist, 
the sublime rhetorician, the lawyer who brings the bench and 
box willing worshippers to the shrine of his great eloquence, 
still walks head and shoulders, in the estimation of the on-looking 
general public, above his fellows at the bar, but there are now-a- 
days a class of practitioners, practically unknown to the past, 
whose quiet advice is the one thing golden, both to their clients 
and to themselves. These, by persi'stent research, familiarize 
themselves thoroughly with the letter and spirit of the common 
and the statute law, and with the practice of the courts, possess 
themselves of every detail, however insignificant, of their clients' 
cases, and, thus prepared, advise unerringly as to the course that 
will involve the least delay and bring the surest remedy. Every 
here and there in the older States are representatives of this 
class, whose voices are scarcely ever heard in a court room, 
whose names seldom find their way into the public print, yet 
who have amassed large fortunes in legitimate practice, and 
brought to speedy and successful arbitrament complicated issues, 
involving, perhaps, millions of capital and untold private and 
prized rights and interests. In the humbler ranks of this goodly 
contingent, John Richards occupies no unenviable place. 

John Richards. 119 

His genealogy, above given, shows him to come of most ex- 
cellent stock, and it is but little to say that in both his busy 
professional career and private life he has done full honor to his 
ancestry and the name he inherited from them. He is of a most 
unassuming demeanor, yet an enjoyable companion, and, where 
his affections attach, a warm, even an enthusiastic, friend. It is 
the speech of all who know him that he is a good man, who has 
led a good and useful life, that in justice merits, when the mea- 
sure of his years shall have been fulfilled, a good and peaceful 

Mr. Richards has been for many years a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church, ^nd is a Trustee of the same. He is a Director 
of the People's Bank of Pittston, and a member of the Borough 
Council of West Pittston. 

Rosewell Welles, who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne 
county on the 27th of May, 1787, the date of the organization of 
the county, and who represented Luzerne county in the Legis- 
lature in 1797, 1798, 1802, 1804, 1805, and 1806, was a grand- 
uncle of Mr. Richards. He was also one of the Associate Judges 
of the Court of Common Pleas. He died in 1830, at Wilkes- 
Barre. Mr. Welles resided and owned the premises now owned 
by the estate of Washington Lee, deceased, at the corner of 
River and South streets. On this spot Jabez Sill resided, and 
there the marriage of his daughter to Col. Nathan Denison took 
place, which was said to have been the first marriage in the 
Wyoming settlement. 

Mr. Richards was married January 22, 1873, to Susan B. 
Chadwick, daughter of George Chadwick, A. M., the son of 
Joseph and Mary (Parker) Chadwick, who was born at Bradford, 
Mass., October 5, 1802, and died at Boston November 11, 1843. 
He studied .medicine with Dr. Rufus Longley, of Haverhill, 
Mass., Dr. Winslow Lewis, of Boston, Mass., and at Dartmouth 
Medical College, graduating M. D. in 1828, He began practice 
at Ipswich, Mass., removed to Chelsea, Mass., and thence to 
Boston, leaving practice and going into mercantile business. He 
married Susan Brewster, daughter of Benjamin Joseph Gilbert, 
of Bo.ston. Mr. and Mrs. Richards have a family of four children. 

I20 Jerome Green Miller. 


Jerome Green Miller was born in Abington township, Luzerne 
(now Lackawanna) county, February 27th, 1835. His father, 
Joseph B. Miller, the son of Elder John Miller, was a native of 
the same township. His grandfather, Elder John Miller, was a 
native of Voluntown, now Sterling, Windham county, Conn. 
He was one of the first to erect the Baptist standard in northern 
Pennsylvania, and among the foremost to rally to its support and 
defense. In the Abington Baptist Association he was the mov- 
ing spirit and acknowledged leader for nearly fifty years. It was 
organized in his house, and received the impress of his mind; in 
subsequent years it was fostered by his anxious care, and guided 
by his prudent counsels. He attended a funeral and preached 
his last sermon January i, 1857, ^nd thus closed an active and 
efficient ministry of upwards of fifty-four years. He baptised, on 
a profession of faith, not far from two thousand converts, attended 
eighteen hundred funerals, and solemnized the nuptials of nine 
hundred and fourteen couples. During that time six whole 
churches and parts of six others had colonized and became inde- 
pendent bodies at various points in the surrounding country. 
Seven ministers of the gospel had also been raised up in the 
church (his own son, Benjamin, being among the number), most 
of whom are now settled as pastors of Baptist churches at differ- 
ent, and some at distant, places. For a period of twelve years 
he officiated in the Lackawanna Valley as the only clergyman of 
any denomination. Elder Miller continued to live with his 
parents at Voluntown until he was fourteen years of age, when 
they moved, some four miles distant, to Plainfield, in the sa;ne 
State. He lived in Plainfield until he was nineteen years of age, 
when his parents emigrated with their children to the State of 
New York, and settled at North Norwich, in the Chenango 
Valley. On February 18, 1797, at the age of twenty-two, he was 
united in marriage with Polly Hall, of his native place, and soon 
after, with his youthful companion, moved with his parents to 

Jerome Green Miller. 121 

Hardwick, Otsego county, N. Y. After remaining there a few 
years, he emigrated with his family to Abington. This was on 
the fifth anniversary of his marriage, Februarj' 18, 1802. His 
wife was the fifth female that arrived in the settlement, and the 
region was then an almost unbroken forest — the haunt of the 
wild beast and the hunting ground of the savage. His farm of 
three hundred and twenty-six acres of land he purchased for 
forty dollars — twenty dollars in silver, ten dollars worth of maple 
sugar, and the remaining ten dollars in tinware. Being a practi- 
cal surveyor withal, there are few farms in the northern portion 
of Lackawanna county he did not traverse while tracing and 
defining their boundaries. Elder Miller, although he held his 
own plow and fed his own cattle, was the great representative of 
Abington, whose various qualifications to counsel* and console, 
whose characteristic desire to do good, whose benevolence of 
heart, grave but kind deportment, gave him an ascendency in the 
affections of the community attained by few. His seconcj wife, 
whom he married April 13, 1823, was Elizabeth Griffin, daughter 
of James Griffin, of Providence, now Scranton. The late Rev. 
Samuel Griffin, of the M. E. Church, was a brother of Mrs. Miller. 
Elder Miller died February 19, 1857. His paternal grandfather 
was a Presbyterian clergyman, and preached the gospel for nearly 
half a century. Emily Green, daughter of Henry Green, M. D., 
was the mother of Jerome G. Miller. 

Mr. Miller, the subject of our sketch, was educated at Madison 
Academy, Waverly, Pennsylvania, and read law with the firm of 
Fuller & Harding, at Wilkes-Barre, and was admitted to the bar 
April 24, 1858. ^In 1861 Mr. Miller was the Republican candi- 
date for District Attorney of Luzerne county, but was defeated 
by Hon. Ezra B. Chase by reason of the vote cast in the army 
being thrown out. Judge Conyngham delivered an elaborate 
opinion sustaining the constitutionality of the army vote, and 
decreeing that Mr. Miller was duly elected District Attorney. 
The case was taken to the Supreme Court, one of the errors 
assigned being: "The court erred in allowing the votes cast by 
volunteers in the army to be counted as legal and constitutional 
votes, and in adding the same to the votes cast in the county of 
Luzerne." The Supreme Court held that no person in the army 

122 Jerome Green Miller. 

could vote outside of their respective residences, and refused to 
allow the votes cast by them to be counted, and decided that 
Mr. Chase was elected. 

Mr. Miller was married October 13, 1864, to Emily, daughter 
of John Hollenback, of Wyalusing, and has two sons living. 

During the Antietam campaign, Mr. Miller was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Capt. Agib Ricketts' company of Pennsylvania militia. 
Alex. Farnham, Esq., was First Sergeant in the same company. 

Jerome G. Miller is one of the best natured men in the world. 
The mention of his name in the presence of those who know him 
best brings instantaneous suggestion of this fact. An easy-going, 
contented disposition is conspicuously marked in his every ex- 
pression and every attitude. He never seems to be in a hurry; 
is never, so far as outward appearances go, inclined to hard, seri- 
ous work, yet it must not be imagined that he either belittles or 
neglects the duties of his profession, or is not successful in it. 
His vpice is seldom heard in the Quarter Sessions. He figures, 
in fact, very little in open court, yet at his desk he is as energetic, 
among his books as studious, and as an adviser as to the intrica- 
cies of civil law as prompt and as safe as many who, to guage 
their accomplishments and their worth by the noise they make, 
would be esteemed to be many rungs higher up the legal ladder. 
The profession of the law, like that of arms, has its brilliant 
leaders, its distinguished specialists, and its aggregation of quiet, 
unostentations, but tireless, workers, without which latter the sum 
of its achievements would be small indeed. To that division 
Jerome G. Miller belongs, and in it he enjoys, among those more 
familiar with the facts than the general public can be, a reputation 
for wisdom and trustworthiness that is enviable. 

Oscar Fitzland Nicholson. 123 


Oscar Fitzland Nicholson was born October 9, 1834, in Salem 
township, Wayne county, Pennsylvania. His father was Zenas 
Nicholson, an old resident of Salem township, and who removed 
with his father, Francis Nicholson, an old Revolutionary soldier, 
when quite young, from Connecticut. The mother of Oscar F. 
was Nancy Goodrich, daughter of George Goodrich, and grand- 
daughter of Seth Goodrich, of Wayne county, also a native of 
Connecticut. She was the sister of PhineaS G. Goodrich, the 
historian of Wayne county, and the aunt of Horace Hollister, 
M. D., the historian of the Lackawanna Valley. 

Mr. Nicholson was educated in the common schools of his 
native place, and studied law with his brothers, George Byron 
and Lyman Richardson Nicholson, at Wilkes-Barre. For some 
years he was a clerk in the Prothonotary's office in this city, and 
was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county on the 24th of April, 
1858. He served three yearns in the Federal army during the 
late war as a private in Company K, Eleventh Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry. His brother, Lyman Richardson Nicholson, 
Lieutenant of Company H, 143d Regiment Pennsylvania Infan- 
try, and who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county April 6, 
1855, was killed at the battle of Gettysburg. 

Mr. Nicholson was married September 13, 1870, to Angeline 
C. Philips, a daughter of Solomon Philips, of Benton township, 
Lackawanna county, Pa. They have one son, Stanley Fitzland 

Horatio W. Nicholson, a half-brother, and who was admitted 
to the bar of Luzerne county April 6, 1841, was one of the lead- 
ing lawyers of the county in his day. His mother was Mary, 
also a daughter of George Goodrich. 

"Byron" Nicholson, as he was familiarly called, a brother of 
Oscar F., and who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county 
November 10, 1848, was one of the brightest legal lights of his 
day and generation. As a counsellor he excelled, but it was in 

124 Oscar Fitzland Nicholson. 

what is known in the profession as special pleading that he enjoyed 
a rare distinction. He was at once tirelessly studious of, and 
quick to discern a weakness in, an adversary's case, and it was aT 
particularly venturesome and usually unfortunate attorney who 
permitted himself to go to a hearing, when Mr. Nicholson was 
on the opposite side, until he had carefully weighed every word 
and syllable of his "papers," and strengthened and fortified his 
defenses at every point. Under existing laws, which allow the 
amending of a legal document, the tactics he so remorselessly 
and successfully pursued in this regard would not avail, but he 
was so well armed in every particular for victorious combat in 
the judicial arena that he must needs have been successful what- 
ever the obstacles to be overcome. 

The subject of the present sketch has much of the legal acu- 
men and many of the elements of character that made his brother 
so marked a man, and so formidable in the practice of his pro- 
fession. His knowledge of the principles and histdry of our law, 
and his familiarity with the rules of its practice, if spurred by a 
greater ambition, would undoubtedly suffice to achieve for their 
possessor both professional distinction and large material gain; 
but Mr. Nicholson is, seemingly, content with an humble station 
in life, preferring it to that elevation of the distinguished and the 
wealthy, which is to be reached after great labor and unusual 

Mr. Nicholson is an unswerving Democrat in politics, and time 
was when his fearless and trenchant advocacy of the principles 
of his party brought it many converts. Like many others, how- 
ever,twho, with him, have grown gray in the service, he now 
leaves that field to the younger and more ambitious. 

Edward Henry Chase. 125 


Edward Henry Chase was born in Haverhill, Essex county, 
Massachusetts, February 28th, 1835. His father was Samuel 
Chase, a native of Hampstead, New Hampshire. His grand- 
father, Benjamin Chase, a native of Newbury, Massachusetts, 
was a musician during the Revolutionary war, and whose ances- 
tor, Aquila Chase, emigrated from Cornwall, England, in 1640, 
and settled in Newbury, in 1646, on a grant of a four-acre house 
lot, in consideration of his services as a mariner to the colony. 
He died in 1670, leaving eleven children, six daughters and five 
sons, whose progeny have since overrun the States, and from 
whom the numerous families of Chases throughout the Union 
derive their ancestry. 

Mr. Chase was educated at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 
graduating in 1855. After graduating he taught one year in the 
Aurora Academy, now Wells College, at Aurora, N. Y. The 
following year he removed to Pennsylvania, and entered the law 
office of Hon. Edmund L. Dana, and was admitted to practice 
January 4, 1859. He was a member of the Wyoming Light 
Dragoons, and when the civil war broke out he left for the seat 
of war with his company, April 18, 1861. They were organized 
April 22 as Company E, Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, and were enrolled for three months, and Mr. Chase was 
appointed Colonel's clerk. On the 19th of June, he, in company 
with Lieut. Col. Samuel Bowman, was taken prisoner at Falling 
Waters, on the Potomac river, while on a reconnoitre in sight 
of their camp. They were on horseback, and met some pickets 
who wore the "blue," and whom they supposed to be United 
States soldiers. Mr. Chase was accosted by them and asked 
what regiment he belonged to. He replied the Eighth Penn- 
sylvania. One of the Confederates said, " My God, then you are 
our prisoners." They were then taken to Winchester, and from 
thence to Richmond. When they arrived there, they were 
respectively the eleventh and twelfth prisoners taken since the 

126 Edward Henry Chase. 

war commenced. They were on parole at Richmond for two 
weeks, and amused themselves by attending the Constitutional 
Convention, then in session, and arranging personally with Presi- 
dent Davis for an exchange for Judge Merryman, of Maryland. 
The battle of Bull Run having been fought in the meantime, they 
lost their chance for a parole, and were then taken to Raleigh 
and Salisbury, N. C, and Mr. Chase was finally surrendered with- 
out exchange, May 22, 1862. He says they were well treated, 
but neither he nor his companion liked their imprisonment. 

Mr. Chase was appointed postmaster in April, 1865, but was 
removed by President Johnson, who, in the meantime, had again 
become a Democrat, in July, 1866. He was clerk and attorney 
for the borough of Wilkes-Barre for the years 1868, 1869, and 
1870. When Wilkes-Barre became a city he was appointed her 
attorney and clerk for the years 1871, 1872, and 1873. In Octo- 
ber, 1873, he was appointed United States Collector of Internal 
Revenue, which office he still retains. His district embraces the 
counties of Bradford, Carbon, Columbia, Lackawanna, Luzerne, 
Montour, Monroe, Northampton, Pike, Sullivan, Susquehanna, 
Wayne, and Wyoming. Since 1862 he has been a member of the 
Republican State or County Committee. He is also a Director 
of the Wilkes-Barre City Hospital and Wilkes-Barre Academy, 
and has also been a Trustee in the First Presbyterian Church, 
this city. 

Mr. Chase married, June 18, 1863, Elizabeth, daughter of the 
late Hon. Edmund Taylor, of this city. Mr. Taylor was at one 
time Treasurer of Luzerne county, and Associate Judge of the 
Courts. He was a native of Allyngford, in the county of Here- 
fordshire, England, and emigrated to this country when he was 
about seventeen years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Chase have four chil- 
dren, two sons and two daughters. His eldest son, Harold Taylor 
Chase, is now in the Freshman class at Harvard University. 

Edward H. Chase has been a good and a useful citizen. As 
the foregoing detailed facts show, he has devoted himself mainly 
to duties in part outside of his profession, yet it cannot be 
doubted that his legal training has, in a large degree, fitted him 
for a better performance of those duties. As Clerk to the City 
Council, Postmaster, Internal Revenue Collector, and as officially 

Edward Henry Chase. 127 

connected with the several semi-public institutions of our city, 
he was made more thoroughly capable and successful by the fact 
that, in addition to his general knowledge of men and affairs, he 
had had special training in the law. There are many conspicuous 
examples of men throughout the country who, having been sim- 
ilarly favored, have thereby been enabled to more thoroughly 
fulfil their assigned duties, and even climb high up the ladder of 
distinction. Certain railroad presidents, officers of great insur- 
ance and other trust companies, and manufacturing and mining 
institutions, would have been great men anyhow, but are greater 
by reason of their having combined, with other faculties and 
excellencies, the aptitudes growing out of their study and prac- 
tice of law and equity. 

Mr. Chase has been a very positive and active Republican, and 
it is as a manager of the business and interests of his party here- 
abouts that he is best known. To that service he brought a 
fitness of no common order, and an energy that has " snatched 
victory from the jaws of defeat" more than once. Quick to 
detect 'a weak point in his adversary's defenses, and full of 
achievements to give his own side a consequent advantage, he 
has always been esteemed by the best of Democrats a " foeman 
worthy of their steel." While greenback and other schisms in 
the Democratic ranks have contributed most to the many defeats 
the Democrats have suffered in this naturally Democratic county, 
it must be admitted that the managerial skill of Mr. Chase has 
also had much to do with them. 

As a citizen, Mr. Chase is universally respected for his public 
spiritedness, his many companionable qualities, and the keen- 
wittedness, industry, and push that made him the architect of 
the comfortable competence he now possesses. 

128 Robert Charles Shoemaker. 


Robert Charles Shoemaker was born in Kingston township, 
Luzerne county (his present residence), April 4, 1836. He is the 
son of the late Hon. Charles Denison Shoemaker (a brother of 
Hon. Lazarus D. Shoemaker), who was a prominent citizen of 
the county in his day, and a graduate of Yale College. He was 
Prothonotary, Clerk of the Quarter Sessions and Oyer and 
Terminer, and Clerk of the Orphans' Court, from January 26, 
1824, to April 3, 1828, and from the last named date to August 
21, 1830, he was Register and Recorder of Luzerne county. 
These appointments were made by Governor Andrew Shultze, 
On the last named date he was appointed Associate Judge of 
Luzerne county by Governor George Wolf, which he held for a 
number of years. He was a candidate for the Legislature in 
1855 on the Whig ticket, but was defeated by Hon. Harrison 
Wright, the candidate of the Democratic party. He was also a 
charter member and Director of the Forty Fort Cemetery Asso- 
ciation, and for many years was Treasurer of the Proprietors' 
School Fund of Kingston. He died August i, 1861. A 
writer in the Lidzerne Union, in giving an account of his death, 
uses this language: "Death has struck down another one of the 
old families whose fortunes and sufferings are associated with the 
memorable times of Forty Fort, the Indian massacre, and the 
settlement and growth of Kingston. . . . Charles D. Shoe- 
maker, the man whose probity was the incident of inheritance, 
and whose courteous manners and kindness of heart have signal- 
ized him for nearly half a century, died at his mansion in King- 
ston on Wednesday of last week. . . . Few men in the 
community were more favorably and generally known. His 
position in public life had brought him much in contact with the 
people; and it may be doubted, in the many years of his official 
life, if any man ever received from him an unkind word or other 
cause of offense. Certainly the equanimity of his life and 
demeanor are without parallel. Judge Shoemaker, during the 

Robert Charles Shoemaker. 129 

latter years of his life, devoted his time to agricultural pursuits, 
not, however, to that extent which might debar him the exercise 
of social enjoyment and the ministrations of an extensive hospi- 
tality. His door was ever open, and his table spread. Never a 
roof covered a family more liberal or kind to a guest.." The 
father of C. D. Shoemaker was Elijah Shoemaker, whose history 
is given in our biographical sketch of Hon. Lazarus Denison 

The mother of Robert C. Shoemaker was Mrs. Stella Sprigg, 
nee Mercer, a native of Pittsburg, and daughter of Samuel Mercer, 
of the county of Lancaster. After the death of her father, she 
resided principally in New Orleans, where Mr. Shoemaker's 
father met her, and they were married. She was one of the 
original members of the First Presbyterian Church in New 
Orleans, being the first church of that denomination established 
in that city. The paternal grandfather of Mrs Shoemaker was 
Col. James Mercer, of Lancaster county, Pa. He was Major of 
the Seventh Battalion of Lancaster county in 1777, and served 
that year; also in the years 1778 and 1779 in the battalion of 
Col. Stewart, and in 1782 was Colonel commanding a battalion. 
He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature from Lancaster 
county during the years 1781, 1782, and 1783. He died in 1804. 

The subject of our sketch was prepared for college at Wyoming 
Seminary, Kingston, and Luzerne Institute, at Wyoming, Pa. ; 
entered Yale, and graduated in the class of 1855. He read law 
with Hon. Andrew T. McCIintock, and was admitted to the bar 
of Luzerne county April 4, 1859. 

Mr. Shoemaker married November 22, 1876, Mrs. Helen 
Lonsdale, nee Lea, daughter of Hon. James N. Lea, late of New 
Orleans. They have two children, both daughters. Mr. Lea 
was one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of Louisiana prior 
to the late civil war, and is now a resident of Lexington, Va. 

Mr. Shoemaker is a Presbyterian in religious belief, and is the 
Superintendent of the Union Sabbath School at Maltby. He is 
also one of the Trustees of the Memorial Presbyterian Church 
of this city, and has been since its organization. 

Perhaps no language at our command could more fitly or 
thoroughly describe Robert C. Shoemaker than that employed 

1 30 Alfred Darte, Jr. 

by the obituary writer above quoted to describe the chief charac- 
teristics of his father Excepting that the father was for many 
years in official life, while the son has never sought public station, 
the son is in large part a pattern of the father. Unusually quiet 
and unobtrusive in his deportment, yet genial withal, and dis- 
pensing to the many friends who visit his home a generous 
hospitalityi dividing his time between his Jaw office and his farm, 
fulfiling in his intercourse with his fellow-men the golden rule to 
the letter, Robert C. Shoemaker is an example of a large class of 
citizens who live good and useful, if not conspicuous, lives, and 
die deeply mourned by a larger circle than the average observer 
would think had acquaintance with them. Mr. Shoemaker's legal 
attainments have made him very useful, as an office practitioner, 
to a large clientage, and his general information, gleaned from a 
wide familiarity with books, lift him far above the average level. 


Alfred Darte, Jr., was born on the 28th of April, 1836, at 
Dundaff, Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania. His father, Hon. 
Alfred Darte, is a resident of Carbondale, Lackawanna county, 
is also a lawyer, and for some years was Recorder of the Mayor's 
Court of that city. He is a native of Bolton, Toland county. 
Conn. The grandfather of the subject of our sketch was Elias 
Darte, also a native of Connecticut. He, with six of his brothers, 
were soldiers in the Revolutionary war. He received a bayonet 
wound in the attack on Fort Griswold. His mother was Ann 
E., daughter of Dorastus Cone, of Esopus, Ulster county, N. Y. 
The Cone family were also from Connecticut. 

Mr. Darte was educated in the common schools and at 
Wyoming Seminary. He studied law with his father, and was 
admitted to the bar of Luzerne county May 12, 1859. During 
the late war he was First Lieutenant of Company K, Twenty-fifth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry, in the three months' service. 

Alfred Darte, Jr. 131 

He was mustered in at Harrisburg, Pa., April 26, 1861. His 
father was Captain of the same company. On August 13, 1861, 
he was commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company M, Fourth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry, and afterwards promoted to 
Captain of the same company. He remained in the army until 
September 19, 1864, when he was discharged for disability aris- 
ing from wounds received in action at'Trevillion Station, Va. In 
1879 Mr. Darte was elected District Attorney of Luzerne county 
on the Republican ticket by a majority of 2,057 over John T. 
Lenahan, the Democratic candidate, and of 3,578 over James 
Bryson, the Labor Reform candidate. Mr. Darte was also a 
Justice of the Peace for a number of years in the borough of 
Kingston, where he resides. He is now President of the Town 
Council. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church in King- 
ston, and has been a Trustee in the same. 

On the nth of June, 1863, Mr. Darte married Caroline Sealy, 
a native of Kingston, Pa. Her father, Robert Sealy, is a native 
of Cork, Ireland. They have no children. 

Capt. Darte is a man of splendid form and figure — as fine a 
specimen of physical manhood as one would wish to see. His 
full six feet of height, broad shoulders, great width of chest, and 
finely proportioned and muscular limbs, the whole surmounted 
by a large square head, with rather dark features, make up the 
tout ensemble of the ideal soldier, and the record of his service 
shows that his manhood and courage did not disappoint these 
bounteous gifts of nature's giving. Mr. Darte disposition is to 
excessive quietness, almost to taciturnity, yet he is an enjoyable 
companion, and has a large circle of ardent friends. He has fine 
legal capacities, and although making no pretensions to forensic 
excellence, can, nevertheless, always be depended upon for solid, 
pointed argument, of the sort that has weight with juries. His 
administration of the affairs of the District Attorney's office was 
marked by a vigorous determination to an enforcement of the 
criminal laws, and untainted with suspicion of collusion with 
wrong-doers for purposes of personal gain. His indictments 
were drawn with care, and were generally unassailable, and his 
prosecution of his causes in open court showed unusual familiar- 
ity with the statutes, the authorities, and the rules of court. Mr. 

132 Henry Blackman Plumb. 

Darte may fairly be looked upon as a lawyer of more than usual 
attainments, with a professional future to be envied; as a citizen, 
worthy in every particular, and a soldier deserving the gratitude 
of his fellow-men. 


Henry Blackman Plumb was born in Hanover township, 
Luzerne county, Pa., November 13, 1829. His father, Charles 
Plumb, in company with the grandfather, Jacob Plumb, a native 
of Connecticut, removed from that State to New York, and thence 
to Pennsylvania, settling first at Mount Pleasant, Wayne county, 
thence in Luzerne county, and from thence to Prompton, Wayne 
county, where he died in 1853. f^'^ mother was Julia Anna, 
daughter of Elisha Blackman, Jr., a native of Lebanon, Conn., 
and who removed with his parents to Wyoming in 1772. When 
the alarms commenced in the early part of 1778 from the ex- 
pected incursion of the Indians, Mr. Blackman, although only 
eighteen years of age, was mustered into Captain Bidlack's com- 
pany, and continued on duty scouting and otherwise until the 
descent of/ the forces under Butler. On the 3d of July, he 
marched to the field with his company, was in the hardest of the 
fight, and was one of the eight who escaped out of Captain Bid- 
lack's company of thirty-two men that went into the battle. 
After the surrender of the forts, he with the rest of the settlers 
who escaped massacre left for the settlement below, and subse- 
quently returned with the company under Captain Spalding in 
the fall of the same year to bury the dead, save what was left of 
the property and crops of the valley, and renew the defenses. 
All the property of Mr. Blackman's family was destroyed, except 
two cows, which, by mere chance, were recovered. Mr. Black- 
man died December 5, 1845, aged eighty-five years, and lies 
buried in the old Hanover burying ground on Hanover Green. 
His wife was Annie, daughter of Deacon John Hurlbut, a native 
of Connecticut, and who represented Westmoreland in the Con- 

Henry Blackman Plumb. 133' 

necticut Assembly in the years 1779, 1780, and 1781. The 
ceremony of laying the corner-stone of Wyoming monument, 
July 3, 1833, was performed by Mr. Blackman. The father 
of Mr. Blackman, Elisha Blackman, Sr., was the Lieutenant 
under Dr. William Hooker Smith, of the "Old Reformadoes," 
as the aged men were called who associated to guard the fort at 
Wilkes-Barre. It stood between the present Court House and 
the Luzerne House, and embraced from a quarter to half an acre 
of land. It was square built by setting yellow pine logs upright , 
in the earth close together, fifteen feet high, surrounded by a 
trench. The corners were so rounded as to flank all sides of the 
fort. The gate opened towards the river, and they had one 
double "four-pounder" for defense and as an alarm gun to the 
settlement. The Court House and jail of Westmoreland were 
within the limits of this fortification. Old Mr. Blackman would 
not leave the fort. He thought with Dr. Smith by remaining 
they might afford protection to the survivors. The story of the 
sufferings of his family is the common story of all. A part of 
the way during their escape they kept from famishing by gather- 
ing berries. When they came to the German settlement, in what 
is now Monroe county, Pennsylvania, they were treated with 
much kindness; were fed, spoken kindly to, and helped on their 
way. Weary, wayworn, and penniless, depending chiefly on 
charity, they reached, in a few weeks, their former homes in Con- 
necticut. Mr. Blackman, Sr., subsequently returned, and died 
September — , 1 804, at Wilkes-Barre, aged eighty-seven years. 
His son-in-law, Darius Spofford, who had been married but two 
months, was killed in the massacre. The survivors of the mas- 
sacre, with the women and children, left by the usual path across 
the Wilkes-Barre mountain, but the two Blackmans went down 
the river, crossed the Nescopeck mountain, and thus reached the 
settlement below. They were the last to leave the fort at 

Mr. Plumb married on the 28th of September, 1851, Emma, 
daughter of Ashbel Ruggles, a native of Hanover township, 
Luzerne county. Mr. Ruggles afterwards removed to Wisconsin, 
and from thence to Fillmore county, Minnesota, where he died. 
Mr. and Mrs. Plumb had but one child, George Henry Ruggles 

• 1 34 Harry Hakes. 

Plumb, a member of the Luzerne county bar. Mrs. Plumb died 
July 19, 1859, ^^'^ '^''- Plumb has been a widower since. 

Mr. Plumb was educated in the common schools and at the 
Wilkes-Barre Academy, and studied law with the late Volney L. 
Maxwell, and was admitted to practice November 21, 1859. He 
served as Corporal in Company K, Thirtieth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment Volunteers, during the late war. He is not a member of 
any religious denomination, but is a Unitarian in belief He is a 
resident of Plumbton, in the suburbs of the borough of Sugar 
Notch, and has served as a member of the Council, also as a 
-School Director and Borough Auditor. 

Mr. Plumb retired from practice many years ago, but not until 
Jie had shown himself the possessor of traits that, by proper 
development, would have given him a leading position in his 
chosen profession. He is a gentleman of excellent habits, 
respected and looked up to by his neighbors, and among whom 
he takes an active part in all matters appertaining to their com- 
mon weal. 


A man being successful as a lawyer and a doctor must needs 
be a mentally strong man. A man who has achieved a more 
than ordinarily fair standing in both professions is the subject of 
our present sketch. The Hakes family is of English extraction 
and of the earliest Puritan stock. The Hon. Harry Hakes was 
born June 10, 1825, at Harpersfield, Delaware county, N. Y. 
His father, Lyman Hakes, Sr., first saw light as far back as 1788, 
at Watertown, Litchfield county. Conn., which county furnished 
a large part of the early settlers of this valley. The grandfather 
of Harry Hakes was Lewis Hakes, who married Hannah Church, 
of the family of Captain Church, about 1778, in Massachusetts. 
Lyman Hakes, Sr., moved to Harpersfield,^ N. Y., where he died 
in 1873. He married Nancy Dayton, of Watertown, Litchfield 
county. Conn., September 23, 181 3. Her father, Lyman Dayton, 

Harry Hakes. 


was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. The mother of Mr. 
Dayton was Abiah, daughter of Stephen and Rebecca Matthews, 
of Watertown, Conn. Stephen Matthews was the son of Thomas 
Matthews, also of Watertown. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was at the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga. 
Thomas Matthews was the son of William Matthews, who emi- 
grated from Wales, England, to Connecticut in 167 1. He was 
born in Watertown in 1699, and died in 1798, aged ninety-nine 
years. At the age of forty Thomas Matthews was appointed a 
Magistrate of Watertown, and held the office for forty years, 
being appointed yearly, and at the age of eighty declined further 
appointment. Mr. Hakes served in the war of 1812, and was a 
Judge of the county in which he lived. Mrs. Hannah Carr, nee 
Hakes, sister of Lyman Hakes, Sr., was the grandmother of 
Hon. C. E. Rice, President Judge 6f Luzerne county. His family 
consisted of eight children, four sons and four daughters. Of the 
sons, Harry was the youngest, and Lyman, Jr., for many years a 
resident and leading member of the bar of this county, the oldest. 
He was for more than thirty years previous to his death, in 1873, 
an active practitioner at the Luzerne bar, and very much at the 
bars of surrounding counties and in the Supreme Court. As was 
said by the late Judge Ketcham at the bar meeting held on the 
occasion of his death, "whether making demonstrations from, 
some intricate and involved legal proposition before the highest 
tribunal in the State, or struggling for the life of a prisoner in the 
Oyer and Terminer, or unlocking the mysteries of Fearne on 
Remainders, and threading the gossamer speculations of the 
scintilla juris, or exulting over the triumph of genius in the loco- 
motive, or strolling, wrapt in the dream of the picture gallery, or 
participating in the rustic amusement of the fair ground, he was 
a remarkable man ; and for his ability and honor as a lawyer, and 
for his genius and liberal tastes and benevolence as a man, Lyman 
Hakes will be long remembered by the bar and by the people." 
Homer, another of the sons, died in 1854. Another son of this 
breeder of big men, Hon. Harlo Hakes, resides at Hornellsville, 
N. Y. Two of the sisters are still living, one the mother of 
Lyman H. Bennett, a member of the Luzerne bar, and residing 
in Wilkes-Barre. 

136 Harry Hakes. 

The boyhood of Harry Hakes combined the usual experience 
of farmers' sons — work upon the farm during the summer, and 
attendance upon the district school during the brief school term 
in winter. He had even at that age a habit of study and taste 
for general reading which made him, as nearly as possible for a 
boy, a proficient in all the branches taught, and gave him a fairly 
good English education. 

Leaving the following of the plow, he entered the Castleton 
Medical College, in Vermont, from which institution he grad- 
uated, in 1846, an M. D., with all the honor that title conveys, 
and opened an office at Davenport Center, N. Y., which soon 
became the center of attraction for a large population needing 
medical help, and in which he remained for three years with 
;gratifying financial success to himself, and more than equally 
gratifying good to his patients. 

In June, 1849, when he was but twenty-four years of age, he 
married Maria E. Dana, eldest daughter of Anderson Dana, Jr., 
of Wilkes-Barre, who was the uncle of ex-Judge Edmund L. 
Dana, of this city. She died in the December following, unfor- 
tunately, and the bereaved husband devoted the year 1850 to 
attendance and faithful and effective work in the schools and 
hospitals of New York City. Then he removed to the at that 
time rapidly growing village of Nanticoke, in this county, where 
he continued the practice of his profession for three years. In 
1854 he visited the old country, and spent another year of study 
in the medical institutions of London and Paris. Returning, he 
married Harriet L. Lape, the daughter of Adam and Elizabeth 
Lape, both natives of this county, August 29, 1855. He then 
^resumed his practice as a man of medicine, and, interspersing it 
■with the care and culture of his fine farm in the vicinity of Nan- 
ticoke, did good work for himself and his country until the spring 
of 1857. He has no children living, having lost two in their 

Dr. Hakes had succeeded in the cure of the physical ailments 
of man, but, probably by hereditary transmission, he had an apti- 
tude for the law. His father, as has before been stated, was a 
law-giver of no little distinction. His brother was a lawyer of 
acknowledged repute practicing at our own bar. Another brother 

Harry Hakes; 137 

is one of the leading lawyers in the Empire State; has been 
District Attorney of his county, member of the Legislature, and 
Register in Bankruptcy. Harry began, urged by these influ- 
ences, the study of the law, in the office of his elder brother, 
Lyman, in 1857, passed the usual examinatidn, and was admitted 
to practice January 25, i860. 

In 1864 he was elected a member of the Legislature on the 
Democratic ticket, representing Luzerne county. During that 
term, and the succeeding one to which he was re-elected, he 
secured an appropriation of ^2,500 each year for the Home for 
Friendless Children. He served on the Judiciary Local, Judiciary 
General, Ways and Means, Banks, Corporations, Federal Rela- 
tions, and Estates and Escheats Committees. He drafted the bill 
to prevent persons carrying concealed deadly weapons, the bill 
for the extension of the Lehigh Valley Railroad from Wilkes- 
Barre to Waverly, N. Y., and the bill for the collection of debts 
against townships, all of which passed. 

Although he still keeps up his relations with his brethren of 
the "healing art,'' and takes an active part in business and dis- 
cussions as a member of the Luzerne County Medical Society, 
his attention and time are chiefly given to thfe law, with an occa- 
sional digression, at the proper season, with the rod and creel 
along some mountain stream, or an excursion with dog and gun 
into the haunts of the quail, the pheasant, and other denizens of 
the woods. 

The Dr. is a life-long, earnest Democrat, and is always ready, 
both in public and private, to give a reason for the faith that is in 
him. He is a member of the American Medical Association, and 
is often a delegate from the Luzerne County Medical Society. 
He is frequently called upon to make speeches on medical, agri- 
cultural, and scientific subjects. He is not a member of any 
christian church, but is a Methodist in religious belief 

Dr. Hakes is a genial friend, a kind neighbor, and a public 
spirited citizen. Over six feet in height, he unites with a large 
frame a large heart, and a grasp, a vigor, and an independence of 
niind' which render^ empiricism and the small art and details of 
professional life distasteful, but especially qualifies him to subject 
every question, whether in medicine, law, or theology, to the 

138 George Brubaker Kulp. 

rigid test of principle, and to that measure and amount of proof 
of which it is reasonably susceptible. 

[Contributed by C. Ben Johnson, Esq.] 


Henry Kolb, or Kulp, as the name is now spelled, the ancestor 
of George Brubaker Kulp, the subject of our present sketch, came 
to' Pennsylvania as early as 1707, perhaps earlier. He was a 
native of Wolfsheim, in the Palatinate, and was one of the earliest 
of the Mennonite preachers in this country. He and his brothers, 
Martin and Jacob, were trustees of the venerable Mennonite 
church, on the Skippack, the oldest Mennonite church in America 
but one. Matthias Van Bebber conveyed one hundred acres of 
land to the organization on June 18, 1717, and upon that ground 
a building for worship was erected about 1725. Henry Kolb's 
name appears first on the list of elders and ministers in this 
country whose signatures are attached to "the leading articles of 
the Christian faith of the churches of the United Flemish, Fries- 
land, and other Mennonites, and those in America, adopted in 
1632," published at Philadelphia in 1727. His grandfather, 
on the maternal side, was Peter Schumacher, an early Quaker 
convert from the Mennonite church. He came to Pennsylvania 
October 12, 1685, in the "Francis and Dorothy," with his son, 
Peter, his daughters, Mary, Frances, and Gertrude, and his 
cousin, Sarah, and remained in Germantown until the time of 
his death, in 1707, aged eighty-five. The mother of Henry died 
in 1705, and was buried at Wolfsheim. At the time of her 
death she was in the fifty-third year of her age. The father 
died eight years later, aged sixty-four. He was buried at 
Manheim. The Kolbs were early and conspicuous in the minis- 
try of the Mennonite church. They were devout followers of 
the teachings of "Menno Simons, who was born at the village of 
Witmarsum, in Friesland, in the year 1492, and was educated for 
the priesthood, upon whose duties early in life he entered. The 
beheading of Sicke Snyder for rebaptism in the year 153 1 in his 
near neighborhood called his attention to the subject of infant 

George Brubaker Kulp. 139 

baptisn-., and after a careful examination of the bible and the 
writings of Luther and Swinglius, he came to the conclusion 
there was no foundation for it in the scriptures. At the request 
of a little community near him holding like views, he began to 
preach to them, and in 1536 finally severed his connection with 
the Church of Rome. From him the sect assumed the name of 
Mennonites. His first book was a dissertation against the errors 
of John of Leyden, whose followers became entangled in the 
politics of the time, and ran into the wildest excesses. They 
preached to the peasantry of Europe, trodden beneath the 
despotic heels of Church and State, that the kingdom of Christ 
upon earth was at hand, that all human authority ought to be 
resisted and overthrown, and all property be divided. After 
fighting many battles, and causing untold commotion, they took 
possession of the city of Munster, and made John of Lej'den a 
king. The pseudo-kingdom endured for more than a year of 
siege and riot, and then was crushed by the power of the State, 
and John of Leyden was torn to pieces with red hot pincers, and 
his bones set aloft in an iron cage for a warning. After a con- 
vention held at Buckhold, in Westphalia, in 1538, the influence 
of the fanatical Anabaptists seems to have waned. Menno's 
entire works, published at Amsterdam, in 1681, make a folio 
volume of six hundred and forty-two pages. Luther and Calvin 
stayed their hands at a point where power and influence would 
have been lost, but the Dutch, reformer, Menno, far in advance of 
his time, taught the complete severance of Church and State, and 
the principles of religious liberty whidh have been embodied in 
our own federal constitution were first worked out in Holland. 
The Mennonites believed that no baptism was efficacious unless 
accompanied by repentance, and that the ceremony administered 
to infants was vain. They took not the sword, and were entirely 
non-resistant. They swore not at all. They practiced the wash- 
ing of the feet of the brethren, and made use of the ban or the 
avoidance of those who were pertinaciously derelict. In dress 
and speech they were plain, and in manners simple. Their 
ecclesiastical enemies, even while burning them for their heresies, 
bore testimony to the purity of their lives, their thrift, frugality, 
and hornely virtues. The shadow of John of Leyden, however, 

140 George Brubaker Kulf. 

hung over them, the name of Anabaptists clung to them, and no 
sect, not even the early Christians, was ever more bitterly or per- 
sistently persecuted. In the year 1569 there were put to death 
for this cause, at Rotterdam,/ persons; Haarlem, 10; the Hague, 
13; Cortrijk, 20; Brugge, 23; Amsterdam, 26; Ghent, 103; 
Antwerp, 229; and in the last named city there- were 37 in 1571, 
and the same number in 1574, the last by fire. It was usual to 
burn the men and drown the women. Occasionally some were 
buried alive, and the rack and like preliminary tortures were used 
to extort confessions and get information concerning others of 
the sect. Their meetings were held in secret places, often in the 
middle of the night, and in order to prevent possible exposure 
under the pressure of pain they purposely avoided knowing the 
names of the brethren whom they met and the preachers who 
baptized them. A reward of one hundred gold guilders was 
offered for Menno, malefactors were promised pardon if they 
should capture him, Tjaert Ryndertz was put on the wheel in 
1539 for having given him shelter, and a house in which his wife 
and children had rested unknown to its owner was confiscated. 
The natural result of this persecution was much dispersion. The 
prosperous communities at Hamburg and Altona were founded 
by refugees; the first Mennonites in Prussia fled there from the 
Netherlands, and others found their way up the Rhine. From 
the Mennonites sprang the general Baptist churches of England, 
the first of them having an ecclesiastical connection with the 
parent societies in Holland, and their organizers being English- 
men, who, as has been discovered, were actual members of the 
Mennonite church at Amsterdam. Says Barclay, in his valuable 
work. Religious Societies, 'it was from association with these 
early Baptist teachers that George Fox, the founder of the 
Quakers, imbibed his views. We are compelled to view him as 
the unconscious exponent of the doctrine, practice, and discipline 
of the ancient and stricter party of the Dutch Mennonites.' If 
this be correct, to the spread of Mennonite teachings we owe the 
origin of the Quakers and the settlement of Pennsylvania." 

Peter Kolb, a brother of Henry, was, like him, a Mennonite 
preacher, at Griesheim, in the Palatinate, attending to this appoint- 
ment until God called him, in 1728. He was a very active assist- 

George Brubaker Kulp. 141 

ant of Menhonite emigration to Pennsylvania, Martin Kolb, 
another brother of Henry, was likewise a dispenser of the gospel 
according to the doctrine of the Mennonites.and one of the most 
active of his day. He came to Pennsylvania, in 1707, with his 
brothers, Jacob and John, and Henry, as has heretofore been stated. 
Count Zinzendorf, in his journal, says: "January 22, 1742. Rode 
as far as Skippack. January 24. At Martin Kulp's house had an 
interview with heads of the Mennonites, and discussed with them 
their doctrine and practice." This was some months before Count 
Zinzendorf visited the Wyoming Valley. Martin Koib married 
May 19, 1709, Magdalena, daughter of Isaac Van Sintern, great- 
great-granddaughter of Jan de Voos, a burgomaster, at Hand- 
schooten, in Flanders, about 1550 a genealogy of whose descend- 
ants, including many American Mennonites, was prepared in 
Holland over a hundred years ago. He married in Amsterdam 
Cornelia Classen, and came to Pennsylvania with four daughters 
after 1687. Jacob Kolb, another brother of Henry, married May 
21, 1710, Sarah, another daughter of Isaac Van Sintern. An 
obituary notice of him says: "On the 4th instant (October, 1739) 
Jacob Kolb, of Skippack, as he was pressing cyder, the beam of 
the press fell on one side of his head and shoulder, and wounded 
him so that he languished about half an hour, and then dyed, to 
the exceeding grief of his relatives and family, who are numer- 
ous, and concern of his friends and neighbors, among whom he 
lived maiiy years in great esteem." Dielman, or Thielman (as 
the name is sometimes spelled), Kolb, another brother of Henry, 
came to Pennsylvania somewhat later than his other brothers. 
He was at Manheim, where he attended as a preacher to the 
Mennonite congregation, "making himself valuable by 
receiving and lodging his fellow believers fled from Switzerland," 
as appears from a letter dated August 27, 1710. He subsequently 
emigrated to Pennsylvania, where he in connection with Henry 
Funk supervised the translation of Van Braght's Martyrs' Mirror 
from the Dutch to the German, and certified to its correctness. 
"This book is the great historical work of the Mennonites, and 
the most durable monument of that sect. It traces the history 
of those Christians who from the time of the Apostles were op- 
posed to the baptism of infants and to warfare, including the 

142 George Bkubaker Kulf. 

Lyonists, Petrobusians, and Waldenses; details the persecutioi»s 
of the Mennonites by the Spaniards in the Netherlands and the 
Calvinists in Switzerland, together with the individual sufferings 
of many hundreds who were burned, drowned, beheaded, or other- 
wise maltreated ; and contains the confessions of faith adopted by 
the different communities. 

" Many copies of the book were brought to America, but they 
were jn Dutch. ' No German translation existed, and much the 
larger proportion of those here who were interested in it could 
read only that language. It was not long before a desire for a 
German edition was manifested, and the declaration of a war be- 
tween England and France in 1744, which in the nature of things 
must involve sooner or later their colonies in America, made the 
Mennonites fearful that their principles of non-resistance would 
be again put to the test, and anxious that all of the members, 
especially the young, should be braced for the struggle by read- 
ing of the steadfastness of their forefathers amid sufferings abroad. 
Their unsalaried preachers were, however, like the members of 
the flock, farmers who earned their bread by tilling the soil, and 
were ill fitted both by circumstances and education for so great 
a literary labor. Where could a trustworthy translator be found ? 
Where was the printer, in the forests of Pennsylvania, who could 
undertake the expense of a publication of such magnitude? 
Naturally, they had recourse to the older and wealthier churches 
in Europe, and on the 19th of October, 1745, Jacob Godschalck, 
of Germantown, Dielman Kolb, of Salford, Michael Zeigler, Yilles 
Kassel, and Martin Kolb, of Skippack, and Heinrich Funck, of 
Indian Creek, the author of two religious works published in 
Pennsylvania, wrote, under instructions from the various com- 
munities, a letter to Amsterdam on the subject. They say: 
' Since according to appearances the flames of war are mounting 
higher, and it cannot be known whether the cross and persecution 
may not come upon the defenseless Christians, it becomes us to 
strengthen ourselves for such circumstances with patience and 
endurance, and to make every preparation for steadfast constancy 
in our faith. It was, therefore, unanimously considered good in 
this community, if it could be done, to have the Bloedig Toiieel of 
Dielman Jans Van Braght translated into the German language. 

George Bkubaker Kulp. 143 

especially since in our communities in this country there has 
been a great increase of young men who have grown up. In this 
book posterity' can see the traces of those faithful witnesses who 
have walked in the way of truth and given up their lives for it.' 
"At Ephrata, in Lancaster county, h9.d been established some 
years before, and still exists, a community of mystical Dunkers, 
who practiced celibacy, and held their lands and goods in com- 
mon. About 1745 they secured a hand printing press, now in 
possession of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, on which 
they printed over fifty books, which are among the scarcest and 
most sought after of American imprints. The chronicle of the 
Cloister says: 'Shortly before the time that the mill was burned 
down the Mennonites in Pennsylvania united together to have their 
great martyr book, which was in the Dutch language, translated 
and printed in German. For this work there was nobody in the 
whole country considered better fitted than the brotherhood in 
Ephrata, since they had a new printing office and paper mill, and 
moreover could place hands enough upon the work. After the 
building of the mill was completed, the printing of the martyr 
book was taken in hand, for which important work fifteen brethren 
were selected, of whom nine had their task in the printing office, 
viz., a corrector, who was also translator, four compositors, and 
four pressmen. The others worked in the paper mill. Three 
years were spent upon this book, but the work was not continu- 
ous because often the supply of paper was deficient. And, since 
in the meantime there was very little other business on hand, the 
brethren got deeply into debt, but through the great demand for 
the book this was soon liquidated. It was printed in large folio, 
using sixteen quires of paper, and making an edition of thirteen 
hundred copies. In a council held with the Mennonites, the 
price for a single copy was fixed at twenty shillings, from which 
it can be seen that the reasons for printing it were very different 
from a hope of profit. That this martyr book was a cause of 
many trials to the recluses, and added not a little to their spiritual 
martyrdom, is still in fresh remembrance. The Vorsteher who 
had put the work in motion had other reasons for it than gain. 
The spiritual welfare of those who were entrusted to him lay 
deep in his heart, and he neglected no opportunity to provide for 

144 George Bkubaker Kulf. 

it. The three years that this book was on the press were an 
admirable preparation for spiritual martyrdom, although their 
worldly affairs were in the meantime unfortunate arjd permitted 
to fall into neglect. If this is considered, and the small price 
and how far those who worked on it were reinoved from all self- 
interest, it cannot fail to appear how valuable must have been to 
them the descriptions therein contained of the lives of the holy 

" In this rather remarkable way have been fortunately preserved 
the particulars concerning the publication of the Ephrata martyr 
book. The Vorsteher referred to in the chronicle was Conrad 
Beissel, the founder of the Cloister, who among the brethren was 
known as Vater Friedsam. The greater part of the li.terary work 
upon it was done by the learned prior, Peter Miller, who later, at 
the request of Congress, according to Watson the annalist, 
translated the Declaration of Independence into seven different 
European languages. The publication of the first pait was com- 
pleted in 1748, and the second in 1749. It is a massive folio of 
fifteen hundred and twelve pages, printed upon strong thick paper, 
in large type, in order, as is said in the preface, 'that it may suit 
the eyes of all.' The binding is solid and ponderous, consisting 
of boards covered with leather, with mountings of brass on the 
corners, and two brass clasps. The back is further protected by 
strips of leather studded with brass nails. Among the additions 
made at Ephrata were twelve stanzas upon page 939, concerning 
the martyrdom of Hans Haslibacher, taken from the Aiissbundt 
or hymn-book of the Swiss Mennonites. Some of the families 
in Pennsylvania and other parts of the United States, the suffer- 
ings of whose ancestors are mentioned in it, are those bearing the 
names of Kuster, Kuip, Hendricks, Yocum, Bean, Zimmermen, 
Rhoads, Shoemaker, Keyser, Landis, Meylin, and Brubaker. 
The story of the burning of Maeyken Wens, at Antwerp, in 1573, 
is more than ordinarily pathetic. 'Thereupon on the next day,' 
says the account, 'which was the 6th of October, this pious and 
God-fearing heroine of Jesus Christ, as also her other fellow be- 
lievers, who in like manner had been condemned, were with their 
tongues screwed fast, like innocent sheep brought forward, and 
after each was tied to a stake in the market place, were robbed of 

George Brubaker Kulp. 145 

life and body by a dreadful and horrible fire, and in a short time 
were burned to ashes. The oldest son of this aforementioned 
martyr, called Adrian Wens, about fifteen years old, upon the 
day on which his dear mother was sacrificed, could not stay away 
from the place of execution, so he took his youngest brother, 
called Hans Matthias Wens, about three years old, on his arm, 
and stood on a bench not far from the burning-stake to witness 
his mother's death. But when she was brought to the stake he 
fainted, fell down, and lay unconscious until his mother and the 
others were burned. Afterward, when the people had gone away 
and he came to himself, he went to the place where his mother 
was burnt, and hunted in the ashes until he found the screw with 
which her tongue had been screwed fast, and he kept it for a 
memento. There are now, 1659, still many descendants of this 
pious martyr living well known to us, who, after her name, are 
called Maeyken Wens.' 

"The before-mentioned Heinrich Funk and Dielman Kolb 
were appointed a committee by the Mennonites to make the 
arrangements with the community at Ephrata, and to supervise 
the translation. Their certificate is appended, saying: 'It was 
desired by very many in Pennsylvania that there should be a 
German translation and edition of the martyr book of the defense- 
less Christians or Tauffs-ge/sinneten, before printed in the Dutch 
language, and the brotherhood in Ephrata, on the Conestoga, 
offered and promised not only that they would translate the 
book, but would take care that it should be of a neat print and a 
good paper and at their own cost, if we would promise to buy 
the copies and have none printed or brought here from any other 
place. Thereupon the elders and ministers of those communities 
of the Tauffs-gesinncten, which are called Mennonites (to which 
communities the said book is best adapted), went to Ephrata and 
made there with their said friends an agreement that they, the 
said Tauffs-gesinneten, would buy the said books at a reasonable 
price, and would not give orders elsewhere, provided they should 
receive assurance of good work, paper, and translation, but if the 
print should not turn out well they should be released. Heinrich 
Funk and Dielman Kolb had such a great love for this book that 
they both, with common consent, gave their time and labor to it. 

146 George Brubaker Kulp. 

and, as the leaves came from the press and were sent to them in 
their order, went over them one at a time, comparing them with 
the Dutch, and in this work have not omitted a single verse. 
They have not found in the whole book one line which does not 
give the same grounds of belief and sense as is contained in the 
Dutch. They have, indeed, found a number of words about 
which they have hesitated and doubted, and which might have 
been improved both in the Dutch and German, but it is not to 
be wondered at that in so large a book a word here and there is 
not used in the best sense; but nobody ought to complain for 
this reason, for we are all human and often err. Concerning the. 
errata placed before the register, it has been found that many 
that were in the Dutch edition have been- correeted, though not 
all, and some have been found in the German, although, as has 
been said, they are not numerous. We have, therefore, at the 
request of the rest of our fellow ministers, very willingly read 
through this great book from the beginning to the end and com- 
pared it with the Dutch, and we have according to our slight 
ability and gift of understanding found nothing that would be 
disadvantageous to this book, or in which the teachings of the 
holy martyrs have not been properly translated, but we believe 
that the translator has done his best, with the exception of the 
typographical errors, of which, in our opinion, there are few for 
such a great book. But should some one go through it as we 
have done, and find some mistakes which we have overlooked or 
not understood, it would be well for him to call attention to them, 
because two or three witnesses are better than one. We further 
believe that the best thing about this book will be that the Lord 
through his Holy Spirit will so kindle the hearts of men with an 
eager desire for it that they will not regard a little money but 
buy it, and, taking plenty of time, read in ,it earnestly with 
thought, so that they may see and learn in what way they should 
be grounded in belief in Christ, and how they should arrainge 
their lives and walk in order to follow the defenseless Lamb and 
to be heirs of the everlasting Kingdom with Christ and his 
Apostles. In this book are contained many beautiful teachings 
out of both the Old and New Testament, accompanied with many 
examples of true followers, from which it is apparent that we must 

George Brubaker Kulp. 147 

through much tribulation enter into the Kingdom of God. Acts xiv. 
22. We see in it many true predecessors who have followed the 
Lamb, of whom Paul says, Hebrews xiii. '7: Remember them 
-which have the rule oz>er you,who have spoken unto you the word of 
God: whose faith folloiv, considering the end of their conversation. 
Although the road is small and narrow, nevertheless it leads to 
everlasting joy.' 

"There is still another event in the history of this publication 
recorded in the chronicles of the Cloister. 'This book had 
finally in the Revolutionary war a singular fate. There being 
great need of all war material and also paper, and it having been 
discovered that in Ephrata was a large quantity of printed paper, 
an arrest was soon laid upon it. Many objections were raised, 
and among others it was alleged that since the English army was 
so near, this circumstance might have a bad effect. They were 
determined, however, to give up nothing, and that all must be 
taken by force. So two wagons and six soldiers came and car- 
ried off the martyr books. This caused great offence through 
the land, and many thought the war would not end well for the 
country, since they had maltreated the testimonies of the holy 
martyrs. However, they finally again came to honor, since some 
judicious persons bought what there was left of thefri.' " 

The ancestors of Mr. Kulp were, as we have said, among the 
leaders of the Mennonite church, the founders of all Baptist 
organizations. They refuse belief in infant baptism, and in the 
realism of baptism without faith and repentance. Dielman Kolb, 
the brother of Henry, gave his big brain and bigger endeavor to 
the translation of ''Der Blutige Schau-platz oder Martyrer Spiegel!' 
All the Kolbs, or Kulps, of the older time lent their efforts to 
good works, and from the earliest settlement of the Germans in 
Pennsylvania to the present time there has been a large number 
of Mennonite preachers of the name of Kulp, particularly in the 
counties of Bucks and Montgomery, in this State. 

For many of the facts herein contained we are indebted to 
Samuel W. Pennypacker, Esq., author of " Historical and Bio- 
graphical Sketches," particularly of the Mennonites, of whom he 
is a descendant, and a most capable and industrious writer, whose 

148 George Brubaker Kulp. 

worth is fully appreciated in circles where the literature treating 
of early Pennsylvania is understood. 

Henry Kulp died in 1730, and left a family of seven children, 
three sons and fomr daughters, viz., Peter Kulp, David Kulp, 
Tielman Kulp, Mary Karsdorp, Dorithy Gotshalk, Annie Swarts, 
and Agnes Kulp. Peter, the eldest of the three sons, was born 
in this State, and died in 1748. Jacob was the eldest son of 
Peter, and was born March 7, 1740. He died June 28, 1818, 
aged seventy-eight. His bones lie away in the Mennonite church 
yard, at Kulpsville, Montgomery county, Pa. His marriage cer- 
tificate, dated November 6, 1766, states that he was a resident 
"of the township of Whitepain, in the county of Philadelphia, in 
the Province of Pennsylvania." It is in the possession of the 
subject of this sketch, his great-grandson, and is a remarkably 
well preserved document, being looked upon by its present 
owner as possessing a value far in advance of its intrinsic sub- 
stance. The document being historically interesting, is here 

Whereas, Jacob Kulp, of the Township of Whitepain, in the 
County of Philadelphia, in the Provence of Pennsylvania, and 
Mary Cleatnans, Daughter of Abraham Cleamans, of Lower Sol- 
ford, in the County and Provence aforesaid, having Published their 
Intentions of Marriage with each other according to law in that 
case provided, & nothing appearing to obstruct their proceed- 
ings, Did Appear at the house of Samuel Buchman, in the County 
and Provence aforesaid, on the 6th day of November, in ye year 
of our Lord 1766, in an Assembly for that occasion Mett; & 
the said Jacob Kulp, taking the said Mary Cleamans by the 
hand, Did, in a solemn manner, openly Declare that he took her 
to be his wife, promising, by the Lord's Assistance, to be unto 
her a Faithful & Loving husband until death should separate 
them ; and there & therein, in ye said Assembly, ye said Mary 
Cleamans Did, in Like manner, openly Declare that she took ye 
said Jacob Kulp to be her Husband, promising in like manner to 
unto him a Faithful & Loving wife until Death should separate 
them ; & there & then the said Jacob Kulp & Mary Cleamans, 
she, according to the Custom of Marriage, assuming ye name of 
her husband as a Further Confirmation thefefor. Did to these 
presents put their hands ; & we, whose names are underwritten, 
being amongst others present at the solemnization & subscription, 

George Brubaker Kulp. 


in manner aforesaid, Witnesses thereunto, have also set our hands 
the Day & Year written. 

Jacob Kolb. Mary x Kulb. 

Abraham Dawes. Wm. T. Miller. 

Joseph Mather. Levi Foulke. 

my his 

Samuel x Henriks. William x Nash. 

mark. mark. 

Andrew Barge. Henry Sweitzer. 

Sebastian Jarrett. Bernhardt Freyer. 

Samuel Bachman. ~ Geo. J. Keyder. 

Elisabeth Kolb. 
Done before me. 

Wm. Dewees. 

WiUiam Dewees, at the above date, was a resident of Chestnut 
Hill. The names of Bernhardt Freyer, Geo. J. Keyder, Samuel 
Bachman, and Elisabeth Kolb, attached to the above certificate, 
are written in German. 

Jacob Kulp had eight children, viz. : Abraham, Jacob, David 
C, Elizabeth, intermarried with Lloyd, Catharine, inter- 
married with Abraham Sellers, Mary, intermarried with David 
Reiner (Rev. Jacob K. Reiner, the venerable minister of the 
Dunker church, at Indian Creek, Montgomery county. Pa., is a 
son of David Reiner), Susanna, intermarried with Christian 
Stover, and Nancy, intermarried with John Snare. Mrs. Snare 
was the youngest child, and was born September 5, 1784. 

Abraham Kulp, who was the eldest son of Jacob, was born in 
Towamencin township, then in Philadelphia, now in Mont- 
gomery county, P^., July 19, 1770. His first wife, the grand- 
mother of Geo. B., was Barbara Sellers, the daughter of Leonard 
Sellers, and granddaughter of Philip Henry SoUer (now written 
Sellers), who emigrated to this country from Weinheim, Germany, 
in the ship "James Goodwill," David Crockett, master, from 
Rotterdam, September 11, 1728, accompanied by his wife and 
four children. He first settled near Skippack, Montgomery 
county, but soon thereafter purchased a considerable tract of 

150 George Brubaker Kulp. 

land near Sellersville, Bucks county. He ended his earthly 
pilgrimage near by, at the age of sixty-five, leaving seven sons 
and three daughters. Sellersville received its name from Hon. 
Samuel Sellers, a brother of Leonard, and who occupied a posi- 
tion in the Pennsylvania Legislature, from which the title of 
Honorable was acquired. He was also Sheriff of Bucks county. 
Hons. Tobias and Mahlon S. Sellers were members of the same 
family, which is spread over Bucks and Montgomery counties, 
to the discredit of neither. Abraham's second wife was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Daniel Wampole. She was born May 21, 177S, and 
died May 28, 1870, having lived a married life from March 12, 
1809, and a widow from 1847. Daniel Wampole was a son of 
Henry, of the same name, who emigrated from Germany with his 
brother, Frederick, in 1743, and purchased a large agricultural- 
t>act in Franconia township, on the north branch of the Perkio- 
men creek, in Montgomery county, where Daniel first saw the 
light of day. A genealogical history of the Wampole family is 
now being prepared by Rev. Jacob F. Wampole, of Freeburg, 
Snyder county. Pa. Abraham Kulp died February n, 1847, 
near Linden, Lycoming county. Pa. His only living son by his 
first wife is Elder Jacob S. Kulp, of Pleasant Hill, Mercer county, 
Ky. David C. Kulp, a brother of Abraham, was one of the most 
prominent and distinguished men of his native county of Mont- 
gomery. He was a Justice of the Peace in the county named for 
over forty years, and held the positions therein also of Treasurer, 
Auditor, Commissioner, and other county offices, all acceptably 
to the people he served. He was a good and faithful servant, 
whose memory abides green in the heads of those who knew him. 
Eli Sellers Kulp was the second son of Abraham, and the father 
of George B, He was born near Kulpsville, in Towamencin 
township, Montgomery county. Pa., on February 2, 1800, and 
removed to Saint Georges, Delaware, at an early day. He was 
a teacher by profession, and one of the leading educators of his 
day, whose heart was in the enterprise, and who gave time and 
talents to his duties irrespective of the trifling compensation 
awarded him. He was connected with the first Teachers' Asso- 
ciation of New Castle county, Delaware — the first, perhaps, in 
the State — as its President, and when he died, July 6, 1849, at 

George Brubaker Kulp. 151 

Saint Georges, Delaware, of cholera, the others attested their love 
of him by the adoption of the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That in the death of our worthy President, Mr. Eli 
S. Kulp, this association sustains a great and irreparable loss. 

Resolved, That we can bear testimony to the fair and impartial 
manner in which he discharged the duties of his office, and to his 
courtesy and gentlemanly deportment while a member of this 

Resolved, That we feel for the people of St. Georges, in the 
loss they have sustained, and we deeply sympathize with his 
family in their melancholy bereavement. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be published in the papers of 
Wilmington, and that a copy be sent to the family of the de- 

George Brubaker Kulp, lawyer and editor, was born at Reams- 
town, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, February 11, 1839. He 
had a common school education, but, suffering the loss of his 
father at an early age, was compelled to seek work on the canals 
and railroads to earn-a livelihood. While thus employed, most 
of his spare time was devoted to study, and with such good effect 
that at the age of seventeen he was found fitted for and entrusted 
with the charge of a village school, and this though he was left 
an orphan at the age of ten years. One year later, while yet 
pursuing the avocation of a teacher, he began the reading of the 
law. In the year 1853 he removed to Luzerne county, to whose 
bar he was admitted August 20, i860, having studied the law in 
the office of Lyman Hakes, Esq. He then entered into a legal 
partnership with Hon. W. G. Ward, of Scranton, Pa., under the 
firm name of Ward & Kulp. This partnership continued until 
January i, 1861. In October, i860, before he had arrived at the 
age of twenty-two, he was elected Register of Wills of the county 
for three years, and it was upon this fortunate circumstance, 
founded upon the esteem in which he was held, despite his 
extreme youth, that much of his after success was builded. In 
1863 he was re-elected for another three years by over three 
thousand majority. 

The limited education which his exertions had procured for 
him having netted him so handsomely thus early in life, it was 
small wonder that Mr. Kulp's thoughts were turned to the com- 

152 George Brubaker Kulp. 

mon schools as one of the most benign of out country's institu- 
tions, and as calling loudly for the aid and encouragement of all 
good citizens. In 1864 there were but three school houses, all 
one-story buildings, in the then borough, now city, of Wilkes- 
Barre, and at these there were but one hundred and eighty- 
seven scholars in attendance, and this in a borough with a popu- 
lation at that time of from six to seven thousand. In 1865 Mr. 
Kulp was elected a School Director, as were also Hon. Daniel 
L. Rhone, now President Judge of the Orphans' Court of this 
county, and the late Rev. Geo. D. Miles, of the Episcopal church. 
During that year, principally through the efforts of these three, 
the present large Washington school building was erected. In 
1866 ex-Governor Henry M. Hoyt and ex-Attorney General 
Henry W. Palmer became members of the board. This twain, 
seconding the progressive policy of the aforementioned trio, the 
handsome Franklin school building was soon in course of erec- 
tion, and before the close of the year it was completed and ready 
for occupancy. The number of scholars had now increased to 
six hundred and seventy-six, and at the conclusion of Mr. Kulp's 
directorship this number had augmented to seventeen hundred 
and sixteen. The Conyngham school was also built during Mr. 
Kulp's membership in the board, which covered a period of twelve 
years continuous service, ending in 1,876. , During most of this 
time he was either President or Secretary of the board, and upon 
his retirement his fellow directors unanimously passed the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution : 

Whereas, Our fellow member, Geo. B. Kulp, the presiding 
officer of this board, in consequence of his recent election to the 
important and honorable position of Councilman of the" city of 
Wilkes-Barre, has at this meeting of the School Board resigned 
as a member thereof; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the School Board of the city of Wilkes-Barre, 
. that we, his colleagues, desire thus publicly to testify our regret 
at his retirement from this body, and our admiration of the indus- 
try, integrity, and ability with which he has discharged, for the 
past twelve consecutive years, the duties of a member of the 
School Board of this city. 

It is worthy of remark that during Mr. Kulp's term as a School 
Director three colored men, who afterward achieved marked dis- 

George Brubaker Kulp. 153 

tinction, were employed as teachers of the colored school in the 
borough. These were Hon. J. J. Wright, subsequently Judge of 
the Supreme Court of South Carolina, Hon. John H. Smythe, 
present Minister to Liberia, and Geo. W, Mitchell, at one time 
Professor of Latin and Greek in the noted Howard University. 

Mr. Kulp was appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury, on 
January 29, 1867, Assistant Assessor of Internal Revenue for the 
Twelfth Congressional District. On June 11, of the same year, 
he was appointed specially by the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue to make assessments for all taxes imposed on legacies 
and distributive shares of personal property and succession to 
real estate in Luzerne county. These two offices he held until 
June, 1869. He was attorney for the county, with but one years 
intermission, from November 13, 1874, to January, 1879, and in 
that office, as is attested by all cognizant of the facts, did the 
county signal service. 

In 1876 he was chosen a member of the City Council, in which 
body he continued until 1882, during which six years he was one 
of the most conspicuous of its debaters, and one of the most 
stubborn contestants for the rights of the people. Principally 
through his efforts, he succeeded in having the Court House 
tower lighted every evening and the mall along the river bank 
provided with seats. There was also a reduction of the tax rate, 
and while the city was paying twenty dollars for water plugs per , 
year on Mr. Kulp's entrance to the Council, upon his retirement 
they paid only twelve dollars and a half per year. In the same 
manner with gas posts, Mr. Kulp had the price reduced from 
forty-four dollars to seventeen dollars and a half each per year, 
and during his service in the Council the city was lighted with 
gasoline for three years, owing to the fact that the gas company 
were unwilling to take the price offered by Mr. Kulp and his col- 
leagues. The debt of the city was also reduced from ;^i46,i25.o6 
to ^46,584.45. Upon his retirement from the City Council, the 
following resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Council of the city of Wilkes- 
Barre are eminently due, and are hereby tendered, to Geo. B. 
Kulp for his faithful service and fidelity to duty as a member of 
the Council from the Fourth ward, he now voluntarily retiring. 

154 George Brubaker Kulp. 

after a continuous service of five years and ten months, signalized 
by an integrity of purpose, honesty of action, and devotion to 
pure and economical government. 

Resolved, That in his retirement the city loses the services of 
one who has ever firmly adhered to the best interests of her peo- 
ple; one who, by his devoted efforts, has ably contributed to 
retrenchment in all departments of the municipal government, 
and economy in the expenditure of public moneys. 

Resolved, That the clerk enter these resolutions in full upon 
the minutes of the Council, and that a copy, properly attested, be 
presented to Mr. Kulp. 

In January, 1872, he established the Luzerne Legal Register, of 
which publication he is still editor and proprietor, confessedly 
one of the best legal publications in the State. He has also in 
preparation a history of the Bench and Bar of Luzerne County. 
This work when completed will be one of the most valuable his- 
torical and genealogical histories ever published in the county. 
In February, 1877, in connection with Jos. K. Bogert, he estab- 
lished the Leader, a weekly Democratic newspaper, which, in 
January, 1879, absorbed the Luzerne Union, then the only other 
Democratic paper (English) in the county, and became the 
Union-Leader. In October, of the latter year, a daily edition of 
the Union-Leader was established by the firm, from which Mr. 
Kirlp retired in April, 1880, his interest having been purchased 
by Mr. Bogert. 

In addition to the editorial labors thus recorded, Mr. Kulp has 
compiled and published two legal works of great local value, 
being the Rules of the Courts, of which a second edition has been 
emitted, and an Index to and Digest of the Corporations and 
Local Laws of Luzerne County. He is also the publisher of the 
Luzerne Legal Register Reports, of which one volume has been 
issued, and another is in preparation. 

Mr. Kulp is a member of the Wyoming Historical and Geolog- 
ical Society, and of the Southern Historical Society. He has a 
choice library bf over seven hundred volumes, mostly of a histo- 
rical and biographical character, many of them rare and valuable 

Mr. Kulp is a man of very pronounced political convictions, 
and has frequently been a delegate to City, County, and State 

George Brubaker Kulp. 155 

Democratic Conventions. That he is a lawyer of no mean merit, 
the positions he has held, ar^d the legal publications he has issued, 
amply attest. That he is one of his adopted city's most useful 
and enterprising citizens, has its proof in the record of his services 
in the School Board and in the City Council, much of the legis- 
lation of which latter body has been the creation of his genius 
and perseverance, though it was, perhaps, in obstructing and pre- 
venting the passage of mischievous ordinances, to the preparation 
and posibilities of which insufficient or purblind thought had 
been paid, that his services have been most valuable to the city. 
In this way he has saved the citizens many thousands of dollars 
in taxes, and the corporation many possibly costly law suits. In 
the care of the interests of the poor he has been especially zeal- 
ous, and while his blunt and straightforward manners, his con- 
tempt for that nice diplomacy which characterizes the conduct of 
many public men, sometimes awakens against him considerable 
antagonism, time and reflection is always certain to set him right 
in the eyes of the people, as his frequent re-election to the School 
Board and the Council in a ward politicallj'- opposed to him by a 
large majority conclusively prove. His success is the result of 
earnest purpose; determination which never flags; exactness and 
promptness in the transactions of business; a deep sympathy 
with others wants ; a sacred regard for his word, and a faithful 
discharge of all obligations, with a settled purpose of right, which 
knows no such word as fail. 

Mr. Kulp has never teen an aspirant for official position for 
mere profit, and yet there are few years of his life during which 
he has not been in office. The positions he has held have mostly 
been, however, those in which service has been given gratis to 
the public, and solely for the public's good. And in these posi- 
tions he has left the impress of his genius and his industry more 
markedly upon the record of this city, perhaps, than that of any 

other man. 

Mr. Kulp has succeeded professionally and as a citizen far be- 
yond, perhaps, his own ambitious expectations, at the starting 
out— a fact due to his indomitable energy and his unswerving 
insistance, everywhere and upon all occasions, in behalf of his 
own rights and the rights of those he has been, from time to time, 

156 George Brubaker Kulp. 

called upon to represent. He is a tall man, broad shouldered, of 
conspicuously strong vitality, and not a few wish and believe him 
destined to many more years of great usefulness to his friends 
and the people generally. 

The mother of George B. is Susanna B. Kulp, daughter of the 
late Samuel Breneiser, of Lancaster, Pa. She is still living, at 
the age of seventy-four years, and resides at Reading, Pa. He 
was the son of John Valentine Breneiser, who came to this 
country September 5, 1730, in the ship "Alexander and Ann," 
from Rotterdam. Her mother was Susanna, daughter of George 
Schwartz, of Reading, Pa. She died a few years ago, at the age 
of ninety-five. Mr. Schwartz was a native of Oley, Berks county, 
and kept a hotel at the corner of Seventh and Penn streets, 
Reading, Pa., for over forty years. He was born in 1750, and 
died in 1830. 

On October 4, 1864, Mr. Kulp married Mary E. Stewart, eldest 
daughter of John Stewart, of Scranton, Pa. They have three 
children living, two sons and a daughter. The grandparents 
of Mr. Stewart came from Londondery, Ireland, shortly after the 
Revolutionary war, and settled in Dauphin county, Pa., at or near 
Harrisburg, where the grandparents of Mr. Stewart are buried. 
The grandfather's Christian name was also John. John Stewart, 
the-second, was a child when his parents emigrated to America. 
In 1802 he removed to Philadelphia, and in 1823 to Pittston, 
where he died in 1829. He married in 1806 Jane Stuart, also of 
Londondery, who survived him many years. The father of Mrs. 
Kulp is a native of Philadelphia, where he was born in the year 
1820. The mother of Mrs. Kulp is Elizabeth A. Stewart, a 
daughter of the late Ezra Williams, of Wilkes-Barre (now Plains) 
township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania. He was a descendant 
of Robert Williams, of Roxbury, Mass., who emigrated to this 
country from England in 1637. Ezra's grandfather, Thaddeus 
Williams, moved to the Wyoming Valley from Connecticut 
at an early day. He was driven from the valley at the time of 
the Massacre in 1778, his house and barn was burned by the 
enemy, his cattle stolen, his harvest almost entirely destroyed — 
a spot here and there by chance only preserved. He afterwards 
returned and settled in Wilkes-Barre. In 1790 he was a resident 

George Brubaker Kulp. 157 

of Weston, Conn. He died April 11, 1796. His wife, Frances 
Williams, nee Case, of Hartford, Conn., died in August, 181 5. 
Thomas Williams, son of Thaddeus, was born in Fairfield county. 
Conn., January 19, 1756. Fired by the love of liberty, partici- 
pating with the patriotic spirits of that day, who were indignant 
at the encroachments of England upon the rights of America, he 
was among the first that joined the standard of his country at 
Wyoming when the recruiting banner was unfurled by order of 
the Continental Congress. In the '' Hazleton Travellers," written 
by Hon. Charles Miner,/ the historian of Wyoming, we find the 
following sketch of Thomas Williams : " It is not my purpose to 
follow the Wyoming troops through their several campaigns. 
Mr. Williams was with them in constant service till their final 
discharge, except when allowed to return on furlough (which was 
a frequent practice in the service), when a brother or friend took 
his place for a season. Thus at one time Mr. Williams' brother, 
Isaac, took his place for a month or two. The year of the Mas- 
sacre Isaac Williams and John Abbott were ambushed by the 
savages, and both murdered and scalped, near Mill Creek. Isaac 
was only eighteen when he fell. He was fearless and active, 
ardent and patriotic. It is impossible, even at this late day, ta 
think of his melancholy fate without the most painful emotions. 
He fell in the bloom of youth, in the dream of a most promising 
manhood. But these were times of gr^at trial and suffering. 
The deprivation of those nearest and dearest was a source of 
ordinary affliction. It was the common lot. In March, 1779, 
the spring after the battle, a large body of Indians came down on 
the Wyoming settlements. So broken were our people by that 
fatal invasion that they were few in number, weak and illy pre- 
pared for defense, although a body of troops was stationed in the 
valley for their protection. The savages were estimated to exceed 
four hundred men. They scattered abroad over the settlement, 
murdering, burning, taking prisoners, robbing houses, and driving 
away cattle. After doing much injury they concentrated their 
forces to make an attack on the fort in Wilkes-Barre, situated on 
the river bank (just in front of the present residence of Hon. 
Stanley Woodward). Thaddeus Williams, father of Thomas 
Williams, of whom I am now speaking, occupied a house not far 

158 George Brubaker Kulf. 

from where the late Judge Fell lived (near the corner of North- 
ampton and Washington streets), and who for many years kept a. 
public house. The Indians deemed it important to take this 
house before the attack on the fort should be made, and a detach- 
ment of twenty or thirty was sent for that purpose. It happened 
that Sergeant Williams was then at home. His father was unwell 
in bed. A lad, a- younger brother, of twelve or thirteen, was the 
only other male person with them, so that the task of defending 
the house fell entirely on Sergeant Williams. The odds were fear- 
fully against him, the chances of success or escape desperate, but 
the call of duty to defend his parents from the tender mercies of 
the savages was imperious. He had been out in the service, and 
was familiar with danger. Naturally brave, being young and 
ardent, he resolved to do his utmost, and -he did his duty like a 
hero. There were three guns in the house, all charged. The 
lad was directed as he fired to reload the pieces as well as he 
could, which the little fellow faithfully did. The enemy rushed 
up to the door, but it was barricaded, so that they could not force 
it open. Sergeant Williams, aiming through the logs, fired, and 
one of the enemy fell, when they fled, with a hideous yell, drag- 
ging away the wounded Indian. But, rallying again, they rushed 
up, surrounded the house, and several found places through 
which to fire. The sick father received by a ball a severe wound 
in the side, but Sergeant Williams was not idle. He fired several 
times, is certain of bringing another down, and thinks a third, 
when the party again retreated. The next time they came on 
with brands of fire, and the fate of the beseiged seemed almost 
certamly sealed, but Mr. Williams getting sight of the savage 
who had the brand, took deliberate aim and fired. The savage 
fell, and his companions, dragging him away, with terrible yells, 
withdrew, and Williams was victorious. There is no doubt that 
the lives of his parents and the whole family were preserved by 
his courage and spirit. It was a glorious affair, and reflects on 
Mr. Williams the highest honor. How many he slew could not 
be known, as the Indians make it a point to carry off their dead, 
if possible. After the savages retired from Wyoming, Mr. 
Williams rejoined his company, and continued in the service till 
the close of the war. Thus, in the revolutionary contest, the 

George Bruisaker Kulp. 159 

father was wounded, a brother was slain, and Mr. Williams him- 
self served in the regular army for several years, besides defend- 
ing the house against so formidable an attack." 

Thomas Williams married in 1782 Elizabeth Robertson, of 
Bethel, Conn. He lived at Danbury, Conn., until the spring of 
1790, when he removed again to Wyoming, living until his death 
in the present township of Plains, rearing a family of six sons 
and four daughters, of whom Ezra was the third son. The fol- 
lowing obituary notice is from the Republican Farmer and 
Demoa-atic Journal of November 20, 1839: "Died, at his resi- 
dence in the township of Wilkes-Barre (now Plains), on November 
12, 1839, Thomas Williams, one of the oldest and most respecta- 
ble inhabitants of the vallfey. The whole life of Mr. Williams 
has been an eminent example of industry, sobri.ety, usefulness, 
and patriotism, worthy to be followed by all. He bore an hon- 
orable part in the Revolutionary struggle, and to the end of his 
life has manifested a lively devotion to the cause of liberty, to 
which he devoted the prime of his days. He has reared a 
numerous and respectable family, who are justly esteemed for 
their intelligence and excellent moral character, and who on all 
occasions have shown an ardent zeal in support of the principles 
for which their father fought. He rests with his compatriots 
who have gone before him, whose memories are embalmed in 
the hearts of freemen." 

Ezra Williams was a native of Luzerne county, where he was 
born September 24, 1791. He died September 21, 1844. He 
married in February, 18 18, Mary Black, daughter of Henry 
Black, of Bucks county, Pa. The maiden ^name of Mrs. Black 
was Catharine Schattenger. Mrs. Williams was born February 
27, 1792, and died July 10, 1869. 

i6o Thomas Hart Benton Lewis. 


Next in the order of seniority as a member of the Luzerne 
county bar to the subject of our last preceding sketch comes 
Thomas Hart Benton Lewis. Mr. Lewis is a native Luzerne 
countian, having been born in Trucksville, Kingston township, 
February 22, 1835. He is consequently at this writing consid- 
erably more than forty-eight years of age. His father is James 
Rowley Lewis, a native of Petersburg, Rensselaer county, N. Y. 
He has practiced as a physician in this county over fifty-one 
years, and is now the oldest in years of our medical practitioners. 
His first wife was Janette Hess, of Schoharie, N. Y. He was a 
teacher in Schoharie county, N. Y., until he removed to Penn- 
sylvania over half a century ago. The mother of the subject of 
our sketch was Nancy, a daughter of Alexander Ferguson, who 
lived near Delaware Station, Warren county, N. J., where Mrs. 
Lewis was born, but who afterwards removed to Dallas, in this 
county, where he died. She was a lady of many virtues, and not 
a few mental endowments. 

From such progenitors came one of the least pretentious, but 
one of the most painstaking and reliable attorneys on the roll of 
the courts of Luzerne. Mr. Lewis was prepared for college at 
Wyoming Seminary, in Kingston, where so many of our best and 
most successful citizens received their preliminary education. 
From here he entered the University at Lewisburg, fi'om which 
he graduated with honors in the year 1858. His legal attainments 
were acquired in the office and under the tutelage of the late 
Charles Denison,than whom he could have had no more talented 
mentor. He was admitted to the bar August 22, i860, soon 
, achieving a creditable practice. ' 

In the Centennial year Mr. Lewis, who had been a faithful fol- 
lower of the Democratic party during all its ups and downs, was 
chosen a member of the State Legislature, as a Democrat, 
although from the Republican Second district. In this position, 
both as a committeeman and on the floor of the chamber, he did 

Thomas. Hart Benton Lewis. i6i 

his party and his constituents all that it was possible for one man 
to do, being a Democrat in a Republican body, and showed him- 
self possessed of many of the qualities and capacities of which 
statesmen are made. He has frequently been a member of the 
Town Council, and Secretary of that body, in our neighboring 
borough of Kingston, where he has long resided and still abides, 
and for whose advancement as a borough he has done signal 
service. He is at present a member of the School Board of that 

On May 17, 1865, he married Rosa M., a daughter of J. A. 
Atherton, of Bridgewater, Susquehanna county. Pa. Mr. and 
Mrs. Lewis have a family of six children, three sons and three 
daughters, the oldest being a son, now seventeen years of age. 

Mr. Lewis is a leading Presbyterian, having been a ruling elder 
in the Kingston church of that denomination continuously since 
1867, and was for five years superintendent of the Sabbath-school 
attached to the church. 

Perhaps his most marked characteristic is his quietness of 
demeanor — his total lack of ostentation. He has, nevertheless, 
the quality of geniality, and to those who know him is always 
friendly and sociable. He is a pleasant companion, and, on those 
subjects which most interest him, a fluent and, at times, an ani- 
mated conversationalist. As a lawyer, he is studious, industrious, 
religiously faithful to a client, and generally successful with his 
cases. He figures but little in the Quarter Sessions, but in the 
Common Pleas has realized a considerable practice, while in what 
is called ofifice practice he does a paying and successful business. 
He is a man of ordinary height, of average build, and in many 
respects prepossessing in appearance. 

1 62 GusTAV Hahn. 


Gustav Hahn was born near Stuttgart, in the Kingdom of 
Wirtemburg, now a part of the great German Empire, on the 23d 
of October, 1830. His primary education was acquired in the 
Lycedm at Reuthngen, from which he entered the University of 
Tubingen, where he graduated with honors. At the age of nine- 
teen, under the law of Germany, he entered the army, and was 
exceptionally fortunate in being in the service but two years, 
graduating therefrom after a full military course. Being animated 
by the desire of so many of his countrymen, he decided to emi- 
grate to a new land, and on September 22, 1854, reached the 
United States. Two months later he came to Wilkes-Barre, and 
immediately entered the printing office of Robert Baur, editor 
and proprietor of the Democratic Waechter, at that time the only 
German Democratic publication in this section of the country. 
He did chores for the office, served the paper to its comparatively 
numerous subscribers, and learned the art of type-setting, and 
subsequently came to be a writer for its columns of such conse- 
quence that what he wrote was feared by its enemies and vene- 
rated by its friends. In 1855 he entered the law office of ex-Judge 
E. L. Dana as a student of the law, and afterwards that of the 
present Additional Law Judge, Hon. Stanley Woodward, from 
which he was admitted to the bar, as a practitioner in the courts 
of Luzerne county, February 18, 1861. During most of this 
time, that is to say, from 1856 to i860, Mr. Hahn was Professor 
of Modern Languages in Wyoming Seminary, at Kingston, and 
for six months preceding his admission as a lawyer he was a 
clerk in the office of the Prothonotary of the county, where he 
acquired a knowledge of the forms and methods of practice in 
the Common Pleas that has been of rare value to him ever since. 

The enticements of the law, or of education, did not suffice, 
however, to drown in Mr. Hahn the elements of patriotism to the 
country of his adoption, and on April 20, 1861, he enlisted in the 
Wyoming Jaegers, a noted military company in that day, which 

GusTAV Hahn. i6i 

marched to the State Capital the morning following, when Mr. 
-Hahn was elected Secon,d Lieutenant of the, company, which 
entered the service of Uncle Samdom as Co. G, Eighth Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. The company was sworn in for three 
months. During the Antietam and South Mountain campaign 
Mr. Hahn was Captain of Co. K, Nineteenth Raiment Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, with which company he remained in command 
until they were discharged, upon the retirement of the enemy. 
But for disability contracted in the army while in Germany, Mr. 
Hahn would have remained in the service. In 1864 he was ap- 
pointed a United States Commissioner, which office he still hon- 
orably retains. 

Mr. -Hahn married, December 7, 1861, Mehetabel A. Munson, 
a descendant of Richard Monson, or Munson, an early Puritan 
of New Hampshire. The family afterwards removed to New 
Haven, and from there to Wallingford, Conn. The greatgrand- 
father of Mrs. Hahn was Wilmot Munsqn, of Wallingford, where 
he was born July 23, 1755, He was the son of Obadiah Munson. 
Wilmot Munson was one of the earliest Connecticut settlers at 
Wyoming, and occupied a farm on the banks of ttie Susquehanna 
river below Port Blanchard, but returned to Connecticut before 
the Massacre in 1778. Walter Munson, Mrs. Hahn's grandfather, 
remained in Connecticut until he reached manhood. After his 
marriage with Mehetabel Trowbridge, he removed to Dutchess 
county, N. Y., and from there to Greene county, and thence to 
Luzerne county, in 1807. The father of Mrs. Hahn is Salmon 
Munson, who was born on the homestead of his father, in Franklin 
township, December 13, 1808, and where he still resides. The 
mother of Mrs. Hahn was Ruhamah Munson, w^^ Lewis, a native 
of Orange county, N. Y. Her father was Oliver Lewis. The late 
Revs. Oliver Lewis and George Lewis were her nephews, as are 
also Revs. Joshua S. Lewis and George C. Lewis, of the Wyoming 

The Hahns are an old and distinguished German family, and 
the representative thereof, of whom we now write, is a bright 
and prosperous lawyer, besides being a popular citizen, who, as 
President of the Wilkes- Barre Saengerbund, and in other civic 
and military organizations, has earned a credit that cannot easily 

164 Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 

be overstated. He is a gentleman full of fun of a good-natured 
order, and nobody who thoroughly knows can dislike him. 


Edwin Sylvanus Osborne was born in Bethany, Wayne county, 
Pennsylvania, on the 7th day of August, 1839. He is a graduate 
of the University of Northern Pennsylvania, located in his native 
town, and of the National Law School, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
from which he graduated in i860. He is a descendant of John 
Osborne, who came from England, and settled in East Windsor, 
Connecticut, prior to May 19, 1645, and who married Ann Oldage. 
They had a son, Samuel, who married and had a son, Jacob, who 
married and had a son, Thomas, who married and had a son. 
Cooper, who married Hannah Oakley; they had a son, Sylvanus, 
who was the father of Edwin Sylvanus, the subject of our sketch. 
The father of Cooper Osborne was a soldier in the Continental 
army, and was killed at the battle of Monmouth, New Jersey. 
Hannah Oakley was the daughter of Ephraim Oakley, who 
married Susanna Raymond, and the granddaughter of Sylvanus 
Oakley, who was a man of wealth, and died possessed of large 
estates in New York City and New Jersey. Susanna Raymond 
was the sister of Col. Raymond, who served with distinction on 
the staff of Gen. Washington during the Revolutionary war. 
Ephriam Oakley was also an officer in the Continental army. 
Cooper Osborne, who was a native of Litchfield county, Con- 
necticut, and Hannah Oakley, a native of Scotch Plains, New 
Jersey, were married in 1798, and settled in what is now Dyberry 
township, Wayne county, Pennsylvania. The country was then 
a wild forest. He bought some land, began a clearing, and 
built a log house. Here Sylvanus was born in September, 1812. 
Cooper died in 18 18, leaving to survive him his widow, Hannah, 
and six children. They struggled along under the management 
of their widowed mother, who was a woman of great energy and 

Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 165 

determination of character, kept their home, and equipped them- 
selves for the active duties of life. She died in 1856, where she 
had lived long enough to see the wilderness subdued into culti- 
vated fields, mourned by her kindred and beloved by all who 
knew her. 

In 1836 Sylvanus Osborne married Lucy, a daughter of Cyrus 
Messenger, of Bridgewater, Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, 
who descended from Henry Messenger and his wife, Sarah, who 
resided in Boston prior to the year 1640. Henry was born in 
1618 in England. He was the first known proprietor of the land 
on which now stands the building owned and occupied by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society and a part of that now covered 
by the Boston Museum. He was by trade a joiner, and died in 
168 1. He had a son, Thomas, born March 22, 1661, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Mellows. They had a son, Ebenezer, born in 
Boston, Mass., June 2, 1697, who married, first, Rebecca Sweetser, 
resided in Boston, afterwards in Wrentham, Mass. He married, 
second, Hannah Metcalf. He died June 9, 1768. By first wife 
had a son, Wigglesworth, born December .16, 1743, and died 
November 26, 1818. He (Wigglesworth) married Jemima Everett, 
of Wrentham, who was the sister of Rev. Oliver Everett, father 
of Hon. Edward Everett, long and favorably known to the 
American people. They had a son,. Cyrus, born October 26, 
1776, and died April 26, 1858. He was the father of Lucy (the 
mother of the subject of our sketch), who was born October 27, 
1 8 16, and died December 21, 1844. 

Gen. Osborne read law in the office of Hon. Charles Denison, 
and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county on the 26th of 
FeJDruary, 1861. 

In April, 1861, when the late civil war broke out, he enlisted- 
as a private in Company C, Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, and served in the campaign of 1861 with Gen. Patterson's 
division. The late Gen. Wm. Brisbane, of this city, was Captain, 
and among the privates were A. M. Bailey, Hon. D. L. Rhone, 
E. H. Chase, J. B. Conyngham, Lyman R. Nicholson, and Joseph 
Wright, members of the bar of Luzerne county. Lieut. Nichol- 
son was subsequently killed at the battle of Gettysburg, and Capt. 
Wright and Lieut. Col. Conyngham died from disease contracted 

1 66 Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 

in the service. Subsequently Gen. Osborne was authorized by- 
Governor Curtin to recruit a company, and was mustered in as 
Captain, to rank from August 22, 1862. His regiment was 
assigned to the First Corps, Army of the Potomac. From 
September, 1862, until February, 1863, he served upon the staff 
of Gen. Wadsworth. In February, 1863, at his own request, he 
was returned to his regiment, and served with it until August, 
1863, when he was again detailed for staff duty, and appointed 
Assistant Inspector General. He remained with the First Corps 
until it was consolidated with the Fifth Corps, when he was 
assigned to duty with the First Division of that corps; remained 
with this division until September, 1864, when he was transferred 
to the Third Division of the Fifth Corps, and remained with this 
command until the close of the war. He participated with the 
Army of the Potomac in all the battles in which that army was 
engaged after he joined it. He was on several occasions highly 
complimented in orders for gallant conduct and skillful handling 
of troops in the face of the enemy. He was commissioned Major 
of his regiment, was three times breveted for meritorious conduct,' 
and shortly after the surrender of Lee was appointed a Judge 
Advocate, with the rank of Major, in the regular army. While 
Judge Advocate he was detailed by the Secretary of War on 
several important missions, among which was to investigate the 
charges preferred against citizens of Pennsylvania, held by mili- 
tary authority, and report to the Secretary of \yar what action, 
according to the law and evidence, would be proper in each case. 
Through his recommendation those so held were set at liberty, 
or turned over to the civil authorities. He was also sent by the 
War Department to Macon, Andersonville, and other points in 
the South to investigate and report upon the treatment given 
Union soldiers while held as prisoners of war by the South. 
This investigation led to the arrest and trial of Capt. Wertz, of 
Andersonville. The charges preferred by the United States 
Government against Wertz were drawn by him, and he prepared 
the case for trial. After performing this duty he offered his 
resignation, which, after some hesitation, was accepted by the 
Secretary of War, and he returned to Wilkes-Barre and resumed 
the practice of law. 

Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 167 

In 1S70, when the organization of the National Guard was 
authorized by the General Assembly, he was appointed by Gov. 
Geary, with the consent of the Senate, Major General of the 
Third Division, covering the northeastern portion of the State. ' 
This position he held for ten years. In the exercise of the duties 
of this office he has been prominently before the public on several 
occasions, but more particularly during the long strike among 
the miners in 1871. At this time the military, consisting of three 
regiments and a battery of artillery, were stationed in Scranton 
for several months. It was during this strike that two men were 
killed, presumably by a miner named Kearns, while being escorted 
with W. W. Scranton, then Superintendent of the Lackawanna 
Iron and Coal Company, to Briggs' shaft, which was being ope- 
rated under the protection of the military. Kearns was indicted 
and tried for murdering the two men, but was successfully 
defended by Gen. Orborne and acquitted, and the strike was con- 
cluded. When the difficulties between the New York and Erie 
Railroad Company and their shop men at Susquehanna Depot, in 
March, 1874, assumed such a shape as to make it necessary to 
invoke the military power of the State, Governor Hartranft 
ordered Maj. Gen. Osborne to the scene of action, and placed him 
in command. Tvyo regiments, one of which was the First Regi- 
ment of National Guards of Pennsylvania, were stationed there. 
They were from Philadelphia, and commanded by Col. R. Dale 
Benson. There was also a battery of artillery. Without any 
attempt at display, or offense in the exercise of military authority, 
in a very short time and without accident, he succeeded in open- 
ing the railroad to travel, and in settling the difficulties between 
the parties by amicable adjustment. In the spring of 1875 
another strike occurred at Hazleton, in this county, and Gen. 
Osborne was placed in command of the same men he had at 
Susquehanna Depot. They were stationed there for two months, 
and the strike was subdued without the loss a single man, or the 
destruction of any property. 

Gen. Osborne was the originator of the system of the National 
Guards of Pennsylvania, and it was by his efforts that the Legis- 
lature, in 1873, repealed the militia tax. 

In 1874 he received the unanimous nomination of the Repub- 

i68 Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 

lican party for Additional Law Judge of Luzerne county, but was 
defeated, it is claimed by many, through prejudice against him 
caused by his being at the head of the military during the strikes 

" in the coal regions. In this city, where he was best known, he 
received a majority of four hundred and ninety-six votes, although 
the political parties were about equally divided. 

Gen. Osborne is the Commander of the Department of Penn- 

• sylvania of the Grand Army of the Republic, and also one of the 
Directors of the Public Schools of the Third School District of 
this city. 

Edward Ball came from England and settled in Branford, 
Connecticut, prior to 1640. He was one of the commissioners 
sent in 1660 from Branford and Milford, in Connecticut, to view 
the country and lands in New Jersey. They returned and 
reported favorably, and were sent back with power to select a 
site for a town and make a purchase. The result at that time 
was a purchase of the township of Newark by its ancient boun- 
daries. The Indians called the town Passaic, but the inhabitants 
called it Newark, after a town in England, from which the Rev. 
Mr. Pierson, their pastor, had come. Trumbull, the historian, 
says that Mr. Pierson and almost his whole church and congre- 
gation soon removed from Connecticut to Newark, and carried 
with them the church records. This removal took place some 
time previous to the 24th of June, 1667. Edward Ball lived in 
Newark, N. J.; was Sheriff of the county of Essex in 1693. In 
1678 Edward Ball and Daniel Dodd were appointed to run the 
northern line of the town of Newark from Passaic river to the 
mountains. He had a son, Thomas, who had a son, David, who 
had a son, Stephen, who was put to death by the British at 
Bergen Point, January 29, 1781, in consequence of his activity 
and daring as^a partizan patriot. He left a widow, two daughters, 
and a son, Ezekiel, who was the father of William. William Ball 
settled in Carbondale in its early days, and "for many years occu- 
pied an important position with the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company. He was a first-class man in every respect, and stood 
in the front rank with the men of energy and enterprise who 
projected and opened the coal mines at Carbondale, and built 
and operated the railroad from that place to Honesdale. He 

Edwin Sylvanus Osborne. 169 

married Mary Ann Smith, a daughter of Capt. Charles Smith, a 
sister of John B. Smith, superintendent of the Pennsylvania Coal 
Company, at Dunmore, and of Mrs. Jasper B. Stark, of Wilkes- 
Barre. He died at Carbondale May 11, 1858. Gen. Osborne 
was married to Ruth Ann Ball October 12, 1865. She is the 
daughter of William Ball, and a lineal descendant of Edward 
Ball, above alluded to. They have a family of six children, four 
boys and two girls. The eldest of whom, John Ball Osborne, is 
at this writing sixteen years of age. 

Gen. Osborne is a man of medium size, and of such a deport- 
ment as must needs commend a man to any company. He is 
fluent of tongue, and ready at any time to employ its powers in 
any good cause. As the head of the Grand Army of the Republic 
in Pennsylvania, he has done a duty and achieved a popularity 
that will cause him to be long and greatfully remembered, not 
only by the war-worn veterans of the Keystone State and their 
kin, but by all who have an interest in the maintenance of free 
institutions. He is a well read lawyer, ardent and eloquent as a 
pleader, logical and forcible as a reasoner, and one who, before 
any jury, would establish whatever was merit in his case. His 
quietness and resolution are his marked characteristics, and no 
man or woman ever gave him a fee without feeling, when the 
case was ended, that he had earned it. As a soldier, he earned 
laurels that will remain ever green in many memories. He was 
not of those who were in the front only when they could not get 
in the rear. This was, perhaps, inherited, as one of his great- 
grandfathers was killed at the battle of Monmouth fighting for 
the independence of his country. In connection with the build- 
ing up and sustenance of the i.iilitary organizations of our State, 
organized since the war, his soldierly qualities have been almost 
invaluable. He is, and has for some time been, a School Director 
in the district in which he resides, and no man sitting on the 
board with him is more urgent that everything done should be 
for the best po.ssible education of the children of the masses, or. 
is better posted as to the manner in which that result could be 
achieved. To sum it all up, as a soldier, a lawyer, and an educa- 
tor, Wilkes-Barre has had few citizens who have contributed as 
much to its glory and its advancement as Gen. E. S. Osborne. 

170 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 


Daniel La Porte Rhone was born near the village of Cambra, 
in the township of Huntington, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, 
January 19, 1838. His grandfather, Matthias Rahn, as the name 
was then spelled, was a native of Lehigh county. The Rahns, a 
somewhat numerous family, even at that early day, lived at and 
near the city of Allentown. In his early manhood, Matthias 
Rahn removed to and settled on Raven Creek, in Benton town- 
ship, Columbia county. This township of Columbia adjoins 
Luzerne, and is adjacent to Cambra. Here the father of Judge 
Rhone was born, August 4, 1804. The wife of Matthias, and 
grandmother of the subject of our sketch, was Naomi La Porte. 
In the " History of Pennsylvania," by William H. Egle, M. D., 
under the head of "Bradford County," we find the following: 

"The echoes of the war of our Revolution scarcely had died 
away, ere they were answered back from the other side of the 
Atlantic. France had been among the first of the great European 
nations to recognize our independence, and with men and money 
had generously assisted the new born government in its conflict 
with her ancient rival. The watchwords of liberty, freedom, and 
equal rights had been caught up by a people suffering from the 
evils of a mismanaged and extravagant government, until they 
were ready not only to reform the abuses with which centuries 
of profligacy had burdened the nation, but to run into the other 
extreme of riot and anarchy. The story of the French Revolution 
is too familiar with all readers of history to be here repeated. 
Multitudes who were in sympathy with the ancient order of 
things, or preferred reformation to revolution, fled the country, 
and many of them turned their steps toward our own land for 
protection and a home. 

"The insurrection of the blacks in the French colony at St. 
Domingo sent another company of French refugees to our shores. 
Many of these were not only homeless, but without means, hav- 
ing left everything behind them, and fled for their lives. To the 

Daniel La Porte Rhone. 171 

more favored of their countrymen it became a serious question 
how they could best provide for the necessities of their unfortu- 
nate friends, without having them pensioners upon their bounty. 
"Viscount Louis de Noailles, who was a brother-in-law to 
. Lafayette, a general in the French army which assisted in the 
war of the Revolution, and was selected on the part of the French 
to receive the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, and Omer 
Talon, a banker of Paris, in consultation with John Nicholson 
and Robert Morris, decided to form a company, purchase a large 
tract of unimproved land, and selecting a favorable location, col- 
onize such of the refugees as were not otherwise provided for. 
Accordingly negotiations were entered into with Messrs. Nichol- 
son and Morris for the purchase of one million acres of wild land, 
provided a location suitable for a settlement could be secured. 
The plan which was attempted to be carried out was, that each 
colonist should have the privilege of purchasing a home lot in the 
town, or could rent it of the company, and by improving a given 
number of acres of the wild land should have liberty of purchasing 
four hundred acres, at a stipulated price. This plan, which they 
were led to believe would result in great fortunes to the com- 
pany, it was found necessary to modify, and finally to abandon. 
The place selected for the settlement was a comparatively level 
plain, lying in the bend of the river, opposite and above the old 
Indian meadows. On account of the conflicting titles, Mr. Morris 
applied to Judge Hollenback to negotiate the purchase of both 
the Connecticut and Pennsylvania claims of several hundred acres. 
This was regularly laid out into village lots, and M. Talon was 
sent on to oversee the arrangements necessary to be made for the 
reception of the colonists. The first tree was cut December i, 
1793. Before spring a number of log houses were erected, and 
the colonists began to flock to their new homes. They called 
their town Asylum, which name it has ever since retained. They 
immediately set about surrounding themselves with the appliances 
of comfort and refinement to which they had been accustomed 
at home. Stores and shops were opened and filled with goods 
brought directly from Philadelphia, to which the people flocked 
from all the surrounding country. They cleared and improved 
their house lots, and soon transformed the partially cultivated 

172 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

fields into beautiful gardens and meadows. A mill, with a bolt 
for making flour, was erected and driven by harse-power. They 
set up a bakery, where bread, pastry, and even confectionery were 
made for the settlement, and a brewery was put in operation for 
making ale. A weekly post was established with Philadelphia, 
by which they were kept iri communication with the outside 
world. Quite a number of clearings were commenced on their 
wild lands, in the back part of Terry township, where some 
houses were built, in Albany township, and Sullivan county. A 
saw mill was erected at Laddsburg, but not completed. Although 
the unfortunate Louis XVI. and his accomplished Queen had 
passed under the guillotine before the settlement had been com- 
menced,'yet the news of that event did not reach here until some 
time after, and the colonists entertained high expectations of 
being able to afford a secure retreat for the royal family until the 
storm of the Revolution had passed over. For this purpose large 
buildings were put up at the settlement in Terry, but their hopes, 
as many other which had been awakened in reference to their 
enterprise, were doomed to disappointment. Most of the emi- 
grants having been wealthy gentlemen in Paris, and some of them 
members of the royal household, entirely ignorant of farming, 
and unused to manual labor, found great difficulty in adapting 
themselves to their new condition. Yet they endured their pri- 
vations with fortitude, and cheerfully set about the laborious task 
of clearing and cultivating the heavily timbered lands, from which 
they had been led to expect immediately such large returns. 

"About the same time that A.sylum was founded, M. Brevost, 
a Parisian gentleman of great wealth, celebrated for his benevo- 
lence, contracted for a large tract of land on the Chenango river, 
in the State of New York, where he founded another colony, 
composed of eight or ten families. But failure to receive from 
France expected funds, the unfavorable character of the location, 
discouraged the colonists, and led them to abandon their planta- 
tions and remove to Asylum, which, although thus increased in 
numbers, was not much strengthened in wealth or working force. 

" It is said a Frenchman never forgets the sunny vales of his 
native land, and never goes to any country where he does not 
long to return to his own beloved France. In addition to this 

Daijiel La Porte Rhone. 173 

characteristic love for his native home, there was much to render 
the colonists discontented with their situation. Ignorance of our 
language, and of the prices which ought to be paid for labor and 
supplies, led them often to be imposed upon by the cupidity of 
their Yankee neighbors. Exposure to such unaccustomed hard- 
ships and privations was attended with pain and suffering. Then 
they were disappointed in their expectations of income from their 
investment, many of them having expended everything in the 
purchase of land, which was a burden instead of a revenue, 
annoyed by the poverty of the country, and the difficulty of ob- 
taining supplies, it is no wonder that most of them regarded 
Asylum as a place to be endured rather than one in which it was 
desirable to live; and when Napoleon came into power and 
repealed the laws of expatriation which had been passed against 
the emigrants, with the promise of the restoration of their confis- 
cated estates on their return, the greatej- part gladly embraced 
the opportunity and went back to France. Some of them 
removed to Philadelphia, and two or three to other parts of the 
country, but three remained in the vicinity of Asylum." 

Naomi La Porte was a descendant of one of these families, 
and was born in what is now Sullivan county. Her relative, 
Hon. John La Porte, was Speaker of the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania in 1832, the fifth term of his membership, from 
1832 to 1836 a member of Congress, and Surveyor General of 
Pennsylvania in the years 1845 to 185 i. 

"During the continuance of the settlement, it was visited by 
several distinguished personages, who since have obtained a world- 
wide reputation. In 1795, Louis Philippe spent several weeks at 
Asylum, enjoying the hospitality of M. Talon. Talleyrand spent 
some time there; Count de la Rochefoucauld was several days at 
Asylum while on his journey through the States in 1795-6, and 
his observations on the character of the colonists afford the fullest 
account that has been given of them. 

"In 1796 the town consisted of fifty log houses, occupied by 
about forty families. Among the most noted of these, besides 
those already mentioned, were M. De Blacons, a member of the 
French Constituent Assembly from Dauphine; M. De Montule, a 
captain of a troop of horse; M. Beaulieu, a captain of infantry in 

174 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

the French service, and who served in this country under Potosky; 
Dr. Buzzard, a planter from St. Domingo, and M. Dandelot, an 
officer in the French infantry. But perhaps the best known of 
all, at least in this country, was M. Dupetit-Thouars, or, as he 
was generally called by the Americans, the Admiral. Wrecked 
while on voyage in search of La Perouse, he reached Asylum 
destitute of everything but an unfaltering courage, a genial temper, 
and the chivalrous pride of a Frenchman. Dis'daining to be a 
pensioner on the bounty of his countrymen, he obtained a grant 
of four hundred acres in the dense wilderness of now Sullivan 
county, and went out literally single-handed, having lost an arm 
in the French naval service, commenced a clearing, built himself 
a house, returning to Asylum once a week for necessary food and 
change of apparel. He returned to his native country, obtained 
a position in the navy, saying he had 'yet another arm to give to 
France, was placed in command of the ship Le Tonnant, and 
killed at the battle of the Nile. The borough of Dushore, in 
Sullivan county, which includes the clearings of this indomitable 
Frenchman, was named in honor of him, this being nearly the 
anglicised pronunciation of his name." 

The given name of Judge. Rhone's father was George. He 
was a farmer, and lived nearly the whole of a long life in the 
township of Huntington. He died, however, in this city, in the 
year 1 88 1, aged nearly 78. He reared a family of eight children, 
all of whom are comfortably settled in life. Samuel M. Rhone, 
of the Luzerne bar, and Rev. Z. S. Rhone, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, are among the st^ns. B. M. Trescott, resident 
in Huntington, and at present County Surveyor of Luzerne 
county, is a son-in-law. 

The mother of Judge Rhone was Mary Bowman Stevens, a 
daughter of Zebulon Hall Stevens. He was a descendant of 
Henry Stevens, who came to this country from England, April 4, 
1669, with his father and two brothers, Nicholas and Thomas, 
and settled in Taunton, Mass. Henry Stevens married Eliza or 
Elizabeth, a daughter of Capt. John Gallup, a son of Capt. John 
Gallup, of Boston, Mass., and both father and son were noted as 
Indian fighters. He came to Pequot in 165 1, where he lived 
until 1654, when he removed to Mystic, and built him a house 

Daniel La Porte Rhone. 175 

on a tract of land given him by the town of Pequot. Capt. Gallup 
was a brave and valuable officer, and was loved and respected by 
his men. He lost his life in the terrible swamp fight during King 
Philip's war, at South Kingston, R. I., December 25, 1675. He 
married Hannah Lake, a relative of Governor Winthrop. Henry 
Stevens settled in Stonington, Conn., and had three sons, Thomas, 
Richard, and Henry. Thomas married Mary Hall, and settled 
in Plainfield, Conn, and had seven sons, Thomas, Phineas, Uriah, 
Caleb, Benjamin, Samuel, and Zebulon. Zebulon was born June 
14, 1717J and married Miriam Fellows, November 25, 1743. 
Thomas, son of Zebulon, was born May 5, 1760, at Canaan, 
Litchfield county. Conn., and emigrated to Wyoming before the 
close of the last century, and when the county of Luzerne was 
but sparsely settled, and its denizens far removed from the centers 
of civilization. The name of Thomas Stevens appears in the 
list of taxable inhabitants of Huntington for 1796, and many of 
that name, descendants of these intrepid pioneers, have figured 
in the county tax lists since. He married Lucy Miller, December 
2, 1784. Zebulon Hall Stevens, son of Thomas, was born January 
12, 1 79 1, and married Parmelia Bowman, daughter of John Bow- 
man, October 28, 18 13. He was the uncle of Rev. Thomas 
Bowman, D, D., LL. D., one of the Bishops of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and, during the years 1864-5, Chaplain of the 
United States Senate. Mary Bowman Stevens, the mother of 
Judge Rhone, was born October 26, 18 16. She is still living, 
and celebrated her sixty-seventh birthday in this city on the 26th 
of October, 1883. 

From this intermingling of French, Pennsylvania German, and 
Yankee blood came a young man of slight, but sturdy build, whose 
early training on his father's farm contributed much to fit him 
physically for the studious and industrious habits to which he 
has since devoted himself His primary education was gotten in 
the public schools of Huntington, and having mastered all that 
it was possible to learn therein, he attended Dickinson Seminary 
at Williamsport, and afterwards Wyoming Seminary at Kingston. 
In 1859 he began the study of the law in the office of the late 
Hon. Charles Denison, and on April i, 1861, he was regularly 
admitted to practice in the courts of Luzerne. Just sixteen days 

176 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

later he enlisted as a private in Company C (Captain Brisbane), 
Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. He was employed 
in the commissary department during the greater part of his term 
of service, and at its expiration, being honorably discharged, he 
returned to Wilkes-Barre, rented an ofhce, and hung out his 
professional shingle. 

In 1864, being at the time but twenty-six years of age, he was 
a candidate before the Democratic County Convention for the 
nonlination for District Attorney, and lacked but two votes on 
the first ballot of the number necessary to secure him the coveted 
honor, which was carried off by the late David R. Randall. 

The following year he was chosen a Director of the Public 
Schools of Wilkes-Barre. Rev. Geo. D. Miles, since deceased, 
and the writer were elected Directors at the same time. To the 
happy chance which carried Mr. Rhone into the board, the citi- 
zens of Wilkes-Barre are indebted more than to anything or any 
one else for the admirable school system of which their children 
are now enjoying the advantages. It was he who first suggested 
to the writer the many deficiencies in the then system, and the 
lamentable insufficiency and grossly ill condition of the buildings 
at that time in use for school purposes. It was his intercessions, 
in fact, that induced Mr. Miles and the writer to become candi- 
dates for membership in the board. 

In the " History of Luzerne, Lackawanna, and Wyoming Coun- 
ties," published in 1880, appears an article on the Wilkes-Barre 
public schools, written by G. W. Guthrie, M. D., of the city, which 
fully exemplifies the school system of this city at the time Messrs. 
Miles and Rhone and the writer were elected School Directors. 
We' here reproduce a portion of the article: "The history of the 
old borough schools is really the history of the schools of this 
district. In 1834 this district, in common with nearly all the 
districts of Luzerne county, approved of the provisions of the 
common school law, and the school board levied a school tax 
and set the school in operation. For over thirty years the 
schools were devoid of anything to distinguish them — unless it 
might have been, their general inefficiency. Teachers were paid 
very poor salaries ; the school term was very short; the buildings 
were either miserable old frame hulks, or rooms rented here and 

Daniel La Porte Rhone. 177 

there over the town as necessity might determine for the accom- 
modation of pupils. . . . The statement of the school board 
for 1864-5 reveals the following facts: Number of schools, 11; 
number of months taught, 4; number of female teachers, 14; 
male teachers, 3 ; average salary of male teachers per month, $50; 
average salary of female teachers per month, 1^35; whole number 
of pupils attending school, 187. Is it to be wondered at that 
private and select schools were in a flourishing condition? An 
old settlement like Wilkes-Barre, possessed of a high degree of 
culture, demanded education for its children, and the private 
schools furnished what the public schools could not. But a new 
era was dawning even in 1865." 

And, it may be added, that much was accomplished before that 
year had ended. On the Sth of June, 1865, Messrs. Miles, Rhone, 
and the writer took their seats as Directors. On June 12, Mr. 
Miles presiding, it was decided by the Board of School Direc'tors, 
consisting of nine members, to erect a new school building on 
Washington street, just north of Market. On August i, Mr. 
Miles again presiding, the size of the building was agreed upon, 
and a building committee appointed. September 19, it was deter- 
mined that the projected main building should be three stories 
high, with an addition in the rear, also of three stories, for recita- 
tion rooms. Out of these prompt and energetic proceedings 
came, early in the succeeding year, what is now known as the 
Washington school building, the first structure really fitted for 
public school purposes Wilkes-Barre ever owned. It accom- 
modated ten schools, and had six recitation rooms besides, that 
could be used as school rooms if desired. It was substantially 
built, and so appointed as to subserve the comfort and conveni- 
ence of both tutors and scholars. The article written by Dr. 
Guthrie, from which the foregoing extract is taken, is, in the 
main, a fair recital of the facts of the case. It is deficient, how- 
ever, in that it omits to mention that Judge Rhone and the writer 
were members of the board when the first practical step forward 
was made, and that to them, as also to Mr. Miles, the citizens of 
Wilkes-Barre are largely indebted for the highly satisfactory 
present condition of their public schools, which are nearly equal, 
as to their accommodations and efficiency, to the best of our 

1/8 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

academies. It is not contended that to the trio of gentlemen we 
have named is due the sole credit of bringing the schools to their 
present state of perfection. Wilkes-Barre has a present popula- 
tion of perhaps 30,000. It is one of the most important industrial 
centers in the State. Many of its citizens are possessed of great 
wealth. And it has an exceptionally bright future. In such a 
■ city all possible opportunities for general education at the public 
expense were certain to come sooner or later. Messrs. Miles, 
Rhone, and the writer were but the initiators of the remarkable 
improvements in the system which have since been effected. 
They merely hastened the glad coming. The beginning of their 
term saw, as already stated, but 187 scholars in the schools. By 
the close of its first year the number had increased to 676. To- 
day Wilkes-Barre is educating 4,883 of her boys and girls in the 
three school districts of the city, and has seventy-four schools in 

In 1867, Judge Rhone was again an applicant for the Demo- 
cratic nomination for District Attorney. This time he achieved 
his ambition, successfully running the gauntlet of the convention, 
and being chosen at the ensuing election by a majority of 2,916 
over his Republican conjpetitor, A. M. Bailey, Esq. He was a 
masterly pleader for the Commonwealth, and earned and was 
accorded universal commendation for his faithful performance of 
that duty. 

In 1868, Judge Rhone was appointed one of the Board of 
Trustees of the Franklin Street Methodist Episcopal Church, of 
which he is a consistent member. 

In October, 1872, he was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention from the Thirteenth district. He took his seat 
in that body on the 12th of the succeeding month. The follow- 
ing day he tendered his resignation, which was accepted. The 
convention elected Hon. Caleb E. Wright to fill the vacancy thus 
created. Judge Rhone had consented to serve in the convention 
under the impression that its sessions would not consume a period 
of more than six months. Before -it assembled, however, it be- 
came apparent that a full year at least would be required for a 
proper performance of the grave work' in hand. He was not a 
man of means, but he had a rapidly growing practice which he 

Daniel La Porte Rhone. 179 

did not feel that he could afford to neglect. Neither did he think 
it would be fair to the people of his district, or to the State, for 
him to neglect the convention for the sake of his clients. One 
or the other, however, he was convinced he would have to neg- 
lect; hence his resignation. 

Though Judge Rhone found himself unable to do anything for 
or in the convention, the convention did something for him in 
making constitutional provision for the creation of separate 
Orphans' Courts in the larger counties. Under this provision, at 
the first session of the Legislature after the adoption of the con- 
stitution, Luzerne county was made a separate Orphans' Court 
district. In 1874, Judge Rhone was nominated for Judge thereof 
His contestants for the honor of the Democratic nomination were 
Hon. Caleb E. Wright and Michael Regan, Esq. Judge Rhone 
was nominated on the first ballot, receiving fifty-eight votes in 
excess of the combined strength of the other two. The Repub- 
lican nominee was Hon. Charles E. Rice, the present President 
Judge of Luzerne county. At the polls, Judge Rhone had 1,482 

On the 6th of December, 1861, Judge Rhone married Emma 
Hale Kinsey, daughter of John Kinsey, of Montgomery Station, 
Lycoming county. Pa., and a sister of L. C. Kinsey, a member 
of the Luzerne bar. She died February 18, 1878. A daughter, 
Mary Panthea, is the only surviving issue of this marriage. 

On the 31st day of December, 1879, ^^ ^^^ again mar- 
ried, this time to Rosamond L. Dodson, a daughter of Osborne 
Dodson, of the township of Huntington. This union yielded 
him another daughter, who is named after her mother's cousin, 
Alice Buckalew, daughter of Hon. C. R. Buckalew, of Columbia 
county. Mrs. Rhone is a descendant of Samual Dodson, who, 
in 1780, was a resident of Penn township, Northampton county 
{now Mahoning township. Carbon county), Pennsylvania. At 
that date, with a settlement here and there, it was the frontier of 
Pennsylvania, and not far from where Fort Allen (now Weissport) 
was erected. Her greatgrandfather, Joseph Dodson, located in 
Huntington township, on the farm where he died, in 185 1; and 
in that township her father, Osborne Dodson, was born and 
buried. Her grandfather, Samuel Dodson, is still living, aged 80. 

i8o Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

She was born in Downieville, Sierra county, California, during 
the residence of her father in that State, while acting as a civil 
engineer. An incident occurred in connection with the Dodson 
family while they were residents of Northampton county that is 
worth relating here. Benjamin Gilbert, a Quaker from Byberry, 
near the city of Philadelphia, in 1775, removed with his family to 
a farm on Mahoning creek, five or six miles from Fort Allen. 
He was soon comfortably situated, with a good log dwelling 
house, barn, saw and grist mill. The Gilbert family, consisting 
of eleven persons, were alarmed about sunrise on the 25th day 
of April, 1780, the year after Sullivan's expedition, by a party 
of eleven Indians, whose appearance struck them with terror. 
To attempt to escape was death. The Indians who made this 
incursion were of different tribes or nations, who had abandoned 
their country on the approach of Gen. Sullivan's army, and fled 
within command of the British forts in Canada, promiscuously 
settling within their neighborhood, and, according to Indian cus- 
tom of carrying on war, frequently invading the frontier settle- 
ments, taking captive the weak and defenseless. They made 
captives of the Gilbert family, consisting of Mr. Gilbert, his wife, 
three sons, two daughters, two daughters-in-law, a servant, and 
Benjamin Gilbert, son of John Gilbert, of Philadelphia. Abigail 
Dodson, a daughter of Samuel Dodson, first above mentioned, 
aged fourteen, lived with her father on a farm about one mile 
distant from the mill, and who came that morning with grist, was 
also captured. The Indians proceeded about half a mile, and 
captured the Peart family, consisting of three persons. The for- 
lorn band were dragged over the wild and rugged region between 
the Lehigh and Chemung rivers, while their beds were hemlock 
branches strewed on the ground and blankets for a covering. 
They were often ready to faint by the way, but the cruel threat 
of immediate death urged them again to the march. They 
reached Niagara on May 25. Abigail Dodson was given to one 
of the families of the Cayuga nation, and was finally surrendered 
to her relatives at a place now known as the city of Detroit, 
Michigan, after having been in captivity about three years. In 
September, 1780, occurred what was then called the Scotch (now 
Sugarloaf) Valley massacre. A company of thirty-three men. 

Daniel La Porte Rhone. i8i 

under Captain Klader or Myers, had come up from the south- 
eastern part of the State,.crossing over Broad and Buck mountains, 
passed down through the ravine southeast from Conyngham, and 
halted at the spring, now owned by the Conyngham Water Co., 
north of the road and west of the Little Nescopeck creek where 
it crosses the Butler road, on the east side of Conyngham. Feel- 
ing, no doubt, a degree of safety, the little band set their guns 
around a tree, and were refreshing the inner man with the pure 
water from the spring. While thus employed, they suddenly 
found themselves separated from their trusty old firelocks by a 
band of Indians, with here and there a heartless tory among 
them. The enemy had come down through the same ravine, 
and, taking the troops at such disadvantage, completely discom- 
fited them. The Indians took thirteen scalps, and all the sur- 
vivors were made prisoners. They then burnt several buildings,- 
and escaped to Niagara. The massacre occurring after the cap- 
ture of Abigail Dodson, she obtained her information from a 
prisoner in Canada, whom the savages spared and turned over to 
the British, and she told the story as here given. She afterwards 
married Peter Brink, of Huntington township, and lived to a 
good old age. 

The mother of Mrs. Rhone is Lucy Miller Dodson, nee Wads- 
worth, a granddaughter of Epaphras Wadsworth, a Revolutionary 
soldier, who located in Huntington township, near Town Hill, in 
1794. He was the first blacksmith in the township, and was also 
the pioneer horticulturist, having set out an orchard on his lot 
in 1799, in which most of the trees are still in bearing, and afford 
a good quality of fruit. Mr. Wadsworth was quite an extensive 
land operator for those days, and was a local preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, as was also his son, Epaphras, her 

As a lawyer. Judge Rhone ranks with the brightest in the 
profession. As a judge, he is patient, painstaking, rigorous, and 
severely impartial. He is a tireless student, and intensely 
methodical. It was these qualities that enabled him to organize 
the Orphans' Court of Luzerne county on such a basis, and to so 
conduct its operations as that, at the expiration of a very few 
years, its machinery was moving with the precision of clock-work. 

1 82 Daniel La Porte Rhone. 

Attorneys who had been practicing for a quarter of a century 
found their accounts returned to them to be reconstructed in 
stricter accordance with the terms of the law. Judge Rhone was 
not the man to make fish of one and flesh of another. He treated 
all alike. He had acquainted himself thoroughly with every 
detail of Orphans' Court practice, and insisted that all, attorneys, 
executors, administrators, guardians, or whoever else had business 
in his court, should conform rigidly to the requirements df every 
law and rule. He s.crutinized the accounts of guardians with 
exceptional care, and a few years ago elicited commendation from 
every quarter of the State by disallowing, in a certain case, an 
excessive bill for funeral expenses, which would have absorbed 
nearly the whole of the decedent's estate, and declaring that if 
administrators in his court had a hankering for. costly funerals 
they must appease it at their own expense, as they would not be 
allowed to rob orphans of their meagre inheritance for such a 
purpose. In this and other ways Judge Rhone has labored con- 
scientiously, earnestly, and fearlessly to make the Orphans' Court 
a protection to its wards, instead of the curse and cost such courts 
have too frequently proven. 

The crowning achievement of Judge Rhone's career, and the 
one by which he will become most widely known, is, however, 
his recent compilation and issuance of two large volumes on the 
subject of Orphans' Court practice, the only work of the kind 
that has been published, except Scott on Intestates, since Hood 
on Executors made its appearance in 1847. There are other 
treatises on Orphans' Court law extant, but none are so complete 
and efificacious a guide to the profession as Judge Rhone's 
" Practice and Process in the Orphans' Courts of Pennsylvania," 
which, to use the author's words, embraces also "the laws relating 
to the settlement and distribution of the estates of decedents, the 
management of the estates of minors, and the construction of 
testamentary trusts and wills in the Courts of Common Pleas 
and Equity." Next after completeness of detail and precision of 
statement, the value of a work on law and its practice depends 
most largely upon a systematic arrangement of the subjects 
treated. So admirably has the method followed by Judge Rhone 
in his book met this necessity, that he who opens it for informa- 

Daniel La Pokte Rhone. 183 

tion will find grouped under its proper title (the titles being 
alphabetically arranged) everything appertaining thereto — the 
law, the forms, the rules of procedure, and the pertinent decisions, 
the whole compressed into the fewest possible words, and yet 
fully and clearly explained. A few weeks after the book came 
from the press, a Luzerne countian happened into the office of 
the publishers. A lawyer and his client, a farmer from one of the 
upper counties, entered a few minutes later. A copy of the book 
lay upon the table. The client picked it up and opened it. After 
a few moments had elapsed, he turned to his adviser, a pleased 

smile overspreading his countenance, and said: "See here, J , 

this is just what we want; this is the whole thing in a nut shell." 
The limb of the law took the book, read what his client pointed 
out, and responded: "With the aid of this work any man of ordi- 
nary intelligence can be his own lawyer, so far at least as Orphans' 
Court business goes." Over four thousand cases are cited in the 
work, and the point of each decision is stated, not in the language 
of the syllabus, so often inaccurate, but in the Judge's own clear 
and forcible style. The first edition of one thousand copies is 
already nearly exhausted. 

At the bar, on the bench, and in the field of legal literature, 
Judge Rhone, comparatively young as he still is, has achieved, not 
success only, but distinction. He is a man of medium height 
and slight build. His face betrays the French in his origin. His 
habits are sedentary. He studies as he walks the streets. Yet, 
upon occasion, he is a most genial companion, witty himself, and 
quick to recognize and appreciate wit in others. He .enjoys, as 
he merits, the esteem of all who know him. 

184 Charles Dorrance Foster. 


Charles Dorrance Foster is a native of the township of Dallas, 
Luzerne county, Pa., where he was born, November 25, 1836. 

His father was Phineas Nash Foster, whose birthplace was at 
Montpelier, Vt., where he was ushered into the world in the year 
1796. When Phineas was but seven years of age, that; is to say 
in 1803, he was brought by his father, Edward, the grandfather 
of our subject, to thjs valley. Phineas lived more than three- 
quarters of a century on his farm in Jackson township, and died 
there. He was one of the solid men of the county, exerting at 
all times a marked influence among his neighbors, and manifest- 
ing in an unostentatious and useful life the many virtues of his 
Green Mountain ancestry. 

On the 26th of July, 1637, from the ship "Hector," a company 
landed at Boston, Mass., formed principally by merchants of 
London, v^hose wealth and standing at home entitled them to 
come out under more' favorable auspices than any company that 
had hitherto sought our shores. They were accompanied by the 
Rev. John Davenport as their pastor, and are supposed to have 
been mostly members of his church and congregation in London 
(Coleman street). The leaders were men of good, practical under- 
standing, and had probably provided for the anticipated wants of 
an infant colony by bringing with them men skilled in such arts 
as were likely to be mosc needed. In that company came Thomas 
Nash with a wife and five children. He was by occupation a 
gunsmith, a trade which admitted of an easy transition to that of 
blacksmith, thus rendering him doubly useful to a people whose 
situation required that both arms and instruments of husbandry 
should be kept in repair. \ 

The people of Massachusetts Bay were solicitous that this 
company should choose a location within their limits, and made 
very advantageous offers to induce them to do so. But, being 
resolved to plant a new colony, they, in the fall of that year, sent 
out Mr. Eaton and others of their company to explore. This 

Charles Dorrance Foster. 185 

committee selected a place called Quinipiac (now New Haven), 
then owned by a small tribe of Indians, whose principal chief 
was Momauguin. In March, 1638, the whole company sailed 
from Boston, and in about a fortnight landed at Quinipiac. 
In November following they entered into an agreement with 
Momauguin and his counsellors for the purchase of the lands. 
They appear not to have been in haste to settle the form of gov- 
ernment, but spent the first summer and winter in erecting the 
necessary buildings, laying out their lands, and in other respects 
preparing for a permanent residence. On the 4th of June, 1639, 
they met together in Mr. Newman's barn, and after solemn relig- 
ious exercises drew up what they termed a "fundamental agree- 
ment" for the regulation of the civil and religious affairs of the 
colony. This instrument was signed on the spot by sixty-three \ 
individuals. It was then copied, names and all, into the Book of ' 
Records, and afterwards to have been signed by forty-eight others 
in the book. Thomas Nash's name is the third of these after 
subscribers. The alleged early resolve of the New Haven colonists 
■" to adopt the law of God until they shoidd have time to make a 
better" has been the subject of much merriment, and many have 
been the sneers at the absurdity of it. The following extract 
probably constitutes the passage which gave rise to the story: 
"Att a Gen. Court, held att Newhaven, the 2d of March, 1641," 
in the decision of a perplexing case, the court laid it down as a 
principle, "According to the fundamental agreem't made and 
published by the full and gen'l consent when the plantation began 
and government was settled, thatt the judiciall Law of God, given 
by Moses, and expounded in other parts of Scriptures, so far as itt 
is a kedg and a fence to the Morall Law, and neither ceremonial 
nor typical, nor had cuiy reference to Canaan, hath an everlasting 
■eqidty in it, and shall be the ride of their proceedings!' 

Thomas Nash was probably one of the congregation of Rev. 
John Robinson at Leyden, Holland, part of whom were the first 
settlers at Plymouth, 1620. November 30, 1625, five of those at 
Leyden addressed a letter to their brethren at Plymouth, and 
signed it as brethren in the Lord. One of the five was Thomas 
Nash, and it is possible that he found his way back to England 
and came over with the New Haven settlers some years after. 

1 86 Charles Dorrance Foster. 

He died May 12, 1658, and in his will, made in 1657, he expressly 
mentions his old age. 

Timothy Nash, usually called Lieut. Timothy Nash, was the 
youngest son of Thomas Nash, and was born in England, or at 
Leyden, in Holland, in 1626. The' first notice of him in the" 
records of New Haven appears to be the following, dated the 3d 
of December, 1645: "Bro. Thomas Nash for his son's absence 
at a generall trayning pleaded his necessity of business in fetch- 
ing home his hay by watter. The court overruled, and ordered 
him to pay his fine." His wife, Rebekah, was the daughter of the 
Rev. Samuel Sto7te, of Hartford. The last mention of him in the 
records of New Haven is dated April 23, 1660, when he was 
fined for absence from town meeting. He subsequently removed 
to Hadley, Mass., where he was frequently employed in town 
affairs, and held the office of Lieutenant in the militia. He rep- 
resented the town of Hadley at the General Court of Massachu- 
setts in 1690, 1691, and 1695. He died March 13, 1699. 

Daniel Nash, son of Lieut. Timothy Nash, was born in 1676. 
He died at Great Barrington, Mass., March 10, 1760. 

Phinehas Nash, youngest son of Daniel Nash, was born in 1726 
He spent a portion of his youthful days in Greenfield, Deerfield, 
and Sunderland, Mass., and taught school there. His marriage 
is recorded in Sheffield,and he was taxed in Great Barrington in 
1762. He removed to Plymouth, Pa., five or six years before the 
Massacre at Wyoming, and was residing there at the time of that 
occurrence. His son, Asahel, was in the fight. He (Phinehas) 
was one of the three first directors appointed for Plymouth under 
the frame of law adopted and promulgated by the Susquehanna 
company in June, 1773, and in 1774 was voted at a town meeting 
one of the twelve grand jurors for that year. Hon. Hendrick B. 
Wright, in his "History of Plymouth," says: "I have not been 
able to ascertain, after diligent inquiry, where our first Triumvirate 
held their court. Phinehas Nash, Captain David Marvin, and 
J. Gaylord, clothed as they were with the municipal power of 
Plymouth, must have had a court, and undoubtedly a whipping 
post and stocks; but the locality of these things, deemed neces- 
sary in a past age, has become somewhat obscure. These men 
and their successors were to Plymouth what the three Triumvirs 

Charles Dorrance Foster. 187 

were to Rome after the fall of Caesar, or the three Consuls to 
France who preceded the first Empire. Holding, therefore, the 
commissions of the peace and the balances of justice for old Ply- 
mouth, it is to be regretted that not only the records of their 
court, but the place of administration, are gone." After the 
Massacre he returned and spent a few years in Massachusetts or 
Connecticut, but he returned again to Wyoming, where his wife 
died. In his eighty-third year he left Wyoming and .rode on 
horseback four hundred miles to Shelburn, Vt., where his son, 
Asahel, then resided. He died at Greenfield, Saratoga county, 
N. Y., in 1824, aged ninety-eight. He married. May 15, 17S5, 
Mary Hamlin, of Sheffield, Mass. His daughter, Lowly, the 
grandmother of the subject of our sketch, was born December 12, 
1760. She was married, February 10, 1791, to Edward Foster, 
the grandfather of Chas. D. Foster. They removed to Wyoming 
in 1803, where Mrs. Foster died October 10, 1852. Edward 
Foster died in 18 14. 

The mother of Mr. Foster was Mary Bailey Foster, daughter 
of Jacob Johnson, the third. Her first husband was Albon Bul- 
ford, who soon left her a widow. She then became the wife of 
Phineas Nash Foster and the mother of Charles D. 

No biographical facts are more important, or, as a rule, more 
interesting, than those which trac? the subject as far back to the 
stock from which he came as the preserved records will permit. 
The origin of the vast, and, in many respects, remarkable, Amer- 
ican family of Johnsons, or that branch of it of which Mrs. Foster 
was a descendant, is full of interest. 

Fitz John came from Normandy to England with William the 
Conquerer in the eleventh century, and settled in the north of the 
island. It was customary before the conquest to change names 
by the addition of the syllable "son." Thus we find in the time 
of Edward the Confessor, if not earlier, the name Gamelson, and 
others similarly constructed. The Norman Fitz, a corruption of 
flls, was used in the same way, and was the fashion sometimes 
adopted by the conquered Saxons. Thus Fitz Harding, meaning 
the same, became Hardingson, and Fitz John, Johnson. 

The Fitz John mentioned above changed his name to Johnson, 
and had a numerous family. One branch of it went to Scotland, 

1 88 Charles Dorrance Foster. 

where the name became common. Some of these added a "t," 
and made it Johnston. During the reign of Qiieen Elizabeth a 
branch emigrated to Ireland, and also became numerous. Sir 
William Johnson was of this branch. In later ages the family- 
were settled in Kingston-on-Hull. At the time of Dr. Johnson's 
visit as agent from Connecticut to England he found the name 
almost extinct, there being but one (a maiden lady of thirty years) 
left in the place. On visiting the church-yard, however, he dis- 
covered a largenumber of tombstones and monuments with the 
name of Johnson inscribed upon them. Three brothers had gone 
from Kingston to North America, one of whom, a clergyman, 
settled near Boston, and was afterwards killed by the Indians. 
He left a considerable family, from whom have descended most 
of the name in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. One settled in 
the western part of Connecticut. Most of his descendants went 
to New Jersey, and were numerous. Robert, the third brother, 
settled in New Haven, Conn., and was one of its first founders. 

William Johnson, son of Robert, the emigrant, appeared early 
in New Haven. He was one of the original subscribers to the 
compact for the settlement of Wallingford, Conn. 

Jacob Johnson, son of William, married Abigail Hitchcock, 
December 14, 1693. He was a tailor by trade, and died July 26, 
1749, aged eighty years. 

Rev. Jacob Johnson, born April, 17 13, was the tenth child of 
Jacob Johnson. His son, Jacob, was the father of Mrs. Foster. 

Rev. Jacob Johnson, or Jacob Johnson, the second, as he is 
sometimes called, was one of the most conspicuous characters in 
the early history of Wyoming. In the year 1772 he was a resi- 
dent of Groton, Conn., and on the nth of August, of that year, a 
town meeting was held in Wilkes-Barre to consider the religious 
needs of the community, and it was voted to invite Mr. Johnson 
to "come and labor with the people as their pastor." The invi- 
tation was accepted. A year later, August 23, 1773, his minis- 
trations having, in the meantime, been eminently satisfactory to 
his flock, he was invited to permanently settle in Wilkes-Barre; 
and this was the first actual settlement of any minister of the 
gospel west of the Blue Mountains, in the territory now com- 
prising the State of Pennsylvania. Mr. Johnson held to the 

Charles Dorrance Foster. i8g 

tenets of the New England Congregationalists, which, for more 
than fifty years, constituted the prevailing religion of the people 
of the valley. In 1778 a meetin-g-house had been nearly com- 
pleted, when it was swept away by the Indians. Mr. Johnson's 
contract with his parishoners was for ,a salary of ^60 the first 
year, and ;^5 a year additional until it should reach j^ioo, besides 
which a liberal donation in land was made him. He seems to 
have been especially fitted to the place and the people. He was 
born in Wallingford, Conn., in 17 13, graduated at Yale in '40, 
and was ordained in '49. After serving as pastor at New Groton 
(now Ledyard), Conn., he became a missionary among the Oneida 
Indians, on the Mohawk, quickly acquired their language, and 
exerted over them a strong influence. The Indians conceived 
both respect and liking for him, and he was frequently employed 
by them as interpreter when important treaty negotiations were 
to be entered into. Conrad Weiser feared his influence with the 
Indians, for when ■Penn, in 1768, sought .to obtain a relinquish- 
ment from the Six Nations of their title to the lands on the upper 
Susquehanna, he wrote Penn to "beware of the wicked priest of 
Canojoharie," lest he might frustrate the design. When Forty 
Fort was capitulated, after the dreadful massacre, Mr. Johnson 
and Col. Denison were chosen commissioners to treat with the 
invaders. The articles of capitulation were written by him, and, 
under the circumstances, the terms were highly creditable to the 
judgment and courage of himself and his co-commissioner. His 
oldest daughter was the wife of Col. Zebulon Butler, the American 
commander, and escaped with him after the battle, riding behind 
him on his horse, with a bed for a saddle, through the wilderness. 
Mr. Johnson fled with the rest of his family to Connecticut, as 
did most of the other settlers, but returned, in 178 1, a zealous 
expounder of the gospel, an ardent patriot, and a determined 
contestant for the rights of the Connecticut settlers in their con- 
flict with the Pennsylvania claimants. So pronounced was he in 
this latter particular, so vigorous in his denunciations of the 
Pennamites, that he was arrested in 1784, and held to bail to 
answer the charge of sedition, but the case was never brought to 
trial. He labored earnestly for the building of Wilkes-Barre's 
first church, but did not live to see its completion. On March 

190 Charles Dorrance Foster, 

15, 1797, he died, having previously selected the site for, and dug, 
the grave in which his body was afterwards laid. The church, 
though projected and located in 1791, was not finished and ready 
for occupancy until 1812. His late years were marked by many 
peculiarities. PJe believed himself endowed with the power of 
foretelling coming events, and did predict very nearly the exact 
time of his death. He made himself a girdle of camel's hair, 
and wore it like John the Baptist. He was a devout second 
adventist. His wife, Mary Giddings, was a Connecticut lady, 
highly accomplished, and of the same family as Joshua R. Giddings, 
the noted anti-slavery Congressman. He was tall, of commanding 
presence, and had dark hair, eyes, and complexion. He was 
certainly much loved and respected in Wyoming. A lady, long 
since dead, who was in Wilkes-Barre when the first call summon- 
ing Mr. Johnson to the pastorship was made, has written of him : 
"If there ever was a gospel minister on earth, I do believe Priest 
Johnson was one. He was so earnest, so sincere; and a very 
learned man, too. The Indians, at that early day, used to gather 
round to hear him. He spoke two of their languages as well as 
their own Sachems, and I have often heard him exhort them in 
their native tongue, for near an hour at a time, with a zeal and 
freedom that showed his interest in their eternal welfare, and his 
perfect knowledge of the language in which he spoke. The 
habits of the clergy at that time were, in the pulpit and out of the 
pulpit, very staid, their style severe, their manners grave and 
demure. Like the old Puritans, they deemed it wrong to indulge 
in passionate declamation, or to study the graces of oratory. 
Argumentative, solemn, and impressive, he was, generally, rather 
than eloquent, that is, in his regular discourses; but in prayer his 
spirit, at times, would seem to break away from 'earth, warming 
and glowing with holy zeal, his wrapt spirit would ascend on the 
wings of hope and faith, and carry you with him, as it were, to 
the very portals of heaven. He was tall, slender, a little bent 
forward, very considerate in conversation, mild and sweet tem- 
pered. O, he Mvas a fine man!" Mr. Johnson died in this city 
in 1797, where he had resided for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury. His daughter, Lydia, became the second wife of Col. 
Zebulon Butler. Their union was brief, and a son, the late Capt. 

Charles Dorrance Foster. 191 

Zebulon Johnson Butler, was their only child. Ovid Frazer 
Johnson, who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county April 6, 
1 83 1, was a grandson. He was Attorney General of Pennsyl- 
vania from 1839 to 1845, under the administration of Gov. David 
Rittenhouse Porter. He died in 1854 

Charles Dorrance Foster's boyhood days were occupied in 
attending the district schools during the winter months and 
working on the farm in summer. At the age of twenty he 
entered Wyoming Seminary, at Kingston, an institution which 
has done vast service in preparing the youth of our valley for the 
struggles which come with manhood. Three years under the 
competent instructors here presiding fitted him to become himself 
an instructor. He taught for a year in Jackson township, and 
subsequently for a short time in the State of Illinois. 

Returning from the West, he served another year on the 
paternal farm, and then entered, as a student at law, the office of 
the late Lyman Hakes, Esq. His admission to the bar took 
place April 23, 1861, when the country was in the first throes of 
the great rebellion. He rapidly acquired a good practice, but 
having recently inherited from his father one of the finest farms 
in Luzerne county, covering an area of over a mile square, and 
lying partly in Dallas and partly in Jackson township, has not of 
late given that close attention to the profession a poorer man 
would have needed to give. 

Mr. Foster early identified himself with the Republican party, 
and has ever since labored in a quiet but efficient way to forward 
its interests and promote its principles. In 1882 he was made 
the candidate of that party for a seat in the lower house of the 
Legislature from the First district of Luzerne and Lackawanna 
counties, comprising the city of Wilkes-Barre, but was unsuc- 
cessful. Hon. Herman C. Fry was his victorious opponent. 

Mr. Foster has been closely connected with several extensive 
business enterprises in the county, among which may be men- 
tioned the Wilkes-Barre and Kingston Street Railway Company 
and the Wyoming National Bank. He was one of the first 
Managers, and has been President, Secretary, and Treasurer of 
the former corporation, and is now a Director of the bank. 

Mr. Foster married, October 4, 1865, Mary Jane Hoagland, a 

192 Charles Dorrance Foster. 

daughter of the late Amos Hoagland, of Newark, N. J., both being 
natives-of Flemington, Hunterdon county, N. J. Mr. Hoagland 
was a descendant of Dirck Hanse Hogeland, the first of the 
name who came to America, and who commanded the vessel that 
brought him from Holland to New Amsterdam in 1655. He 
settled at Flatbush, N. Y., and in 1662 married Anne Bergen, 
widow of Jan Clerq, by whom he had six children. He built the 
first brick house on Manhattan Island. During the Revolutionary 
war Amos Hoagland, the great-grandfather of Mrs. Foster, was 
conspicuous as a member of Captain Growendyke's company. 
Andrew Hoagland, his son, was a man well known in Hunterdon 
county, N.J. He was among the first slaveholders who manu- 
mitted his slaves; was remarkable for his upright dealings, and 
held many responsible positions in church and state, and in 1840 
was appointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He mar- 
ried Mary, the only daughter of Elijah Carman, a Revolutionary 
hero, whose ancestors came from Switzerland. Mr. Carman's 
wife was Jane James, who, at the age of twelve, fled with her 
family from Forty Fort before the massacre. Being warned of 
coming trouble by a friendly squaw, who assured them that the 
Indians would not touch them if they remained, but they felt 
greater security in flight. After reaching New York, they never 
returned to claim their possessions, although they heard that the 
Indians had disturbed nothing that belonged to them. The 
Carman homestead is now in the possession of i^aron, the eldest 
son of Judge Hoagland. Amos Hoagland, the father of Mrs. 
Foster, was a prominent man in his day. He held the position 
of postmaster at Sergeantsville, N. J.; was commissioner of his 
native county, and until the time of his death held official posi- 
tion in the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was an 
active and conspicuous member. He built a church at Sergeants- 
ville, N. J., and presented the same to a Methodist congregation. 
He married Susan, daughter of Rev. George Fisher, of Tewks- 
bury, N. J. His ancestor came from Strasburg, Germany, in 
1790. He was a man of considerable wealth, and noted for his 
generosity to the poor. He gave the ground for the Methodist 
Episcopal Cemetery of Fairmount, N. J., in 1837. The grave of 
the Rev. George Fisher is a prominent one. His epitaph reads 

Charles Dorrance Foster. 193 

as follows: " Rev. George Fisher, who departed this life May 14, 
1846, aged 78 years, 5 months, and 10 days. He obtained remis- 
sion of sins, and united himself with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church A. D. 1806, and was licensed to preach the gospel A. D. 
1810. As a preacher, he was eminent for zeal and usefulness, 
and still more distinguished as a Christian for sanctity of manner 
and deep, unaffected piety." 

The only surviving child of Mr. and Mrs. Foster is Narcissa 
Florence Jenkins, wife of Frank Thornton Jenkins, M. D., of 
Philadelphia. He is a native of Baltiwiore, Md., where he was 
born in 1852. Dr. Jenkins is the son of Thornton A. Jenkins, a 
Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. During the late civil 
war he was chief-of-staff to Admiral Faragut. Admiral Jenkins 
is eighth in descent from John Jenkins, of Warwick (Jamestown), 
Virginia. Dr. Jenkins, on the maternal side, is a descendant of 
Anthony Thornton, also of Virginia. His son, the great-grand- 
father of the Doctor, was Capt. Presly Thornton (in command of 
a troop of horse) of the Continental Army, 1776-83. His mater- 
nal grandfather was Francis Anthony Thornton, who was a 
purser in the United States Navy at the time of his death. 

Mr. Foster is a man of fine physique, and in the enjoyment of 
robust health. He is, as yet, a comparatively young man, and, 
as we have already remarked, is the possessor of wealth ample 
to gratify anything short of sordid avarice. Few men enjoy, at 
so early an age, such complete physical, financial, and social ad- 
vantages. It is not matter for wonder, therefore, that he is pos- 
sessed of a most agreeable temper, and many other qualities that 
combine to make him a good friend and a delightful companion. 
Though the cares of business are not permitted to set heavily on 
him, there being no need that they should, he finds in his prac- 
tice, in looking after his vested interests, and in managing his 
fertile acres, employment sufficient to 'consume the most of his 

194 Henry Wilbur Palmer. 


To the Palmer Records, edited by Noyes F. Palmer, Esq., of 
Jamaica, Queens county, N. Y., we are indebted for the following 
sketch of William Palmer and the derivation of the name : 

"In that portion of/old England known as the north shire of 
Nottingham, in the Hundred of Basssett Laws, was the little 
town of Scrooby. Here, under the shadow of the manor house 
of the Archbishop of York (that manor house where the great 
Cardinal Woolsey dwelt when 'if he had served his God with 
half the zeal he served his king he would not in his age have 
been forsaken to his enemies),' was a congregation of Puritan 
Separatists. Scrooby may be known as the mother of American 
Puritans. A leading man in this congregation was one William 
Brewster. He had been a secretary and devoted follower of that 
Davidson who had clipped off the head of the one fair woman 
who seems destined ever to be alike the contention of historian 
and theme of poet — Mary of Scotland. 

"The meetings at Scrooby and the preaching of Brewster soon 
attracted the attention and invited the interference of the author- 
ities. From trial and tribulation there was no escape save exile. 
With longing eyes and heavy hearts they bid adieu to those fair 
Nottingham hills, and,, crossing the channel, sought refuge in 

"From Nottinghamshire possibly, probably of the Scrooby 
congregation, came William Palmer (the ancestor of the subject 
of our sketch). He sailed from Plymouth, England, in 162 1, in 
the ship Fortune, the second vessel after the Mayflower, and 
landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and settled in 
what is now known as Duxbury, Mass. 

" The name Palmer it has been said is ' derived from pilgrimages,' 
and is not lost in the mists of antiquity. The Crusaders, in their 
marches to Jerusalem in the Middle Ages, from the time of Peter 
the Hermit to the close of the fourteenth century, had many 
followers who, from sacred motives, sought to see the tomb of 

Henry Wilbur Palmer. 195 

Christ. Many of these pilgrims on their return wore palm leaves 
in their hats, or carried staves made from palm branches. They 
thus came to be called Palm-ers, or bearers of the palm. 

The name soon passed into literature. Shakespeare frequently 
uses the word: 'My scepter for a Palmer's walking staff,' and 
also, 'Where do the Palmers lodge, I do beseech you?' 

" In a work on 'Our English Surnames,' by C. W. Bardley, Esq., 
is an account of the derivation of the name Palmer, as follows: 
^The various religious wanderings of solitary recluses, though 
belonging to a system long since faded from our English life, 
find a perpetual epitaph in the directories of to-day! Thus we have 
still our Pilgrims, or 'peterins,' as the Normans termed them. 
We meet with Palmers any day in the streets of our large towns; 
names distinctly relating the manner in which their owners have 
derived their titles. The Pilgrim may have but visited the shrine 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury. The Palmer, as his name proves, 
had, forlorn and weary, battled against all difficulties and trod 
the path that led to the Holy Sepulchre, 

' The faded palm branch in his hand, 
Showed Pilgrim from the Holy Land.' " 

The Palmer patriarchs of New England are four in number. 
William Palmer, who came over in 1621, as before stated; 
Walter Palmer, of Stonington, Connecticut, who came from 
Nottinghamshire, England, in 1629; Thomas Palmer, of Rowley, 
Mass.. who came from Bradford, England, in 1635, and John 
Palmer, of Hingham, Mass. Thomas and John were brothers, 
and John came over in 1634 or 35. 

Their descendants 'throughout the United States are thousands, 
and embrace generals, governors, judges, clergymen, physicians, 
and in fact, all professions, including General Grant, who is the 
eighth in descent from Walter Palmer's daughter Grace. 

The great-great-grandfather of Henry W. Palmer was Leighton 
Palmer. He was, without doubt, a descendant of William 
Palmer, heretofore mentioned. Leighton Palmer settled at 
Hopkinton, R. I. His second son was Nathaniel, who had a son 
Gideon. He was the father of seventeen children, the fifth of 
whom was also named Gideon, and was the father of Henry W. 
Palmer. Gideon W. Palmer was born in Hopkinton, R I., April 

196 Henry Wilbur Palmer. 

18, 18 18, and was the son of the first Gideon. His mother was 
Clarissa Watkins. In 1836 he removed to Susquehanna county, 
Pa., and in 1841 from there to Carbondale, Luzerne (now 
Lackawanna) county, where, for a while, he followed teaching, 
but as his tastes led him rather to agricultural pursuits he subse- 
quently gave his attention to farming, actively interesting himself 
meanwhile in the various political questions of the day. The 
measures of the old Whig party were those which received his 
support, and he soon manifested such an influence in the councils 
of that organization that various offices were intrusted to him. 
From Constable in 1846, he became a Justice of the Peace in 
1850, and in the same year was elected Sheriff of Luzerne county 
for three years. In 1854 he was elected a member of the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature. When the Rebellion broke out he sided 
ardently with the supporters of the Union, and for several years 
occupied the responsible position of one of the paymasters of 
the United States Army, in the performance of which duty he 
traversed the whole country from Maine to Texas. It is worthy 
of remark in this connection to state that while he disbursed mil- 
lions he settled with the government without the loss of a penny, 
either to himself or the government. In 1872, when delegates 
were to be chosen to the Constitutional Convention of the State, he 
was nominated as a Liberal Republican on the Democratic ticket, 
while his son, the subject of our sketch, was nominated as a 
delegate from the same district on the regular Republican ticket. 
Both were elected, and both contributed materially to the 
deliberations of the body, of which they were highly hpnored 
members. In 1838 Mr. Palmer married Elizabeth Burdick. 
daughter of Billings Burdick, a native of Connecticut. The 
couple had a family of six children, of whom five survive, two 
sons and three daughters, Henry W.; being the oldest son. Mr. 
Palmer was a resident of the borough of Glenburn, Lackawanna 
county, at the time of his death, March 27, 1881. 

Henry Wilbur Palmer was born in Clifford township, Susque- 
hanna county, Pa., July 10, 1839. He was educated at the 
Wyoming Seminary and at Fort Edward Institute, New York, 
afterwards entering the Poughkeepsie Law School, from which 
institution he graduated in i860. He was enrolled as a student 

Henry Wilbur Palmer. 197 

in the office of ex-Judge Garrick M. Harding, and, after his 
graduation from the Law School, was admitted to practice in the 
courts of Luzerne county on August 24, 1861, the recommenda- 
tion being by Andrew T. McC'intock, Henry M. Hoyt, and O. 
Collins, who had been appointed a special committee for his 
examination. In 1863 and 64 he was in the army as a pay- 
master's clerk, in the Department of the Gulf Returning 
from the field of duty he entered into partnership with his old 
preceptor, ex-Judge Harding, and during the five years from 
1865 to 1870 the firm of Harding and Palmer was known as one 
of the busiest and most prosperous in northern Pennsylvania. 

In 1866 he was elected a member of the School Board of the 
borough of Wilkes-Barre, in connection with ex-Gov. Henry M. 
Hoyt. His service in this capacity was marked by a close 
application to its duties and a spirit of progressiveness in keeping 
with that which had but just begun to characterize rhe manage- 
ment of public education in Wilkes-Barre, and which has since 
resulted in giving this city a school system in character dnd 
efficiency second to none in the Commonwealth or country. 

Mr. Palmer's election as a member of the Constitutional 
Convention in 1872 has already been mentioned. Of that 
convention Charles R. Buckalew was in every respect a leader. 
The impress of the genius of his statesmanship is more strongly 
marked, perhaps, on the pages of the constitution as finally 
adopted than that of any other of the members. What he 
thought of the labors of his colleague, and of the man gener- 
ally, can very correctly be inferred from the fact that he dedicated 
his recent learned publication on that constitution to Henry W. 

Mr. Palmer served on several important committees in. the 
convention, including those on Oath of Office, Revision and 
Adjustment, Commissions, and Incompatibility of Office, and 
did distinguished service upon them all, as well as upon the floor 
in debate. 

In 1878 Henry M. Hoyt, of Wilkes-Barre, was elected Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania for the term of four years. As the time 
for his inauguration and entrance upon his gubernatorial duties 
approached, a wide-spread interest was manifested in the ques- 

198 Henry Wilbur Palmer. 

tion: Who is to be Attorney General? The constitution was 
new, and the laws that had been enacted in conformity with its 
innovations still newer. These circumstances made the public 
anxious that the always important office, being now doubly 
important, should be capably filled. The names of many of the 
oldest and most experienced lawyers of Republican proclivities 
were presented in connection with itj and in behalf of some of 
them great personal and political pressure was brought to bear 
upon the Governor. The latter, however, knew hig friend and 
neighbor well, was convinced of his fitness, and chose for the 
coveted office Henry W. Palmer. The announcement was fol- 
lowed by many complaints, and by some it was alleged that a 
grave error had been committed, and predicted that the result 
would make that fact plain. That this gloomy forecast was born 
of disappointment, and not of knowledge of the man or his 
parts, will be evident from a brief reference to some of the leading 
incidents of Mr. Palmer's administration. 

One of his first tilts as representative of the rights of the 
Commonwealth was against the four trunk lines, the Dunkirk, 
Allegheny & Pittsburg, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 
the Atlantic & Great Western, and the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Companies. This was in the shape of a bill in equity filed to 
prevent unjust discriminations against shippers as violative of 
the provisions of the constitution. The companies were forced 
into a settlement with the parties at whose instance the bill had 
been filed, and now there are no rebates on oil or other freight 
allowed when offered in the same quantity. 

Most readers will remember his pursuit of the Standard Oil 
Company for taxes aggregating 1^700,000, which Mr. Palmer, 
reading the statutes literally, held to be justly due the Common- 
wealth. His claim was for tax upon the entire capital stock; 
measured by the amount of dividend paid. The Supreme Court 
decreed that the company was liable only on such part of the 
stock as was invested in individual copartnerships, excluding all 
invested in stock of Pennsylvania corporations, limited copartner- 
ships, and oil purchased for export to other States, and as the great 
bulk of the money of the Standard was in the items excluded, 
but ^30,000 of the total amount sued for was recovered. That 

Henry Wilbur Palmer. 199 

the case made out by Mr. Palmer, was, nevertheless, a strong 
one, and that it was very diligently and ably pressed is evident 
from the fact that three judges dissented from the opinion of the 
majority. This monster corporation which is reaping for its 
members, mostly residents of other States, vast fortunes from 
the natural riches of the Commonwealth, lives, by the aid of its 
numerous aliases, its powerful lobbies, and the wit and scheming 
of its innumerable handsomely paid attorneys practically out- 
side the law of the State. 

In the case of the Commonwealth against the Monongahela 
Bridge Company, at Pittsburg, the company was compelled to 
raise its bridge twenty-three feet in the interest of the navigation 
of the river it spanned. 

In the case of the Commonwealth v. J. Campbell Harris, of 
Walnut street, Philadelphia, Mr. Palmer induced the court to 
restrain the adding of a bay window to Mr. Harris' residence, 
on the ground that it was an encroachment on the street, which 
was the property of the city, fti this case it was decided that 
the Attorney General is the'proper party to institute proceedings 
of such character. The councils of the city had previously 
given Mr. Harris permission to add the window. 

Mr. Palmer was especially active in pushing the tax claims of 
the Commonwealth. By a construction of the act of 1879, 
which the court, on hearing, upheld, the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company was compelled to pay into the treasury the sum of 
;g 140,000, which it had disputed the right of the Commonwealth 
to collect. 

In Commonwealth v. Kilgore, Treasurer of Allegheny county, 
license taxes to the amount of $58,000, which the county had 
refused to pay, were secured to the treasury. 

The Reading Railroad Company was made to disgorge 
;^6o,000, tax on gross receipts. In this case the receivers then 
in control of the affairs of the company unsuccessfully sought 
the interference of the United States Courts. 

During his term of office $700,000 was collected in suits of 
this character, or more than any other Attorney General had 
ever collected, and settlement was made with the State without 
the loss of a penny. 

200 Henry Wilbur Palmer. 

Among the most conspicuous features of his record was his' 
raid upon the Bogus Medical Colleges and the Death Rattle 
Insurance Companies. Two more infamous institutions never 
disgraced the State. By the aid of the former the Common- 
wealth was overrun with impudent and conscienceless charlatans, 
whose pretended practice of the medical and surgical arts, besides 
being seriously injurious to legitimate practitioners, was continually 
draining the pockets of the poor and unfortunate, and sacrificing 
their life and limbs. By the latter, cunning scoundrels in 
almost every county played upon the cupidity of the unwary, 
and amassed vast gain. Fraud and forgery, and even murder, 
were encouraged by their nefarious transactions. Neighbor was 
turned against neighbor, and friend against friend. Children 
were made to hope for, and even encourage, th-e death of their 
aged parents. A people hungry for unearned wealth and lacking 
every honorable principle was necessary to the success of the 
bad men who managed t\\f odious business, but such people 
can be developed in every comTnunity, if their tempters are per- 
mitted to go unnoticed by the law and unwhipped by justice; 
and, as a consequence, Pennsylvania became a by-word and a 
reproach all over the Union because of its tacit tolerance of such 
scoundrelism, for though Mr. Palmer's predecessors had essayed 
their overthrow, for some lacking it had been in vain. When he 
undertook the task he proceeded with such relentless vigor that 
before the end of his term not a bogus diploma-manufacturing' 
concern was left, and the death rattle scoundrels had been 
scattered to the four winds of heaven. 

Mr. Palmer construed the law to mean that members of the 
Legislature are entitled to but $ 1,000 pay for each regular ses- 
sion, no matter to how many days the session may be prolonged. 
At the close of the long session of 1880, therefore, a writ oi man- 
damus was procured against the State Treasurer, under which the 
question was argued before the Supreme Court, the State Treas- 
urer having previously refused payment to the legislators pend- 
ing the determination of the question, under advice of the 
Attorney General. The judges in their final decision took the 
opposite view, Judge Trunkey dissenting, and the legislators 
were afterwards paid for one hundred and fifty days, at the rate 

Henry Wilbur Palmer. 201 

of ^10 per day; although many constitutional lawyers then held, 
and still maintain, that Mr. Palmer's position was the correct one. 

All these and many other acts of Mr. Palmer's fearless and 
energetic administration of the office of Attorney General raised 
up^gainst him not a few enemies, and one of the results of that 
fact was .the appointment, in 1881, of two legislative committees of 
enquiry, one with reference to the salary case and questions ' 
growing out of it, and the other to enquire as, to whether he was 
entitled to the commissions paid him in the Commonwealth tax 
cases, similar commissions having been paid to his predecessors 
without question as to their right to them. The first of these 
committees reported nothing to his discredit, and the other never 
reported at all. 

Mr. Palmer was the youngest man, probably, who ever held the 
distinguished position. It is doubtful whether any other ever 
showed greater capacity for its requirements. Certainly none have 
excelled him in courage, or have achieved more or greater suc- 
cess in their legal battles for the Commonwealth against its 

At the expiration of his term as Attorney General, Mr. Palmer 
returned to, and is still engaged at, the practice of his profession, 
in Wilkes-Barre. 

He is the senior member of the firm of Palmer, Dewitt and 
Fuller, and is counsel for numerous corporations, among them the 
Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad Companies, the New York & Pennsylvania 
Canal and Railroad Company, the Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre Coal 
Company, and the Susquehanna Canal Company. From this 
large and distinguished clientage his earnings must be lucrative. 

He is a man of business and enterprise, too, outside the law. 
He is at present a director in the Miners' Savings Bank, and has 
held that office in the Wilkes-Barre Savings Bank and People's 
Bank of this city. He takes an active interest in railroad matters 
and was conspicuously identified with the building of the new 
North & West Branch Railroad Company, now operated by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, of which corporation he is now 
a director. He is one of the corporators of the Bloomsburg & 
Bernice Railroad, which is designed to develop the lumber 

202 Henry Wilbur Palmer. 

regions of Luzerne and Sullivan counties, and to open up new 
coal lands in both, and which bids fair to bring a handsome 
return to the investors. He is likewise a director in the pro- 
posed Wyoming, Yellowstone & Pacific Railroad Company. 
This road is to be some four hundred miles in length, and will 
run from Rawlins, on the Union Pacific, to the Yellowstone 
Park, past the famed Soda Lakes and through the iron, coal, and 
oil territory of that vast and yet virgin region. It is expected 
to be commenced before August i, of the current year, and com- 
pleted within two years from that time. The capital stock is 
^12,000,000, most of which has been secured from investors in 
Great Britain. The road has a charter from the Territory of 
Wyoming, and is the only road projected from the South to the 
Yellowstone Park. Hon. L. D. Shoemaker, of this city, is its 

Mr. Palmer is a married man and man of family, having taken 
to wife on September 12, 1861, Ellen M., daughter of George W. 
Webster, of Plattsburg, N. Y. Mr. Webster is a native of New 
Hampshire. They have five children living, three girls and two 
boys. Three others are dead. The oldest living is now a young 
lady of twenty. He is a vestryman in St. Stephen's Episcopal 
Church, Wilkes-Barre, and has frequently been a delegate to 
diocesan conventions of that faith. 

It falls to the lot of comparatively few men to achieve, at so 
early a period in their careers such marked distinction as attaches 
to the name and record of Henry Wilbur Palmer, who is at this 
writing but 44 years old. The qualities that have made him so 
unusually successful are manifold, but principal among them are his 
great common sense, his undaunted courage, both in assault and 
defense, his contempt of all shams, and his fine powers of invective. 
As a pleader, either to judge or jury, he is remarkably success- 
ful, his pleadings being always pointed, pithy, and directed to the 
capacity in others, from which they are drawn to himself; which 
is to say, to their common sense. He is a highly favored con- 
vention and stump orator. As the latter, he has delivered some 
of the most effective arguments ever presented in the behalf of the 
Republican party, of whose principles and destinies he has 
always been a devoted follower. He is in great request, also, as 

Charles Miner Conyngham. 203 

a speaker before benevolent and literary associations, and has 
found time amid his manifold business duties to prepare and 
deliver under these auspices numerous polished and instructive 
addresses. He is excellent company, and while a man of his 
vigor of intellect and combative disposition is necessarily never 
without his enemies and detractors, Mr. Palmer lives, in the esti- 
mation of very many ardent friends and his neighbors generally, a 
good and useful citizen and a capable and reliable attorney. 


[Abridged by Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, from his forthcoming work entitled " Reminiscences 
of David Hayfield Conyngham, of the Revolutionary house of J. N. Nesbitt&Co., Philadelphia, 

[David Hayfield Conyngham descended from William Conyng- 
ham, Bishop of Argyll, Scotland, 1539, of the house of Glencairn. 
The family owes its rise to the act of one Malcolm, son of Freskin, 
who saved the life of Malcolm, Prince of Scotland, from the wrath 
of Macbeth by hiding him in a barn, when hotly pursued, and 
covering him with straw by means of a shake fork. When Mal- 
colm became king, he rewarded his presence by the thanedom of 
Cunynghame, from which the posterity of this faithful adherent 
assumed their surname, and took a " shake fm-k" for their arms, 
and "over fork over" for their motto. From this Malcolm of Cun- 
ynghame descended all the families of the name in Great Britain. 
The houses of Lord Cuninghame, of Ayr (the Earl of Glencairn's 
line) ; Lord Cuningham Fairlie, of Fairlie ; Lord Dick Cunyng- 
ham, of Edinburgh ; Lord Cimynghame, of Milncraig ; the Mar- 
quess Conyngham, of Mount Charles, Ireland ; with the several 
lines among the landed gentry — Cuningham & Cuninghame of 
Lainshaw, of Hensol ; of Cadel & Thorntoun, of Caprington and 
of Balgownie House — all preserve the original arms, ''Arg. a shake 
fork, sa,'' and in most cases the original motto, " over fork over." 

William Conyngham, Bishop of Argyll, 1539, had two sons: 
William, who succeeded at Conyngham-head, Scotland, and was 
made a Baronet of Nova Scotia ; and Rev. Alexander, who took 
orders, and about 1610 removed to Donegal county, Ireland, 

204 Charles Miner Conyngham. 

In May, 1630, he was made Dean of Raphoe, and died Septem- 
ber 3, 1660, and was buried at Raphoe. He married Catherine, 
daughter of John Murray, of Broughton, who owned all Boylagb 
and Banagh. He had, according to Burke, twenty-seven children, 
of whom four sons and five daughters survived infancy. The 
sons were : George Conyngham, Esq. ; Sir Albert Conyngham,. 
from whom descend the Earl of Conyngham and of Mount 
Charles (see Burke's Peerage) ; William Conyngham, Esq., who 
died unmarried, and whose property, by will, descended to David 
Hayfield Conyngham, through Alexander, of Eighan ; Alexander 
Conyngham of Letterkeny, Esq., the immediate ancestor of 
David Hayfield Conyngham. Alexander Conyngham of Letter- 
keny, Esq., married Mary Montgomery, and had Alexander of 
Eighan, will dated December 27, 1701 ; and Andrew, the 
supposed one through whom the Wilkes-Barre family descend, 
for this reason. Alexander of Eighan married Helen, and had 
Richard of Dublin, merchant, who married, as per marriage con- 
tract. May 8, 1706, Mary Moore, daughter of Brabazan Moore, 
of county Louth. His father, by will, entails upon him and his 
heirs forever the lands of Ballyboe, said " lands of Ballyboe 
limited to said Richard Conyngham for life, remainder to the 
heirs male of his body." These lands came by deed from 
Richard Murray, son of John, of Broughton, who died September 
24, 1669, to Alexander of Eighan. By deed of February 8, 1721, 
these lands are assigned by Capt. David Conyngham, of Bally- 
herrin and Letterkeny, for the benefit of his children, and were 
found entailed by his son Redmond Conyngham, Esq., on his 
son David Hayfield Conyngham, by will, dated May 21, 1778, 
now in the hands of the writer. 

Andrew, son of Alexander of Letterkeny, had (i), David, will 
dated November 18, 1757; (2), Rev. William; (3), Rev. Adam; 
(4), Gustavus, married his cousin, and had Capt. Gustavus, U. S. 
Navy, 1775-1784, distinguished during the Revolutionary war. 
He raised the first U. S. flag in the British channel ; (5), Andrew; 
(6), Florinda ; (7), Elizabeth ; (8), Ann, 

I. David Conyngham married Katherine O'Hanlon, daughter 
of Redmond O'Hanlon, the celebrated Rapparee of that unhappy 
time in Ireland, and who was outlawed by the English. . He was 

Charles Miner Conyngham. 205 

a Sept of the race of Colla da Chrioch, descended and deriving 
their surname from Hanluan, chief of Hy-Reith-Thire, now the 
Barony of Orior, county Armagh, and is traced back by the 
" Four Masters " to Milesius, of Spain. O'Hanlon was one of 
those dispossessed of his possessions by the crown, and fighting 
as any patriot would fight for his land and liberties, was not only 
outlawed, but a heavy price set upon his head. This decree was 
however subsequently removed, as his grandson, Redmond Con- 
yngham, in his will, disposes of property by entail received from 
Redmond O'Hanlon's estate. Redmond Conyngham's silver 
bears the Conyngham "shake fork,'' but he seals his will with 
the O'Hanlon arms, which are " veri on a mount ppr., a boar pas- 
sant erin." Crest, " a lizard displayed vert!' 

David Conyngham had issue: (i), Redmond of Letterke-ny, 
will dated May 21, 1778, probated November 23, 1784; (2), 
Isabella, married David Stewart, of Balto., of whom was Hon. 
David, member U. S. Congress, from Maryland, 1849; (3), Mary, 
married Rev. Thomas Plunkett, son of Sir Patrick Plunkett and 
his wife, grand daughter of Sir William Welles, Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland. They had two sons — Patrick, M. D., and William 
Conyngham, created Lord Pliinket 1827, and Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland 1830-1841. The present Lord Plunket is also the Lord 
Bishop of Meath (See Burke's Peerage). (4), Elizabeth; (5), 
Katherine ; (6), Hannah ; (7), Florinda. 

Redmond Conyngham came to this country before the revolu- 
tion, and married, January 13, 1749-50, Martha Ellis, daughter 
of Robert, of Philadelphia. He was a member of the firm of J. 
N. Nesbitt & Co. Returned to Ireland before 1776, when his 
son, David Hayfield, took his place in the firm, which, under the 
names of J. N. Nesbit & Co. and Conyngham & Nesbit, aided 
very materially the cause of the colonies in various ways, doubt- 
less saving the army of Washington at Valley Forge by its 
liberal donations. 

Redmond Conyngham had (i), David Hayfield, born March 
21, 1756, who married Mary West, and had William, Redmond, 
who married Judge Yeates' daughter, Mary Martha, Hannah 
Anne, Mary, Elizabeth Isabella, Catherine, wife of Ralph Peters, 
William, David, John Nesbit, LL. D. 

2o6 Charles Miner Conyngham. 

Charles Miner Conyngham, seventh and youngest child of 
Hon. John Nesbit and Ruth (Butler) Conyngham, was born at 
Wilkes-Barre, July 6, 1840. Educated at Protestant Episcopal 
Academy, Philadelphia, and Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 
Graduated A. B. 1859, A. M. 1862. Studied law with G. Byron 
Nicholson, of Wilkes-Barre, and admitted to the bar August, 
1862, but has never engaged in the practice of the profession. 
During the war between the States, he entered the U. S. army as 
captain Company A, 143d Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry, 
August 26, 1862; E. L. Dana, col.; George E. Hoyt, lieut.-col. ; 
John D. Musser, major. When Ljeut.-Col. Hoyt was killed, 
September i, 1863, Major Musser was promoted to lieut.-col., and 
Captain Conyngham to the majority, to date and rank from June 
2, 1863. Was engaged with his regiment in the battles of Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania C. H. 
In the latter action. Col. Dana was wounded and captured, and 
Lieut.-Col. Musser killed, when the command of the regiment 
devolved on Major Conyngham, who, in the action of May 12, 
1864, was so severely wounded that, July 26, 1864, he was 
honorably discharged the service. On his return from the army, 
instead of engaging in the practice of the law, he entered into 
mercantile pursuits, under the various firms of Conyngham & 
Paine, Chas. M. Conyngham ; and also in coal mining operations, 
under the firm of Conyngham & Teasdale, at Shickshinny. Mr. 
Conyngham is also president of the West End Coal Company, 
and is a director in the Hazard Manufacturing Company and 
the Parrish Coal Company. He is also the head of the firm of 
Conyngham, Schrage & Company, who have extensive stores at 
Ashley, Sugar Notch, and Wilkes-Barre. During the adminis- 
tration of Governor Hoyt, of Pennsylvania, Major Conyngham 
held the office of Inspector-General of the National Guard. He 
is a communicant and junior warden of St. Stephen's Protestant 
Episcopal Church, Wilkes-Barre ; one of the executive committee 
of the Luzerne County Bible Society; a member of Lodge No. 61, 
F. and A. M. ; of the Loyal Legion of the United States; of the 
Society of the Potomac ; and of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

He married, Hartford, Conn., February 9, 1S64, Miss Helen 
Hunter Turner, daughter of William Wolcot Turner, of Hart- 

Charles Miner Conyngham. 207 

ford, who graduated A. B., Yale, 1819; A. M., Yale and College, 
N. J., 1S21; Ph. D., National Deaf Mute College, Washington, 
D. C, 1870; and is the author of "The School Dictionary, 
1829." He still lives, upwards of 80 years of age. Major Con- 
yngham has three children — Helen, Herbert, and Alice.] 

John Nesbit Conyngham, LL. D., was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county April 3, 1820. In 1839, he was commissioned 
as a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and with the exception 
of the years 1850-1851, he remained in commission up to the 
date of his resignation in 1870. He lost his life by an accident 
in Mississippi in 1871. 

John Butler Conyngham, who was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county August 6, 1849, was a brother of Major Con- 
yngham. At the time of his death. May 27, 1 871, he was captain 
in the Twenth-fourth Infantry, U. S. A. He was appointed 
colonel of the Fifty-second Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
during the late civil war. The year of his death, he was brevetted 
major and lieutenant-colonel in the regular army, for gallant 
service in the field. 

As has been stated, Charles Miner Conyngham, although 
fitted by the regular course of study, and regularly admitted to 
the bar, never entered into active practice in the profession. It 
is, however, conceded by all who know him that, had he done 
so, he would have achieved as distinctively prominent and credit- 
able a position in the legal arena as rewarded his bravery and 
general soldierly quality in the field and his business acumen 
and activity since his return from that performance of a patriot's 
duty. It is not needed that we go back to the venerable ancestry 
above briefly traced to learn that the Conyngham blood runs in 
the veins of men who make their mark in the world in whatever 
walk of life they choose to follow. Within the memory of men 
now living, the immediate relatives of the subject of this sketch 
have dignified the several professions they espoused, brought 
high honors to themselves and distinguished credit to the com- 
munity in which they lived. Major Conyngham is a worthy 
scion of a noble house of useful men. He is just of middle age, 
of commanding and genial presence, the possessor of large 
means, and a foremost man in social as well as business circles. 

2o8 George Reynoldsi Bedford. 


Stephen Bedford, the great grandfather of George Reynolds 
Bedford, was a native of Suckasunny, Morris county. New Jer- 
sey, and was probably of English descent. After his death, the 
family removed to Ulster county, New York. Jacob Bedford, 
son of Stephen Bedford, entered the Revolutionary War at the 
age of fourteen years, his first service being garrison duty. He 
removed to the Wyoming Valley in 1792, where he remained 
during the whole of a long life. He died at the residence of his 
son, Andrew Bedford, M. D., at Waverly, Pennsylvania, August 
23, 1849, aged 87 years. The first wife of Jacob Bedford was a 
daughter of Benjamin Carpenter, who was commissioned a justice 
of the peace and one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas 
of Luzerne county. May 27, I787. William Hooker Smith was 
commissioned on the same day. In 1794, Benjamin Carpenter 
was a member of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania. 
Elizabeth, another daughter of Mr. Carpenter, married Lazarus 
Denison, a son of Col. Nathan Denison. Hon. Charles Denison, 
who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county August 13, 1840, 
was a son of Lazarus Denison. Mr. Carpenter removed to Sun- 
bury, Delaware county, Ohio, in 18 10. Jacob Bedford married 
May 16, 1799, for his second wife Deborah Sutton, daughter of 
James Sutton, of Exeter, Pa. Mr. Bedford was a prominent man 
in his day, and at one time was one of the largest owners of real 
estate in Luzerne county. On the 3d November, 1804, he was 
commissioned as coroner by Gjovernor Thomas McKean. In 
October, 18 10, he was elected sheriff of Luzerne county in con- 
nection with Jabez Hyde, but the then Governor Snyder gave 
the commission to Mr. Hyde, as he had the privilege of doing 
under the law. Dr. Peck, in his history of Early Methodism, 
writes of Mrs. Bedford : " There is still lingering upon the shores 
of time one member of this class (Ross Hill) — the first Methodist 
class formed within the bounds of our territory — and that is Mrs. 
Deborah Bedford. This ' mother in Israel ' has ever been a 
uniform and consistent Christian, and an unflinching Methodist, 

George Reynolds Bedford, 209 

and it is especially fortunate that she has been spared to leave 
behind her a record of the origin of Methodism in the Wyoming 
Valley. She is one of the number who have traveled with the 
church from early youth to extreme old age without ever having 
the slightest stain upon her Christian character, or exhibiting 
the least evidence of backsliding, or even of wavering in her 
Christian course. She has been a member of the church for 
seventy-two years (written in i860, she died in 1869), and for 
forty-two years of this period it has been our happiness to enjoy 
her acquaintance and her personal friendship. She is now in the 
full exercise of her intellectual faculties, and often attends divine 

" Old men beheld, and did her reverence, 

And bade their daughters look, and take from her 

Example of their future life — the young, 

Admired, and new resolve of virtue made." 

Mrs. Bedford was in Forty Fort at the time of the massacre, and 
it was her misfortune to be a witness of that disastrous day when, 
the battle lost, the stockade was given up to pillage, and at 
least one of its occupants to death. She joined the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in 1788 through the instrumentality of the 
pioneer laborers of that denomination, and became a member of 
the first class formed in Northern Pennsylvania. Perhaps no 
person in the United States had been a longer time a member 
than Mrs. Bedford at the time of her death. She was cotem- 
porary in membership with John Wesley (who died in 1791) and 
the honored fathers who were his co-laborers in the building up 
of that church which now reflects such imperishable honors on 
their names. She was born in North Castle, N. Y., February 8, 
1773, and died in Waverly, Pa., April 3, 1869. 

Andrew Bedford, M. D., the father of George R. Bedford, was 
born at Wyoming, Pa:, April 22, 1800, and is still living. He 
resides at Waverly, Pa., where he has practiced his profession 
for over half a century, but during the latter years of his life, 
his business has been mostly in holding consultations with his 
brother physicians. He graduated from the medical department 
of Yale college. The doctor has been a life long Democrat, and 
has filled many important offices at their hands. He was a 

210 George Reynolds Bedford. 

member of the Constitutional Convention of 1838. It is believed 
that the only survivors of the members of that body are, besides 
Dr. Bedford, Ex-Chief Justice Agnew, of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, and Ex-Judge Henry G. Long, of Lancaster 
county. Pa. His colleagues in the convention from Luzerne 
county were Ex-Chief Justice George W. Woodward, General 
E. W. Sturdevant, and William Swetland. Dr. Bedford was 
prothonotary, clerk of the Courts of Quarter Sessions, and Oyer 
and Terminer, and of the Orphans' Court, from December, 1840, 
to December, 1846, being the first officer elected under the consti- 
tution of 1838 for the above named offices. Under the constitu- 
tion of 1791, which was in force until 1838, all county officers 
were appointed by the Governor. He has also been postmaster 
at Waverly, Pa. 

Dr. Bedford is a prominent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and has held the various offices connected with that 
denomination, such as steward, trustee, and class leader. He was 
an earnest advocate of lay representation, and was temporary 
chairman of the first lay convention (held at Owego, N. Y.) in 
the Wyoming Conference. He has been twice married. His 
first wife, whom he married in early manhood, was Hannah, 
daughter of Benjamin Reynolds, of Plymouth, Pa. Mr. Rey- 
nolds was a prominent citizen. He was sheriff of Luzerne 
county in 1831, and for many years was a justice of the peace 
at Plymouth. The fruits of this union were seven sons, five of 
whom are now living, George Reynolds Bedford being of the 
number. James S. Bedford, who was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county January 10, 1854, was one of the sons. He 
died in 1863 at Brownville, Nebraska, where he was practicing 
at the time. The second wife of Dr. Bedford' was Mrs. Mary Bur- 
tis, nee Porter, whom he married in 1853. Her father was 
Orlando Porter, of Wilkes-Barre. She is the sister of the late 
Rev. George P. Porter, of the Wyoming Conference. They 
have but one child living, who is a daughter. John Bedford, a 
brother of the Doctor, was a prominent lawyer in Norwalk, Ohio. 
At the time of his death he was mayor of that city. 

Dr. Bedford was one of the corporators of Madison Academy, 
located at Waverly. Here David L. Patrick, Garrick M. Hard- 

George Reynolds Bedford. 2 1 1 

ing, M. E. Walker, Alexander Farnham, Jerome G. Miller, and 
other members of the Luzerne county bar, were educated, either 
in whole or part. The Doctor has been one of its trustees since 
its incorporation. He was one of the incorporators of the Wilkes- 
Barre and Providence Plank Road Company, and also of the 
Liggetts Gap Railroad Company, which was merged in the 
Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company, and subsequently 
in the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company. 
On his retirement as a director, over thirty years since, he was 
voted a free pass for life. 

James Sutton, the father of Deborah Bedford, was born March 
7, 1744, and married Sarah, daughter of William Hooker Smith, 
June 22, 1769. He was a merchant at North Castle, West Ches- 
ter county. New York, and when British goods were interdicted 
he sold his property and removed to Wyoming in company with 
his father-in-law. Mr. Sutton settled on Jacob's Plains, on the 
east side of the Susquehanna, two miles above Wilkes-Barre. 
Before the Indian troubles he removed to Exeter, on the west 
side of the fiver, about five miles above the head of the valley 
of Wyoming. Here he built a grist and saV mill upon a stream 
which gushes from a notch in the mountain, and now known as 
Sutton's Creek. Dr. George Peck, in his history of " Early 
Methodism," written in i860, says, "The old Sutton house was 
situated in a gorge of the west mountain in the side of a steep 
hill, about twelve miles above Forty Fort. A mountain torrent 
rushes through the gorge, upon which 'Squire Sutton erected a 
grist mill. He had a taste for ' milling,' and for a large portion 
of his life he was engaged in that business. The spot was 
secluded just at the head of a considerable narrows on the wind- 
ing Susquehanna. In that immediate neighborhood the popula^ 
tion was sparse, and the people a delving, hardy race. Up the 
creek you saw a deep chasm cut through rocks and shaded 
with trees and shrubs, the most perfect specimen of gloom and 
solitude. Across the river the chain of mountains which follow 
the river, now advancing to the very edge and again receding 
and leaving a rich bottom, and ever varying in form and height, 
presents a most wild and poetic view. Here it was that 
' Father and Mother Sutton ' passed a half a .century together. 

212 George Reynolds Bedford. 

entertained two generations of Methodist preachers, received 
visits from distinguished guests, dispensed charities to the poor, 
and kept up an altar for the worship of Jehovah. Here the ven- 
erable Asbury found a ' home neat as a palace and was enter- 
tained like a king by a king and queen,' of which he gives ample 
evidence in his journal." Mr. Sutton- was possessed of unusual 
mechanical genius. He was not a carpenter by trade, but aided 
by a Dictionary of Arts he was able to do most of the work of 
planning and constructing his mills himself In the year 1777 — 
the year before the battle — there was much talk of war with the 
Indians. Several persons were killed up the river and others 
taken prisoners. Mr. Sutton and John Jenkins, afterwards known 
as Colonel Jenkins, the ancestor of Hon. Steuben Jenkins, made 
a journey through the wilderness to Queen Esther's Flats in 
order to procure the liberation of Mr. Ingersoll, who had been 
carried into captivity. The distance was about ninety miles. 
The visitors were treated very courteously by the queen, and she 
was free in her communications with regard to the prospect of 
war. They were invited to spend the night with, her, and the 
true spirit of hospitality seemed to characterize all her commu- 
nications and arrangements. In the course of the evening, how- 
ever, things took a new turn, and the travelers, for a while,- were 
at a loss what construction to put upon the indications outside. 
A company of Indians came before the house, and seating them- 
selves upon a log began to sing " the war song." The old queen 
went out to them, and was engaged in an earnest conversation 
with them for a long timp ; when she came in she frankly told 
her guests that the Jndians were determined to waylay and kill 
them, adding, with great emphasis, " I can do nothing with them. 
Now," said she, " you lie down until I call you." They did so, 
and when all was still in the town, she called them, and then 
said, " You must go down the river. Go down the bank and 
take my canoe and paddle it without noise. Lift up the paddles 
edgewise, so as to make no splash in the water, and you may get 
out of reach before the war partj' find out which way you have 
gone." They slipped off and found the canoe which the queen 
had particularly described, .scrupulously followed her directions, 
and found their way home in safety. In the spring of 1778, Mr. 

George Reynolds Bedfokd. 213 

Sutton rented his premises in Exeter, and purchased a mill seat 
in Kingston, in the now borough of Luzerne. 

On the day of the massacre, in the same year, Mr. Sutton re- 
mained in Forty Fort. Although a Quaker, he believed it to be 
right to fight in self-defense, and would probably have been in the 
battle had it not been necessary for him to stay with the women 
and children, and to take care of the sick. A few days following, 
Mr. Sutton took his family down the river to Middletown, Lan- 
caster county, Pa., first building a boat to remove them. He 
remained in Middletown two years, and then returned to Wilkes- 
Barre. On his return, he found that his mill and house at 
Exeter had been burned down. His house in Kingston had in 
some way escaped the flames, but had been stripped of its cover- 
ing. He immediately set to work and built a house on the lot 
now occupied by the residence of Irving A. Stearns. There was 
now no mill in the settlement, and Mr. Sutton set himself to 
work to build a mill, on Mill Creek, near the river. The mill 
stood and did good service to the settlement until the celebrated 
pumpkin flood in October, 1786,. when it was carried away. 
During the Pennamite and Yankee wars, Mr. Sutton's house in 
Wilkes-Barre was burned. He then removed across the river, 
and built a house in Forty Fort, remaining there a short time, 
when he returned to his home at Mill Hollow, or Luzerne. Soon 
after, Mr. Sutton, in connection with Dr. Smith, built a forge at 
Lackawanna, but not succeeding as he desired in making iron, 
he returned to Exeter, where he died July 19, 1824. Mrs. Sut- 
ton died 20, 1834. She belonged to a noble race of 
matrons, who endured their full share of the toils and sacrifices 
of the glorious fight with the dense forests, the wild beasts, and 
the wild Indians, and the dastardly tories, which resulted in the 
fruitful fields, quiet homes, flourishing schools, colleges and 
churches, and the free institutions, which now constitute America 
the glory of all lands. Mr. Sutton was appointed one of the 
justices of the peace by Governor McKean, on the 4th July, 1808, 
and on the same day sealer of weights and measures for Luzerne 
county. James Sutton, of this city, is a grandson. Putnam 
Catlin, who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county May 27, 
1787, the date of the organization of the county, was the husband 

214 George Reynolds Bedford. 

of Polly, the oldest child of Mr. Sutton. He had been a drum- 
mer boy in the Revolution. In 1797, he was appointed by the 
Governor Brigade-Inspector for Luzerne county. In 18 14, he 
was a representative in the Legislature of Pennsylvania. He 
removed to Windsor, N. Y., and from there to Brooklyn, Sus- 
quehanna county, Pa. ' He afterwards lived in Montrose, where 
he was cashier of the Silver Lake Bank. He afterwards removed 
to Great Bend, where he died in 1842, aged J"] years. He was 
vice-president of the first agricultural society held in Susque- 
hanna county, January 27, 1820. George Catlin, the celebrated 
artist, was his son, and was born in Wilkes-Barre in 1796. He 
was brought up to the law, and practiced that profession in 
Philadelphia for two years, but art was his favorite pursuit ; and 
forsaking the law, he established himself in New York as a por- 
trait painter. In 1832, his attention having been called to the 
fact that the pure American race was disappearing before the 
march of civilization, he resolved to rescue from oblivion the 
types and customs of this singular people. With this object in 
view, he spent eight years among them, visited about fifty tribes, 
and brought hom,e more than six hundred oil paintings (in every 
instance from nature) of portraits, landscapes, and Indian customs, 
and every article of their manufacture, such as weapons, costumes 
and wigwams. In 1840, he went to Europe with his collection 
of paintings; and in the following year, he published, at London, 
a work on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North 
American Indians, in two volumes, illustrated with 300 engrav- 
ings. In 1844, he published 77?^ North American Portfolio, con- 
taining 25 plates of hunting scenes and amusements in the Rocky 
Mountains and the prairies of America. This was followed, in 
1848, by Eight Years' Travels and Residence in Europe, in which 
he narrates the adventures of three different parties of American 
Indians, whom he had introduced to the courts of England, 
France, and Belgium. In 1853, ^^- Catlin left London for 
Venezuela, South America. He traversed British and Dutch 
Guiana, the valley of the Amazon, and other parts of Brazil, the 
Andes, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, California; reached Vancouver and 
Queen Charlotte's, and having visited most of the tribes of In- 
dians of the Pacific coast as far as Kamtschatka and the Aleutian 

George Reynolds Bedford. 215 

Islands, he returned to cross the Rocky Mountains, from San 
Diego to Santa Fe and Matamoras, thence to Guatemala, to 
Yucatan, to Cuba, and back to London. In 1861, he published 
a curious little volume in " manugraph " entitled The Breath of 
Life, on the advantage of keeping one's mouth habitually closed 
-during sleep; and in 1868, appeared \{\s Last Ramble's amongst 
the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes. Mr. Catlin 
died in Jersey City, New Jersey, December 22, 1872. He left 
two daughters to survive him. 

In the minutes of the court in 1794, it is stated that the only 
attorneys in Luzerne county were Ebenezer Bowman and Putnam 
Catlin (Rosewell Welles had been appointed judge). That E. 
Bowman has declined practice, and P. Catlin was about to 
decline; that Nathan Palmer and Noah Wadhams, jun., having 
been admitted in the Supreme Court of Connecticut, be " under 
the circumstances " admitted. 

James Sutton early embraced the doctrines of Methodism, an^ 
was leader of the first class organized in the Lackawanna valley, 
and which consisted of five members. In December, 1782, the 
decree of Trenton was passed adjudging the right of jurisdiction 
and preemption to Penn.sylvania ; and on the 25th of September, 
1786, Luzerne county was established by the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania. On the 27th December, a supplement was passed 
providing that Timothy Pickering, Zebulon Butler, and John 
Franklin notify the electors that an election would be held to 
choose a counselor, member of assembly, sheriff, coroner, and 
commissioners, on the first day of February, 1787. Oaths of 
allegiance were to be taken by the voters ; and provision for the 
election of justices of the peace was made. 

Col. Pickering was one of the most eminent men in the Union. 
Having the confidence of Washington and congress, he had 
executed with fidelity and approbation the office of Quartermaster 
General in the army. A native of Massachusetts, after the peace 
he settled in Philadelphia, becoming a citizen of Pennsylvania, 
and was selected, in addition to his great abilities and weight of 
character, for the reason that he was a New England man, to 
organize the new county, and introduce the laws of the state 
among the Wyoming people. He was subsequently Secretary 
of War and Postmaster-General of the United States. 

2i6 George Reynolds Bedford. 

Col. Butler, with great prudence, had kept himself aloof from 
all active measures of opposition. A captain in the old French 
war, a colonel in the revolutionary contest, having served with 
reputation and retired with honors ; ambition having been satis- 
fied, and age cooled the fervor of his ardent temperament, he 
desired peace ; he longed ardently for repose, if it could be ob- 
tained with safety to his neighbors and credit to himself. 

Col. Franklin, except in education and polish, was in no respect 
the inferior of Pickering; and it was a wise, though as it proved 
an unavailing stroke of policy to endeavor to conciliate the great 
Yankee leader, by naming him as one of the deputies to regulate 
the elections. But Col. Franklin was too deeply committed in 
interest and pledged faith to the grand scheme of establishing a 
new state to take a new oath of fidelity to Pennsylvania, and, 
either directly by himself or through the agency of his attached 
partizans, every obstacle short of absolute force was interposed 
to prevent the election being held. And now, for the first time, 
was presented the spectacle equally gratifying to foes and painful 
to friends of open and decided hostility among the Wyoming 
people. Whatever difference of opinion may exist in respect to 
the justice of their claim, no liberal mind could have traced their 
arduous course through toil and privation, through suffering and 
oppression, through "civil and foreign war, and observed the 
fortitude, fellowship, and harmony among themselves that had 
prevailed, without a feeling of admiration for rare and generous 
virtues so signally displayed. In an equal degree was the mor- 
tification at the spectacle now presented. Col. Pickering came 
with assurances that, on the introduction of the laws and the 
organization of the county by the election of proper officers, 
which of course implied the oath of allegiance, measures of com- 
promise would be fortjiwith adopted. Probably three-fourths of 
the ancient people sided with him, and were in favor of submis- 
sion to the law. Among these were Col. Butler, Col. Denison, 
the Hollenbacks, the Rosses, the Williamses, the families of Carey, 
Gore, Nesbit, and others; while Franklin, the Jenkinses, the Slo- 
cums, Satterlee, Dudley, and others, especially the residents up 
the river, wished to defeat the election, insisting that confirmation 
of title to the settlers should precede, and not be left to follow. 

George Reynolds Bedford. 217 

complete submission to the power of the state. It was a day of 
high excitement even for Wyoming, indeed of riotous commo- 
tion. Many a stalwart Yankee was engaged in combat fierce, 
and sometimes bloody, though not mortal, with a former friend, 
by whose side he had fought. In the midst of the wild uproar, 
when overwhelming force was apprehended, Col. Butler mounted 
his war steed and rode up and down amid the crowd, exclaiming : 
" I draw my sword in defense of the law ; let every lover of peace 
and good order support me.'' In despite of opposition, the elec- 
tion was consumated. Col. Nathan Denison was elected to the 
Supreme Executive Council, John Franklin was chosen Member 
of Assembly, and Lord Butler, High Sheriff 

Thus, Luzerne being politically organized, courts established 
and the laws introduced under the auspices of Colonel Pickering 
sustained by the confirming law, he proceeded with wisdom and 
promptitude to conciliate the good will of the people — to assuage 
passion; to overcome prejudice; to inspire confidence. If Frank- 
lin was busy, Pickering was no less active. Without in the 
slightest degree lessening his dignity by unworthy condescen- 
sion, he yet rendered himself familiar; talked with the farmers 
about corn and potatoes, and with their wives about the dairy, 
maintaining his own opinions with zeal, yet listening to others 
with respect. " He was no way a proud man," was the general 
expression of the ancient people. But they thought he farmed 
rather too much by books, and smiled to see him cart into his 
barn damp clover to cure by its power of generating heat in the 
mow. How entirely he sought to conform to the simple habits 
of the people is shown by the record in his own handwriting 
that Timothy Pickering and some other citizens "were elected 
fence viewers and overseers of the poor." Franklin meanwhile, 
with characteristic industry, visited from town to town, from 
settlement to settlement, and from house to house, kindling 
by his burning zeal the passions of his adherents to resist 
the laws, not by open violence, but by avoiding to commit 
themselves by taking the oath of allegience or participating 
in any measure that should seem to acknowledge the jurisdic- 
tion of the State, unless some law more comprehensive, liberal, 
and specific should first be enacted to quiet the settlers in their 

2(8 George Reynolds Bedford. 

lands. At length a proposition was made and acceded to by both 
parties, that the whole people should be called together and a 
general meeting be held to talk over the matter in common coun- 
cil, a sort of ancient "Town meeting," though not "legally- 
warned," to hear speakers on either side, and, if possible, to pre- 
serve union among those who had so long fought and suffered 
together, now separating into the most exciting and acrimonious 
divisions. Old Forty Fort was chosen as the ground. The day 
fixed, the north and the south, the east and the west, poured forth 
their anxious hundreds, plainly, nay, rudely dressed, for they 
were yet very poor, but with firm tread, compressed lip, and 
independent bearing, for though rough and sun burnt (on this 
great occasion who would stay at home?), they were at once a 
shrewd and a proud, as they were a hardy and brave, people. A 
stand was erected for the moderator, clerk, and speakers, and 
James Sutton was called on to preside. Colonel Pickering, 
assisted by the Butlers, the Hollenbacks, the Williamses, the 
Nesbits, and the Denisons, appeared as the advocates of law and 
compromise. Colonel Franklin, supported by the Jenkinses, the 
Spaldings, the Satterlees, and the Dudleys, came forth the cham- 
pions of the Connecticut title. Colonel Pickering first ascended 
the rostrum and opened the meeting by an able address, urging 
every motive in his plain, common sense, strong and emphatic 
manner that could operate leading to a fixed government of law and 
freedom from harrassing contests for their homes. He pledged his 
honor, dearer than life, that Pennsylvania was honest in her pur- 
pose, sincere in her offer of compromise, and that full faith might 
be reposed in her promise. Colonel Jenkins, in his brief and sen- 
tentious way demanded, "What security have we that if we 
comply and put ourselves into your power, the State won't repeal 
the law and deal as treacherously as in the case of Armstrong?" 
Colonel Franklin now rose and replied with all the bitterness he 
was master of Dwelt on the justice of the Connecticut title; 
the land was their own, purchased by their money, their labor, 
and their blood, the sufferings of the settlers, the wrongs and 
insults they had received from Pennsylvania; he set forth and 
declared the terms of compromise hollow and deceptive, and in 
no measured strains denounced all those who took part with 

George Reynolds Bedford. 219 

Pickering. At this moment passions, long with difficulty sup- 
pressed, over-powered all prudential considerations, and Colonel 
Hollenback, one of the earliest and bravest of the settlers, drew 
the butt of his riding whip and aimed a blow at Franklin's head. 
Caught by some friendly arm it missed its aim, but the whole 
meeting was instantly thrown into wild confusion. The old argu- 
ment of physical force was not yet quite out of date, and in the 
absence of fire-arms each man ran to the grove hard by and cut 
a club. Many blows were dealt out on both sides, but were so 
adroitly parried off that no heads were broken. There was a 
general melee ; Mr. Sutton was driven from the stage and disap- 
peared. Supposing that he was spirited away and was about to 
be victimized by some hair-brained partizan of Franklin, a party 
scoured the woods and by places, and found him now left to 
himself A rather informal vote to sustain the laws of Pennsylva- 
nia and accept the proposed compi'omise was passed and the gath- 
ering dispersed. 

Thomas Smith, the ancestor of William Hooker Smith, was a 
native of Newport, Pagnell, Bucks, England, emigrated to Amer- 
ica about 1 7 10, and located in the city of New York. He, with 
a few others, forsook the ministry of Anderson, and by the aid 
of the trustees of Yale College obtained Jonathan Edwards, then 
19, to preach for them. Mr. Edwards referred with delight to 
his pleasant intercourse with Madam Smith and her son John, 
and when preaching in New York he made Mr. Smith's house 
his home. John Smith and Edwards were about the same age, 
and there sprang up between them a warm friendship, which 
lasted through life. 

Rev. John Smith, the father of William Hooker Smith, and 
son of Thomas Smith, was born in Newport, Pagnell, Bucks, 
England, May 5, 1702. He graduated from Yale College in 
1727, and was ordained minister at Rye, N. Y., December 
30, 1742. 

Some years after Mr. Smith removed his residence from Rye 
to White Plains, but continued to preach at Rye on alternate- 
Sabbaths, riding to and fro on horseback. He was a man of rare 
excellence, able, earnest, consistent and godly. In 1763 he 
added the church at Sing Sing to his charge, where he occa- 

220 George Reynolds Bedford. 

sionally preached for the next five years. He died at White 
Plains, N. Y., February 26, 1771. His remains He in the church 
yard, and on the tomb it says : " First ordained minister of the 
Presbyterian persuasion in Rye and the White Plains," adding^ 
that " worn out with various labors he fell asleep in Jesus." 

William Hooker Smith, M. D., removed from the Province of 
New York to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1772, where he pur- 
chased land in 1774. As a surgeon and physician, his abilities 
were of such high order that he occupied a position in the colony 
as gratifying to him as it was honorable to those enjoying his 
undoubted skill and experience. 

With the exception of Dr. Sprague he was the only physician 
in 1772 between Milford and Sunbury, a distance of one hun- 
dred and fifty miles. It is here worthy of remark that Joseph 
Sprague, M. D., came from Hartford in 1771, and for a period 
of thirteen years (with the exception of the summer of 1778) 
lived near the Lackawanna between Spring Brook and Pittston 
in happy seclusion, fishing, hunting, and farming, until, with the 
other Yankee settlers, he was driven from the valley in 1784 by 
the Pennamites. He died in Connecticut the same year. His 
widow, known throughout the settlement far and wide as " Granny 
Sprague," returned to Wyoming in 1785, and lived in a small log 
house then standing in Wilkes-Barre on the southwest comer of 
Main and Union streets, now occupied by the brick storehouse 
and dwelling owned by the estate of Andrew Kesler, deceased. 

The formation of Luzerne county created positions of trust 
and honor, among which was the magisterial one; and although 
the Doctor was a Yankee by birth, habit, and education, such 
confidence was reposed in his capacity and integrity that he was 
chosen the first justice in the fifth district of the new county, and 
also one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas. His 
commissions, signed by Benjamin Franklin, then President of the 
Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, bears date May 27, 
1787. Both the patriotic spirit and activity of Dr. Smith are 
shown by the fact that while he was relied on as chief medical 
attendant by the settlement, he yet accepted and exercised the 
post of captain commanding in Wilkes-Barre the " old reforma- 
does," as the aged men were called who associated to guard the 

George Reynolds Bedford. 221 

fort. In 1779 he marched with the troops under General SulH- 
van into the Indian country along the upper waters of the Sus- 
quehanna, and by his cheerfulness and example taught the 
soldiers to endure their hardships and fatigues, taking himself an 
earnest part in that memorable expedition which brought such 
relief to Wyoming. Nor did Congress, prompted by noble 
impulses, forget his services as acting surgeon in the army, when 
in 1838, §2,400 was voted to his heirs. That his mind, active, 
keen, and ready, looked beyond the ordinary conceptions of his 
day is shown by his purchased right in 1791 to dig iron ore and 
stone coal in Pittston long before the character of coal as a heat- 
ing agent was understood, and the same year that the hunter 
Gunther accidentally discovered "black stones" on Bear Moun- 
tain, nine miles from Mauch Chunk. These purchases, attracting 
no other notice than general ridicule, were made in Exeter, 
Plymouth, Pittston, Providence, and Wilkes-Barre, between 
1 79 1-8. The first was made July i, 1791, of Mr. Scott, of Pitts- 
ton, who, for the sum of five shillings, Pennsylvania money, sold 
"one-half of any minerals, ores of iron, or other metal, which he, 
the said Smith, or his heirs or assigns may discover on the hilly 
lands of the said John Scott, by the red spring." 

Old Forge, now in Lackawanna county, derived its name from 
Dr. Smith, who, after his return from Sullivan's expedition, 
located himself permanently here on the rocky edge of the Lack- 
awanna river, where first in the valley the sound of the trip ham- 
mer reverberated, or mingled with the hoarse babblings of its 
water. The forge was erected by Dr. Smith and James Sutton 
in the spring of 1789. The forge prospered for years; two fires 
and a single trip hammer manufacturing a considerable amount 
of iron, which was floated down the Susquehanna in Durham 
boats and large canoes. The inpure quality and small quantity 
of ore found and wrought into iron with knowledge and machin- 
ery alike defective ; the labor and expense of smelting the raw 
material into ready iron, in less demand down the Susquehanna, 
where forges and furnaces began to blaze; the natural infirmities 
of age, as well as the rival forge of Slocum's, at Slocum Hollow, 
now Scranton, all ultimately disarmed Old Forge of its fire and 
trip hammer. 

222 George Reynolds Bedford. 

After leaving his forge he removed up the Susquehanna, near 
Tunkhannock, where, full of years, honor, and usefulness, he 
died July 17, 1815, among his friends, at the ripe age of 91 years. 
The Doctor was a plain, practical man, a firm adherent of the 
theory of medicine as taught and practiced by his sturdy ances- 
tors a century ago. Armed with huge saddle bags rattling with 
gallipots and vials and thirsty lance, he sallied forth on horse- 
back over the rough country calling for his services, and many 
were the cures issuing from the unloosed vein. No matter what 
the nature or location of the disease, how strong or slight the 
assailing pain, bleeding promptly and largely, with a system of 
diet, drink, and rest, was enforced on the patient with an earnest- 
ness and success that gave him a wide-spread reputation as a 
physician. The truth seems to have been that to great skill in 
his profession he united a large share of that capital ingredient, 
good common sense. In religious belief Dr. Smith was a pre- 
destinarian in the strictest sense of the word. In his will, writ- 
ten by his own hand, and dated March 19, 18 10, he uses the 
following language : " I recommend my soul to Almighty God 
that gave it to me, nothing doubting but that I shall be finally 
happy. My destiny I believe was determined unalterably before 
I had existence. God does not leave any of His works at ran- 
dom, subject to chance, but in what place, where or how I shall 
be happy, I know not," and at the close of his will the following: 
"Now, to the sacred spring of all mercies, and original fountain 
of all goodness, to the Infinite and Eternal Being, whose purpose 
is unalterable, whose power and dominion is without end, whose 
compassion fails not, to the High and Lofty One Who inhab- 
its eternity and dwells in light, be glory, majesty, dominion, and 
power, now and forevermore. Amen." 

The late Hon. Isaac S. Osterhout, founder of the Osterhout 
Free Library of this city, was a grandson of Dr. Smith, and Hon. 
James Ross Snowden, at one time Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives at Harrisburg, Treasurer of the State, and later 
Director of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, was a great- 

George Reynolds Bedford, who at this writing is less than 
44 years of age, bears a name as well known and respected 

George Reynolds Bedford. 223 

throughout Luzerne county as that of any member of his pro- 
fession here located. This honorable distinction he owes com- 
binedly to his careful early training and a nervous spirit of 
ambition and fearlessness of obstacle inherited from an ancestry 
whose possession of these characteristics made many of them 
conspicuous figures in our local history. There are those who 
rail at the study of genealogy — who insist that it is at best but 
an idle search, and that generally its pursuit is spurred solely by 
the weakest of vanities. "The high ancestral name, and lineage 
long and great," these scoffers say, being so frequently descended 
to most unworthy sons, convey no merit or mark of it. Man is 
what he makes himself; not what he was made at birth. The 
ever ready nine numerals are called into argument, and, assuming 
the average life of man to be 30 years, it is calculated that each 
century and a half of the past has made sixty-two ancestors 
for the child born into the world, so that it has then in its veins, 
but one sixty-second of the blood of the head of the house from 
whom it has lineally come through the five generations. Of the 
head of the house, ten generations or three hundred years dis- 
tant, but one two-thousand-and-forty-sixths of the blood remains. 
-All this is logic run mad. Men of broadest minds are the pro- 
genitors of idiots, misers beget spendthrifts, a Hercules is father 
to a born paralytic, but to assume that there is not a rich in- 
heritance in good blood, or that vital essence which, in consider- 
ing the question of ancestry, we ignorantly call blood, is to 
dispute that there is progression and improvement in civilization 
and Christianity. Men rise to loftiest heights from lowliest 
beginnings, but a careful study will inevitably make plain that the 
germ of their greatness came to them from the mother's womb, 
and proportionally signal failures of man and womanhood fol- 
lowing proportionately auspicious beginnings are as surely trace- 
able to the same source. That genealogical record which 
exhibits richness of achievement begets a posterity capable of 
greater achievement, and the exceptions in this, as in all else, 
but prove the rule. It is not, however, to the name alone of an 
ancestry, or the position held by it, that we must look for the 
criterion to estimate the quality of the stuff of which its des- 
cendants are made. "The wives of kings, though violating the 

224 George Reynolds Bedford. 

ordinance of God, have improved the blood of their line by the 
aid of their footmen." Achievement is the grand test. Those 
who have peopled new countries, and by their labor and genius 
made them to " blossom as the rose" — those who have wrought 
great things in mechanics and in art, and yet, amid all the strain 
attending the doing of these things, have been true to their duty 
to God, to God's great handiwork as embodied in their own 
physical and mental beings, and to their wives and children — 
these are the favored fathers of favored sons — these bequeath to 
their posterity from their loins a fortune of greater worth than 
silver, or gold, or precious stones. All this, however, is but par- 
enthetical in our series of sketches, albeit, there is no little 
proof of its general correctness in the record of the ancestry of 
our immediate subject. 

George Reynolds Bedford was born at Waverly, Pennsylvania, 
November 22, 1840. He was educated at the Madison Academy, 
in his native place, after which he entered the law office of Hon. 
Samuel Sherrerd, at Scranton, as a student in the profession that 
gentleman adorned. During a portion of the year i860, he was 
a clerk in the office of the Prothonotary of Luzerne county, a 
position in which valuable experience in matters incident to the 
practice of the law is to be secured. He subsequently entered 
the Albany (N. Y.) Law School. He completed his legal educa- 
tion there, and in May, 1862, he was admitted, on examination, 
to the bar of the Supreme Court of the State of New York. He 
did not begin practice in the empire state, however, but came to 
Wilkes-Barre, and for the succeeding six months continued his 
studies in the office of Hon. Stanley Woodward. On November 
10, 1862, he was regularly admitted a member of the bar of 
Luzerne county. During the following twelve years, Mr. Bed- 
ford applied himself assiduously to his professional duties, ac- 
quiring a comfortably paying practice, and a reputation as a 
careful and successful practitioner. He is a Democrat in politics, 
and did good service, locally, in the behalf of his party. When, 
therefore, in 1874, his name was mentioned in connection with 
the Democratic nomination for additional law judge, many 
flocked to his support from all parts of the county, as one who, 
both by reason of his party service and legal attainments, was 

George Reynolds Bedford. 225 

fitted for the distinguished honor. The competing candidates 
were Hon. John Handle}-, now president judge of the courts of 
Lackawanna county; Hon. D. L. O'Neill and Asa R. Brun- 
dage, Esq., of Wilites-Barre. The contest was a very spirited 
one. In the convention, Mr. Bedford led all his competitors 
through a series of ballotings up to the last, when Mr. Handley, 
having secured a small majority of the votes, was declared the 
nominee. The victory was almost wholly one of locality. There 
was a growing disaffection of the people of the upper end of the 
county at the time, occasioned by the opposition of Wilkes-Barre 
to the then proposed new county of Lackawanna, and Mr. Bed- 
ford, being from the objectionable city, was sacrificed. The 
friends of the approaching secession naturally assumed that Mr. 
Handley would be its friend and lend his influence to promote 
it. Under other circumstances, Mr. Bedford would undoubtedly 
have been the candidate, and that he would have made an excel- 
lent judge is abundantly proven by his combined successes as a 
practitioner, and by the high, esteem in which he is still held by 
citizens of all parties. 

Mr. Bedford has never filled — has never since been a candidate 
for — any political office, although he has been active in the coun- 
cils of his party, and from time to time did it important service 
from the stump. 

He has, however, been a director of the Wilkes-Barre City 
Hospital, a trustee of the Memorial Presbyterian Church and of 
the Franklin Street Presbyterian Church. He is now a trustee 
of the Female Institute of Wilkes-Barre, and for the last ten or 
twelve years has been one of the masters in Chancery. 

He married May 19, 1874, Emily L., daughter of the late 
Hon. Henry M. Fuller, and has had two children, sons, both of 
whom are living. 

In 1863, he enlisted as a private in Captain Agib Ricketts' Com- 
pany K, 30th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Militia, and was 
subsequently promoted to the position of colonel's clerk. There 
were several members of the Wilkes-Barre bar in this company. 
Among them C. P. Kidder, E. K. Morse, H. B. Plumb, Alexan- 
der Farnham, and others. Mr. Farnham was at first second- 
lieutenant, and afterwards became adjutant-general of the brigade. 

226 Hubbard Bester Payne. 

The company did service in what was known as the Gettysburgh 
campaign, and continued in the field about six weeks. Captain 
Ricketts refused to be mustered into the United States service, 
and E. W. Finch, who was the first-Heutenant, was elected cap- 
tain in Mr. Ricketts' place. 

Mr. Bedford is of medium stature and build. He is devoted 
to his clients and his books, and by an ever present sagacity 
and an unusual industry, assures to the former all that in jus- 
tice or equity is warranted by the latter. He does not, how- 
ever, permit professional matters to engross his time and 
attention to the neglect either of his social or political duties. 
He takes a marked interest in his family and all that relates to it, 
is much sought after in society because of his vivacity and bright 
conversational capacities, and his opinion is as likely to unravel 
a knotty problem in politics as that of any man in the county. 
As chairman of the Democratic Committee of the Twelfth 
Congressional District in 1882, he so organized and led his forces 
as to bring a creditable victory out of what at one time looked 
to be a very dubious situation. 

Mr. Bedford's life is yet to be written. He comes, as will 
appear from the brief sketches of some of his ancestry herewith 
incorporated, of a stock remarkable for its longevity. With a 
fair prospect of at least as many years before him as have been 
recorded in his past, he may be expected to have the best part of 
his history yet to make. 


Hubbard Bester Payne was born in Kingston, Pennsylvania, 
where he now resides, July 20, 1839. He is a descendant of 
Stephen Paine, a miller from Great Ellingham, near Attleburg, 
county Norfolk, England, who came to New England in 1638 
with a large company of emigrants from the neighborhood of 
Hingham, bringing his wife, three children, and four servants, in 
the ship Diligent, of Ipswich. He settled first in Hingham, 

Hubbard Bester Payne. 227 

Mass., but about 1643 removed to Rehoboth, of which town he 
was one of the founders and first proprietors. He possessed 
large estates in that and adjoining towns, and was prominent in 
the affairs of the church and colony. He was representative to 
the General Court in 1641 for Hingham and for Rehoboth for 
many successive years and until his death, August, 1679. The 
will of Stephen Paine is on file in the Boston State House. 
Stephen Paine, a tanner, eldest son of Stephen Paine, sen., was 
born in England about 1629, and came with his father to New 
England in 1638. He was admitted freeman in 1657. He had 
married in 1652 Ann Chickering, daughter of Francis of Ded- 
ham. He was an active participant in King Philip's Indian war, 
and contributed liberally to its cost. He owned much land in 
Rehoboth, Swanzey, and Attleboro. He died at Rehoboth 1679, 
a few months before his father. 

Stephen Paine, son of Stephen Paine, jun., was born at Reho- 
both, September 29, 1654. He married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Rev. Ebenezer Williams, who died in 1706 without issue; 
second, Mary Brintnall, in 1707. He was representative to the 
General Court in 1694 and 1703, and died in 1710. 

Edward Paine, the younger of the two sons of Stephen and 
Mary (Brintnall) Paine, was born in Rehoboth, Mass., January 
22, 1 7 10. His father died March 12 following, and the widow, 
with her two children, removed to Preston, Conn. At a proper 
age, he was bound to a farmer. He married April 6, 1732, Lois 
Kinney, and soon removed to Pomfret, Conn., where he purchased 
a farm in that part of the town called Abington Society, upon 
which he lived and died. He was a man of upright character 
and highly esteemed. His eleven children were all born in 

Stephen Paine, third son of Edward Paine, was born January 
31, 1746. He removed to Lebanon, Conn., where he gained a 
valuable estate. 

Captain Oliver Payne, eldest son of Stephen Paine, was born 
in Lebanon, Conn., in 1780. He removed to Norwich, Conn., 
and from there, in 1813, to Gibson, Susquehanna county, Pa., 
where he died in 1868. Payne's lake in Susquehanna county 
derives its name from Captain Payne. 

228 Hubbard Bester Payne. 

Bester Payne, son of Captain Oliver Payne, was born in Nor- 
wich, Conn., April lO, 1810. He removed with his father in 
18 13 to Gibson, Pa, At that time, that section of the country was 
a dense wilderness, with a very few inhabitants. He removed to 
Kingston in 1839, and was widely known through the counties 
of Luzerne, Bradford, Columbia, Susquehanna, and Wyoming as 
a lead water pipe layer. Mr. Payne married December 4, 1834, 
Polly, a daughter of Joseph Pierce, a native of Hasbrook, Sulli- 
van county, N. Y. Her mother died there, leaving her the next 
to the oldest of six children ; her father had died about two years 
before. She was thus left an orphan at the age of twelve years. 
By her energy and ability, she was able to maintain and provide 
for her brothers and sisters, who have since all prospered in life's 
pathway. Her grandfather was William Pierce, a native of the 
north of England, who came to this country about 1778. Her 
mother was Elizabeth Cargell, a daughter of Abram Cargell, a 
native of Scotland, and his wife, Catharine Hornbeck, a native of 
Holland. Mrs. Payne married for a second husband Isaac Rice, 
of Kingston. She is still living, and is in her seventy-fourth year. 

Hubbard Bester Payne is the only child of the late Bester Payne. 
Until the age of eighteen, Mr. Payne lived at home, working with 
his father in the lead pipe manufactorj^, or by the day for the 
farmers of his neighborhood, or attending the schools in King- 
ston. He prepared for college at the Wyoming Seminary, 
Kingston, and in August, 1857, entered the Wesleyan University 
at Middletown, Conn. There his life struggles really began. 
The means of his parents being limited, he sought to aid them, and, 
during his college course, taught a district school for three suc- 
cessive winter terms of eighteen weeks, at Rocky Hill, Hartford 
county. Conn., keeping up his studies at the same time. In col- 
lege, he took an active part in the literary societies. He was a 
member of the Psi Upsilon Secret Society and of the Pythologian 
Society, and by the faculty he was chosen a member of the Phi 
Beta Kappa Society. In June, 1861, he graduated, standing 
number four in his class. In August following his graduation, 
Mr. Payne entered the office of the late Charles Denison, of 
Wilkes-Barre (afterwards a member of congress for three terms), 
as a law student. While pursuing his legal reading, he taught a 

Hubbard Bester Payne. 229 

district school during the winter of i86i in Cinder alley, Wilkes- 
Barre, and a public school of boys in a store-room of the Hillard 
block during the winter of 1862. He was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county August 20, 1863, and at once secured a desk in 
the office of the late Winthrop W. Ketcham, then solicitor of the 
United States Court of Claims, and entered upon that struggle 
known only to a young lawyer who, without means or influential 
friends, attempts to build up a practice. With the closest atten- 
tion to business, and with a strong determination to deserve 
success, it was yet four years before his income equalled his 
expenses, small though they were. But as they invariably do, 
industry, integrity and frugality prevailed finally, and with Mr. 
Payne it became a question, not how to get business, but how to 
attend to what he had, and his practice since has been lucrative 
and successful. Politically, Mr. Payne has been from the first a 
decided, active and outspoken Republican. Beginning with the 
presidential campaign of 1864, he has since taken an active part 
for his party in local and general elections, working on commit- 
tees and publicly addressing the people. In 1874, he was 
nominated without opposition for the State Senate in the twenty- 
first senatorial district, and elected by a majority of 1045. Jasper 
B. Stark was his Democratic opponent. During his term in the 
senate, he was active in the business of the session, serving on 
the committees on "judiciary general," "judiciary local," " mines 
and mining," and " new counties." He was chairman of the two 
last named committees. While in the senate, he introduced an 
act to secure to children the benefits of an elementary education. 
It provided " that all parents and those who have the legal charge 
of children shall instruct or cause them to be instructed in spell- 
ing, reading, writing, English grammar, geography, arithmetic, 
and the history of the United States of America. And every 
parent, guardian, or other person having legal charge of any 
child between the ages of eight and fourteen years, shall cause 
such child to attend some public or private day school at least 
sixteen weeks in each year, eight weeks at least of which attend- 
ance shall be consecutive, or to be instructed regularly at home 
at least sixteen weeks in each year " in the branches named 
above ; and " any parent, guardian, or child, who shall at any 

230 Hubbard Bester Payne. 

time show to the board of school directors of the town, borough, 
or city in which said child shall live, that the labor and services 
of said child for the time being are absolutely necessary for the 
support and maintenance of such child, parent, brother, sister, 
etc., such board of school directors to which such fact shall be 
properly shown are hereby authorized to relieve such child from 
the operation of the act." The bill was reported favorably, and 
subsequently was re-committed to the committee on education, and 
allowed to rest there because of the fear the issue might assume 
a political aspect. The popularity of the act is shown by the fact 
that one of the planks in the platform of the State labor conven- 
tion, held at Philadelphia, August 28, 1882, reads as follows : 
" That education be made compulsory, and that elementary and 
fundamental principles of political economy be taught in all 
grammar and higher classes of the public schools, and the pro- 
hibition of children in work shops, mines and factories, before 
attaining the age of fourteen years." 

Mr, Payne had passed while in the senate " An act to authorize 
the judges of the several courts throughout the commonwealth 
to fix the number of the regular terms of the said several courts, 
and the term for holding the same, the term for summoning the 
grand jury, and for the returns of constables, aldermen, and jus- 
tices of the peace to the same." This bill is of vast importance 
in the administration of justice, and enables the grand jury to sit 
in advance of the criminal court, and thus enable the district 
attorney to give his undivided time to the trial of cases in court. 
Another act he had passed was one " to exempt pianos, 
melodeons, and organs leased or hired, from levy, or sale, on 
execution, or distress for rent." The above shows the spirit of 
Mr. Payne in legislating for the benefit of the people. It is not 
too much to say that no senator was more active in his work 
than Mr. Payne, and none spent a greater portion of his time in 
attending to legislative duties than he. In 1876, Mr. Payne was 
nominated without opposition for Congress in the twelfth con- 
gressional district of Pennsylvania, and at the time of his nomin- 
ation had every prospect of election. Edgar L. Merriman was 
his opponent, but died during the campaign. Hendrick B. 
Wright was then nominated by the democratic and greenback 

Hubbard Bester Payne. 231 

parties, and Mr. Payne was defeated. The vote stood : for 
Colonel Wright, 13,557; Mr. Payne, 12,101. 

In 1880, Mr. Payne was nominated without opposition again 
for one of the law judges of Luzerne county, but was defeated 
by Stanley Woodward, the vote being : Woodward (democrat), 
12,234; Payne (republican), 11,058; Ricketts (greenbacker), 470. 

For many years Mr. Payne has been ah active member of the 
Presbyterian Church of Kingston, and he is now serving his 
twenty-first year as superintendent of its Sabbath school. He 
has been a ruling elder in the same church for seven years. He 
has also been active as a freemason, and is now a past master by 
service in the Kingston lodge. He has also served two years as 
district deputy grand master for the district of Luzerne county. 
In 1883, he was one of the vice-presidents of the Pennsylvania 
Sunday School Association. For three years, he was one of the 
examiners to examine students for admission to the Luzerne 
county bar. He was a director in the Miners' Savings Bank of 
Wilkes-Barre for ten years. Mr. Payne is also one of the trustees, 
under the will of the late Isaac S. Osterhout, of the " Osterhout 
Free Library." 

Mr. Payne married February 22, 1865, Elizabeth Lee Smith, 
an only daughter of Draper Smith, of Plymouth, Pa. From this 
union four children have been born, three of whom are now 
living — a daughter, Louisa S. Payne, and two sons, Hubbard B. 
and Paul D. Payne. Mr. Smith is a native of Eaton, Luzerne 
(now Wyoming) county, where he was born November 7, 181 5. 
He has resided in Plymouth since 1832. The father of Draper 
Smith was Newton Smith, sen., who was born in New London, 
Conn., February 27, 1772, and died at Wyoming, Genessee 
county, N. Y., October 28, 1838. William Smith, the father of 
Newton Smith, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and 
during the Wyoming troubles was driven away by the Indians. 
He died from exposure during his escape. His widow subse- 
quently became the second wife of Dr. William Hooker Smith, 
and this at a time when Newton Smith, sen., was but seven years 
of age. The mother of Mrs. Payne was Caroline, a daughter of 
the late John Smith, long a resident of Plymouth, and a pioneer 
in the coal trade. 

232 Hubbard Bester Payne. 

In any event, Mr. Payne would have achieved success in the 
legal profession, by reason of his conscientious care and indus- 
try in the prosecution of the causes of his clients. These are 
qualities that are of greater moment in the ordinary conflicts 
of life than mere talent, which alone can do little when it lacks 
their assistance. Time was when lawyers were held to be great 
or mediocre according as they had genius as orators or were 
without it, or according as they were skillful in the arts and 
tricks which constitute the displays of the profession in open 
court; but in these more practical days a much fairer test, and 
the one more frequently relied upon, is the degree of devotion 
and honest energy brought to bear in preparing a case and ascer- 
taining its exact relation to the law and the equities. This sort 
of practice will not avail to save the murderer from the hangman 
or secure the property of one to the profit of another, but it is 
the sort that honest men seek, and that in the long run not only 
brings the practioner the greatest pecuniary rewards, but sheds 
upon his name and fame the brightest lustre. Mr. Payne's 
christian ancestry, his own religious training and inclinations, 
his self-reliance, and sympathy for the conscientious struggler, 
developed by his being thrown so early in life wholly upon his 
own resources, have given him that reputation which impels 
litigants who have just causes to seek his intercession with the 
adjudicators of the law, and in such a clientage there is not only, 
as we have said, replenishment for the purse, but satisfaction for 
the heart. It is the qualities named, too, that have commended 
him so to those of his political faith that they have showered 
honors upon him frequently. It falls to the lot of but few men 
at his age to have been chosen to represent his fellow citizens 
in the highest law making body of the stale, and to have 
been subsequently pressed in quick succession for a seat in the 
federal congress and a high position upon the judicial bench. 
That he was not chosen to the latter positions was due solely to 
the fact that a majority of the voters were of a different way of 
thinking politically, and the contest in each instance turned upon 
political issues, 

Mr. Payne served his fellow citizens acceptably and faithfully 
in the position to which he was elected, and would have acquitted 

William Mercer Shoemaker. 233 

himself with equal acceptance in the others had it been his party's 
good fortune to have commanded the support of a majority of 
the voters. He is a gentleman of fine literary taste and culture 
as well, and a pleasant conversationalist and companion. He 
manages to find leisure, as above indicated, to labor outside of 
his profession, and often is called upon to lecture upon practical, 
moral and religious subjects. 


William Mercer Shoemaker was born in the " old Shoemaker 
homestead," in Kingston township, Luzerne county. Pa., June 
20, 1840. He is the son of the late Hon. Charles Denison 
Shoemaker, a neptiew of Hon. Lazarus Denison Shoemaker and 
a brother of Robert Charles Shoemaker. 

A record of the origin of this old and well known Wyoming 
valley family, and of its connection with the early history of the 
valley, has already been given in this series of biographies, and 
need not be repeated here. 

The subject of the present sketch was educated at Wyoming 
Seminary and Yale College. After leaving the last named insti- 
tution, he entered upon the study of the law with the late Hon. 
Charles Denison and G. Byron Nicholson, and was admitted to 
the bar of Luzerne county, September 3, 1863. On the 24th of 
August, 1 861, Mr. Shoemaker, having been elected and commis- 
sioned second lieutenant of Company L, 92d Regiment of Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, was mustered as such into the service of the 
United States, being at the time but just past 21 years of age. 
The g2d was a mounted regiment, and was known as the 9th 
Cavalry. A severe course of drill and discipline at Jeffersonville, 
Ind., fitted it by January, 1862, for active service, when it was 
ordered to duty at the front on the Green river. From this time 
on^ excepting when retained for a while in Kentucky by request 
of its legislature and citizens, the 9th was engaged in continuous 
important and hazardous service. It first distinguished itself in 

234 William Mercer Shoemaker. 

May, 1862, by two brilliant victories over the rebel raider, 
Morgan, on the 4th and 14th of that month, at Lebanon and 
Spring Creek respectively. Morgan's activity in that vicinity 
gave the 9th plenty to do, and it did it gallantly. Its excellent 
conduct at Perryville, where its losses were heavy, elicited a 
high compliment in general orders from General Buell. It had 
numerous engagements in Kentucky, and afterwards participated 
in the campaign against Bragg in Tennessee, and in the fights 
at Rover, Middleton, Shelbyville, Elk River, Lafayette, Ga., and 
at famed Chickamauga. For its strikingly conspicuous daring 
in the last named conflict, it was again especially complimented, 
this time by the lamented Thomas. From this time on, it was 
almost incessantly engaged at one point or another in the south- 
west, principally under the dashing Kilpatrick, with Sherman in 
his famous march to the sea, and after Savannah, in the Caro- 
linas, at Black Snake's Station, Averysboro, Bentonville, Hills- 
boro, and Morrisville, which practically finished the active fight- 
ing of the war. The 9th furnished Sherman's escort when he 
went to meet Johnston to arrange terms for the latter's capitula- 
tion. On April 7th, or about two months before Gettysburg, 
Lieutenant Shoemaker having previously been promoted to the 
first lieutenancy of his company, and afterwards to the office of 
adjutant of the regiment, was compelled by business reasons to 
resign his commission, and return home. 

He resumed the study of the law, which his. entrance into the 
army had interrupted, and, as already stated, was admitted to the 
profession about five months later. Mr. Shoemaker never entered 
into active legal practice, though he passed a very creditable 
examination, and may be said to be endowed with many of the 
qualities which insure success in that arena. He had a penchant 
for the insurance business, in which he soon afterwards engaged 
with Messrs. Thompson Derr & Bro., and with whom he is still 
employed as adjuster for the firm. The Derrs may be said to have 
been the pioneers of the insurance business in this vicinity, and 
have established one of the most important and succe.ssful offices 
in the country. They do a business covering immense risks, and 
which extends not only through Luzerne county, but into nearly 
all the counties of eastern, and especially north-eastern, Pennsyl- 

Daniel Llyng O'Neill. 235 

vania. To do the adjusting for so extensive a concern is suffi- 
cient to tax the energies of the most vigorous of men to their 
utmost. Mr. Shoemaker, however, discharges the responsibilities 
of the position without apparent effort and with unvarying satis- 
faction to the firm and its numerous patrons. His knowledge of 
the law is a great aid to him, of course, in the doing of this work. 

Mr. Shoemaker has never mixed conspicuously in public 
affairs, but for his many kindly and companionable qualities is 
in great demand socially. 

On February 6, 1879, he married Ella Schenck Hunt, of 
Elizabeth, New Jersey. Harold Mercer Shoemaker is their only 

Mr. Shoemaker might have made a brilliant practitioner at 
the bar, but has been content with a life of usefulness in another 


Of the O'Neills, Irish writers speak as "the once proudest and 
most powerful of the ancient Irish kings." They were kings of 
Tyrone, now a county in the north of Ireland, in the province of 
Ulster, bordering on Lough Neagh, which separates it from 
Antrim and the counties of Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, 
Donegal, and Londonderry. It has an area of 1260 square miles, 
and in 1871 had a population of 215,668. The population to-day 
is not greatly more or less than that figure. The chief towns are 
Strabane, Dungannon, and Omagh, the capital. The surface is 
greatly diversified, and has many fertile plains and valleys, 
watered by the Foyle and Blackwater and their tributaries. 
Tyrone is one of the counties of Ireland in which coal is found, 
which, in part, explains why so many of the name who have 
come to this country have established their new homes in this 
part of Pennsylvania. Tyrone was once a powerful province, the 
sway of whose rulers was complete within its limits, and both 
feared and respected beyond them. Shane's Castle, the home of 

236 Daniel Llyng O'Neill. 


the fiery chieftain, Shane O'Neill, is a comparatively modern 
building, on Lough Neagh, now in ruins, having been burned by 
an accidental fire in 18 16. The present proprietor, one of the 
descendants, resides in a temporary dwelling formed of one of 
the former outbuildings of the castle. From the ruins which 
remain, it is evident that it was a fine and spacious building. 
Several turrets and towers are still standing, and a number of 
cannon are still mounted on the fort, which is boldly situated. 
The vaults are still entire, and extend to the very verge of the 
lake, and the gardens retain the beauty for which they have long 
been celebrated. The grounds are kept and cultivated with 
exceeding neatness and care. The trees are of magnificent 
growth, and the waters of the lake nearly enclose the demesne. 

For centuries, Shane's Castle has been the chosen realm of the 
banshee, '' a female fancy " literally, and variously called " the 
angel of death or separation " and " the white lady of sorrow." 
The banshee sometimes appears as a young and beautiful woman 
arrayed in white, but more frequently as a frightful hag, and often 
as a mere voice from nothing. She is supposed to come always 
for the purpose of forewarning- death, which she does by melan- 
choly wailings. An ancient bard wrote : 

" The banshee mournful wails ; 
In the midst of the silent, lonely night, 
Plaintive she sings the song of death." 

Even to this day, to hint a doubt of the banshee of the O'Neills 
would, in the estimation of some of the people still in Ireland, be 
tantamount to blasphemy. There are those still living who 
heard the warning voice when the last lord died, and a few years 
ago there were not a few who were certain they had given ear to 
the fateful warning which fortold the killing of the former peer 
during the rebellion of '98 in the street of his own town. 

The ruins, partly because of this belief, and partly because they 
link a splendid past (by reason of their great state of preserva- 
tion) more closely with the present, are a favorite resort for 
travelers, and not the least of the very interesting sights a town 
of Ireland affords. 

The O'Neills were kings in Ireland antecedent to Christianity. 
Camden says they " tyrannized it in Ulster before the coming of 

Daniel Llyng O'Neill. 237 

St. Patricke." One of the most interesting passages in Irish 
history is the record of what is called the Tyr-oen or Tyrone 
rebellion of Hugh O'Neill in 1597, who is described as a man 
" active, affable, and apt to manage great affaires, and of a high 
dessembling, subtile, and profound wit, so as many deemed him 
born either for the good or ill of his country." For some time 
he was considered a faithful subject of the crown, but on the 
death of Tirlagh O'Neill, to whose daughter Hugh was married, 
and who, being old, had resigned the earldom some time before 
in Hugh's favor, he took the title of " The O'Neill," which was 
in itself treason in the eyes of the English. For five or six years, 
he labored incessantly, organizing and equipping an army. He 
trained his men ostensibly to employ them against the Queen's 
enemies. He got license to cover his house at Dungannon with 
lead, and then moulded the metal into bullets. During all this 
time he was suspected of treasonable intent, but continued 
to visit Dublin, and, as definite suspicions arose, to allay them. 
In 1 597, the Queen's forces, in an attempt to relieve the fort of the 
Black water, were attacked by the Kernes of Tyrone and utterly 
routed, losing " thirteen valiant captains and one thousand five 
hundred common soldiers," Sir Henry Bagnall, " marshall of Ire- 
land," being among the slain. Rebellion became rife, as a result of 
this, all over Ireland. Elizabeth's fav.orite, the Earl of Essex, was 
sent to quell Tyrone, but he was no match for the O'Neill, as 
his enemies in England well knew he would not be, else had 
they not consented to his going. Lord Mountjoy succeeded 
Essex. He pursued the rebels with fire and sword and pestilence, 
and by 1601 had compelled all to sue for mercy save Tyrone 
himself, and in that year the latter was signally defeated in an 
attempt to relieve his Spanish allies who were " walled up " at 
Kinsale. The following year, he made complete submission to 
the Queen, and went in person to London to ask forgiveness of 
King James the First. His rank, power, and estates were in part 
restored to him, and he returned to Ireland, but being afterwards 
suspected of attempting a new rebellion, he fled into Spain, and 
his enormous property was seized and parcelled out among 
English subjects, from whence arose " the plantation of Ulster," 
afterwards sold to "the London companies," who still hold it in 

238 Daniel Llyng O'Neill. 

possession. The O'Neills were finally driven from Tyrone by 
Cromwell's conquest in 1649, and fled mostly to the mountain 
fastnesses of Wicklow and Connaught. 

The history of the race or clan O'Neill is full of incidents of 
great interest, which cannot, of course, be detailed here. Its 
descendants, like those of the other great Irish families of the 
past, are everywhere through the world, many of them occupying 
posts of high distinction under their several present flags. A 
not unworthy scion of this once proud stock is Daniel Llyng 
O'Neill, who was born December 10, 1835. at Port Deposit, Cecil 
county, Maryland. 

His father was Daniel O'Neill, a son of Philip and Honora 
Llyng O'Neill, of Kilpipe, county Wicklow, Ireland, and the 
family there are known as the O'Neills of the Waste. Daniel 
emigrated to this country in 1829, and for many years was a 
contractor of some note on public works in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. In 1842, he located at Overton, Bradford county, 
Pennsylvania, where he continued to reside up to his death, 
which occurred August 6, 1881. His mother was Bridget 
O'Neill, nee Hopkins. She was born in Ballymahan, county 
of Longford, Ireland, and was the daughter of Patrick Hop- 
kins. Daniel Llyng O'Neill was educated at the public and 
in select schools, and studied law with the late Hon. Hendrick 
B. Wright. He was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county 
April 4, 1864. In 1866 he was chosen a school director, and 
served on the School Board of the borough, city, and township 
of Wilkes-Barre for eight successive years, devoting much time 
and energy to the performance of his duties, and being in the 
fore front of every movement looking to an increase of the effi- 
ciency of the schools. He was a member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature in 1868, and therein applied himself assiduously to 
such matters as affected the interests of his constituents. Through 
his efforts, what was known as the " Potato law " was repealed. 
This was a statute which prohibited any person not a resident of 
Luzerne county from selling '' any goods, wares, or merchandise, 
by wholesale or retail, within its limits," until they had paid a 
license fee for the privilege amounting to ^300 per annum. Its 
operation had been clearly unjust, and its repeal brought Mr. 

Daniel Llyng O'Neill. 239 

O'Neill no little credit. He secured also the passage of an act 
providing for the indexing of the assignments of judgments, a 
measure which our lawyers and business men have found vastly 
useful in expediting searches of title, and contributing to their 
accuracy when made. He made an effort to secure to the city 
statutory authority to sell the old jail lot, but this was without 
avail. It was during the session of 1868 that the fifteenth 
amendment to the constitution of the United States received the 
sanction of the Pennsylvania Legislature. Mr. O'Neill made an 
eloquent speech in opposition to it, taking the ground that it was 
purely a partisan measure, that no good would be done to the 
country by so suddenly and largely adding to the number of its 
illiterate voters, and generally questioning its wisdom. The 
speech was carefully considered, and at the time attracted much 

The following year he was re-nominated, but owing to com-, 
plications which had not been foreseen, it proved a disastrous 
year for the democratic party of the county, and both he and his 
colleague on the democratic ticket, Mr. N. G. Westler, were 
defeated. In 1873, he was elected a member of the City Council 
of Wilkes-Barre, and served a term of two years in that body. 
He served also for four years as one of the directors of the poor 
for the Central Poor District of Luzerne county. In 1874, he 
was a candidate for the democratic nomination for additional law 
judge, and in the very heated controversy which followed showed 
himself possessed of much personal strength by securing sixty- 
eight votes in the convention. He has also been a notary public 
for some years. 

Mr. O'Neill married May 16, 1864, Annie, daughter of Patrick 
McDonald, of Union township, in this county. The couple have 
eight children — six sons and two daughters — living, the oldest 
of v((hom, Anna C, is at this writing a young lady of seventeen, 
at present a pupil in the Mansfield Normal School. 

As will abundantly appear from the foregoing outline record- 
of his life, Mr. O'Neill has been a busy and useful man. He is a 
lawyer of excellent abilities, and gives faithful attention to his 
cases, whereby he has secured himself a practice which, while 
not overtaxing his energies, yields him and his family a comfort* 

240 Clarence Porter Kidder. 

able sustenance, and is enabling him to make reasonable provision 
for old age. He is a man of correct habits and domestic tastes, 
albeit, genial in disposition, and in no wise inclined to seek a 
selfish privacy when there is rational enjoyment to be had with 
companions other than those of his own family. He is a regular 
attendant at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, and one of the 
most active of the parishioners in all matters affecting its care 
and growth. In politics, he has always been a Democrat of pro- 
nounced views, ever ready with voice or pen to aid in its councils. 
He has given much time in the various campaigns both to cam- 
paign work and to stump speaking, and in each capacity has 
worked zealously and to good purpose. 


Clarence Porter Kidder was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., May 
10, 1839. He is a descendant of James Kidder, jun., & native of 
East Grinstead, county Sussex, England, who was born there in 
1626. James Kidder's wife was Ann, daughter of Elder Francis 
Moore. Mr. Kidder emigrated to New England in 1649, and 
settled in Cambridge, Mass. He had a son, John, born in 1655, 
who had a son, Thomas, born October 30, 1690, who had a son, 
Aaron, born December 22, 17 19, who had a son, Luther, born 
June 29, 1767, who had a son, Lyman Church Kidder, the 
father of the subject of our sketch, who was born in Wood- 
stock, Vermont, in April, 1802, and emigrated to the valley 
of Wyoming with his father at an early day. The mother 
of Clarence Porter Kidder was Mary, daughter of Anderson 
Dana, jun., a son of Anderson Dana, a native of Ashfbrd, 
Conn., and a lawyer of handsome attainments. Immediately 
on his removal to Wilkes-Barre, he took a decided lead in 
the establishment of free schools and a Gospel minister. Before 
the first stump cut on his plantation had begun to decay, 
his son, Daniel Dana, was placed at school at Lebanon, Conn., 
to prepare himself for a collegiate education at Yale. It is 

Clarence Porter Kidder. 241 

here worthy of remark that he was the first student sent from 
Wyoming to Yale college, since which time scores of her sons 
have been educated at that institution. Mr. Dana returned 
from the assembly at Hartford near the close of June, 1778, 
where, at that most trying period, the people had chosen him to 
represent them. The enemy having come, Mr. Dana mounted his 
horse and rode from town to town, arousing, cheering for the 
conflict. Though by law exempt from militia duty, he hastened to 
the field and fell. Mrs. Dana, with a thoughtfulness nowhere 
equalled, knowing that, as her husband was much engaged in 
public business, his papers must be valuable, gathered up all she 
deemed most important, took provisions, and with her widowed 
daughter, Mrs. Whiton, and the younger children, fled. Like 
hundreds of others, they sought their way to their former home 
in Connecticut, where, while Anderson, jun., was put out an 
apprentice, Daniel was sent to college, and the rest turned their 
hands to such labor as could best sustain them. The independent 
spirit exhibited, all unconquerable, is itself a beautiful illustration 
of the Yankee character. Anderson Dana returned to Wyoming 
and recovered the patrimonial estate. Daniel, as designed by 
his father, was educated at Yale college. He lived many years 
in the state of New York, was judge of the court, and held other 
official stations. Rev. Sylvester Dana, another son, imbued, like 
his martyred father, with a zeal for religion and love of learning, 
sold his patrimonial right, obtained a liberal education, and 
entered the Christian ministry. Eleazer, the youngest son, 
resided at Owego, New York, where he had an extensive legal 
practice, and accumulated a handsome independence. 

The wife of Anderson Dana, jun,, was Sarah, a daughter of 
Asa Stevens, a native of Canterbury, Conn. He removed to 
Wyoming in 1772, and lived a portion of his time at the mouth 
of Mill Creek. Mr. Stevens was a lieutenant in one of the com- 
panies that marched out from Forty Fort July 3, 1778, and was 
slain in the massacre that day. Thus it will be seen that both of 
the great grandfathers of the subject of our sketch were slain in 
the massacre of Wyoming. The wife of Asa Stevens was Sarah 
Adams, whom he married in Canterbury, October i, 1761. She 
was born January 17, 1768. Mr. Stevens was a descendant of 

242 Clarence Porter Kidder. 

Colonel Thomas Stevens, of Devonshire, England, and subse- 
quently of London, England. He was an armorer in Buttolph 

Cyprian Stevens, son of Colonel Thomas Stevens, was born in 
London, and emigrated to Lancaster, Mass., about 1660. He mar- 
ried, January 22, 1672, Mary, daughter of Major Simon Willard. 
Simon Stevens was a son of Cyprian Stevens. He was married 
to Mary Wilder in 1701. 

Jonathan Stevens was a son of Simon Stevens. He connected 
himself with the church at Lancaster, Mass., April 16, 1710. 

Asa Stevens, the great grandfather of Mr. Kidder, was a son 
of Jonathan Stevens, who was born in Canterbury, Conn., in 
May, 1734. 

Mr. Kidder was educated at Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, 
Pa. ; Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. ; and at Union 
College, Schenectady, N. Y., where he took a degree. In 1862 
he served in Captain Stanley Woodward's Company H, Third 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Militia, during the Antietam cam- 
paign ; and in 1863, in Captain Finch's Company K, Thirteenth 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Militia, during the Gettysburg 
campaign. In the last named company, Mr. Finch became the 
captain after the regiment arrived at Harrisburg, upon the refusal 
of Mr. Ricketts, who had been elected captain, to be sworn into 
the service of the United States. Mr. Kidder read law with Caleb 
E. Wright and David C. Harrington, and was admitted to the 
bar of Luzerne county April 4, 1864. In 1865 Mr. Kidder was 
elected one of the councilmen of the borough of Wilkes-Barre, 
and served in that position for six years. In 1871, when Wilkes- 
Barre was made a city, Mr. Kidder was again elected a council- 
man for three years. In 1879 he was nominated for register of 
wills by the republican party, but was defeated by Charles C. 
Plotz, his democratic opponent, by a majority of only two hun- 
dred and sixty-five votes, although the democratic candidate for 
governor had a majority of 1006. Mr. Kidder is prominent in 
the Grand Army of the Republic, and delivered the poems on 
Decoration Day in 1879 and 188 1. 

Hon. Luther Kidder, a brother of Lyman C. Kidder, the father 
of Clarence Porter Kidder, who was admitted to the bar of Luz- 

Clarence Porter Kidder. 243 

erne county November 5, 1833, represented Luzerne county in 
the State Senate from 1841 to 1844. He was subsequently 
president judge of the judicial district composed of the counties 
of Carbon, Monroe, and Schuylkill. He was a son-in-law of the 
late Hon. David Scott, president judge of Luzerne county. 

Mr. Kidder married, May 24, 1864, Louisa Amelia, daughter 
of Captain Calvin Parsons, of the borough of Parsons, Luzerne 
county. Pa. She is a descendant of Deacon Benjamin Parsons, 
a native of Sanford, Oxfordshire, England, where he was born 
March 17, 1627. He probably accompanied his father to New 
England about the year 1630. Deacon Parsons was among the 
first settlers of Springfield, Mass., and a prominent citizen, a 
gentleman of exemplary moral character, of great worth and 
respectability. He was a chief instrument in the formation of 
the church in Springfield, as appears from his correspondence 
with the Rev. Dr. Increase Mather. In the civil affairs of the 
town, no one held more responsible offices, or discharged them 
with greater fidelity. He died August 24, 1689. His brother, 
Joseph. Parsons, was a principal founder of Northampton, Mass., 
extensively engaged in the fur trade, and acquired a large estate. 

Benjamin Parsons, son of Deacon Benjamin Parsons, was born 
in Springfield, Mass., September 15, 1658. He married, January 
17, 1683, Sarah, daughter of John Keep, of Springfield. Her 
mother was Sarah, daughter of John Leonard, of Springfield. 
Her father was killed by the Indians, at Long Meadow, 1676, 
probably on the 26th March, as on that day six men were killed 
at Springfield, three of them near Pecowsick brook as they were 
passing from Long Meadow to the town with an escort under 
Captain Nixon. The circumstance was long perpetuated by the 
following distich : 

" Seven Indians, and one without a gun. 
Caused Captain Nixon and forty men to run." 

Mr. Parsons died at Enfield, Conn., December 28, 1728. 

Christopher Parsons, son of Benjamin Parsons, was born in 
Enfield, Hartford county. Conn., January 28, 1691, and died 
September 10, 1747. 

John Parsons, son of Christopher Parsons, was born in Enfield 
December 27, 17 16. 

244 Clarence Porter Kidder. 

John Parsons, jun., son of John Parsons, was born in Enfield 
April 4, 1744. 

Captain Hezekiah Parsons, son of John Parsons, jun., was born 
in Enfield, March 25, 1777. He emigrated to Wyoming in 1813, 
and located at Laurel Run, now borough of Parsons. He was a 
clothier by trade, and erected the first fulling mill or factory in 
Luzerne county. The factory ran from 1813 to 1852, when the 
machinery was sold to John P. Rice, of Truxville. The wife of 
Captain Parsons was Eunice, daughter of Stephen Whiton, a 
young schoolmaster from Ashford, Windham county, Conn., and 
who was killed on the day of the massacre, July 3, 1778. Mr. 
Whiton had but recently married the daughter of Anderson Dana, 
sen., and Mr. Whiton and Mr. Dana fell together in the battle 
and massacre. Mrs. Parsons was born September 25, 1778,- 
nearly four months after the death of her father. She died in 
1853. Mr. Parsons died April 17, 1845. 

Captain Calvin Parsons (son of Captain Hezekiah Parsons), the 
father of Mrs. Kidder, who is still living, was born at his present 
residence in the borough of Parsons, then township of Wilkes- 
Barre, April 2, 1815. He was commissioned captain of the 
Wilkes-Barre and Pittston Blues by Governor Ritner in 1835, 
he being but twenty years of age at the time. The borough of 
Parsons was named after Captain Parsons. He is thoroughly 
well known throughout the valley, is prominent in temperance 
circles, and takes a deep interest in historical matters, being one 
of the most enthusiastic and hard working of the members of 
the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Mr. and Mrs. 
Kidder have a family of three children — Calvin Parsons Kidder, 
Mary Louise Kidder, and Clarence Lyman Kidder. 

From the foregoing facts, it will be observed that Clarence 
Porter Kidder unites in his veins the blood of some of the stur- 
diest and best of the old New England stock, which has done 
so much to develop the natural riches of the Wyoming valley, 
and make its name and people honored throughout the country, 
and that of his children is further enriched by contributions 
from another line of distinguished ancestry. He is yet a young 
man, and his fine natural qualities and excellent education fit 
him for important achievements at the bar. For a number of 

Edward Kendall Morse. 245 

years he was the senior member of the firm of Kidder & Nichols, 
which came to be well 'known and highly respected, but for 
some time past he has been practicing singly, being engaged 
frequently in cases of unusual consequence, and requiring a 
thorough knowledge of the law, and careful and ingenious 
application of its principles. 

In politics, he is a Republican, and takes a deep interest in the 
welfare of his party, having frequently contributed to its cam- 
paigns by effective efforts from the stump. He is a pleasing 
speaker, though he aims rather at argument than oratory. 

During his connection with the borough council, and after- 
wards with that of the city, he served on important committees, 
and took a decided stand for or against every proposition of 
importance that arose during his term affecting the interests and 
well-being of his constituents. 

He is of stalwart build, and has a fine presence. He enjoys 
association with " good fellows," and his genial manners and 
lively conversation is enjoyed by them. 


Edward Kendall Morse, only son of Aldson Morse, was born 
in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., March 16, 1843. He is a descendant of 
John Moss, one of that noble band who founded the colony of 
New Haven, Conn. Mr. Moss's foresight, courage and enter- 
prise in the work ; his wisdom and prudence ; his self-denial, 
firmness and perseverance in carrying it on, are well attested by 
records, when read in connection with the history of his times, 
and the privations and trials of his situation. Of the time and 
place of his birth, and the date of his arrival in New England, 
we have no certain information. If he had attained his majority 
when admitted a member of the General Court, 1639—40, he was 
born as early as 161 9. He doubtless arrived at New Haven, 
1638. The first record of him is dated February 18, 1639-40, 
when he signed a social compact as one of the proprietors and 

246 Edward Kendall Morse. 

planters. He resided in New Haven thirty years, and was a 
prominent man there, frequently representing the people in the 
General Court. As early as 1667 we find him in what is now 
Wallingford, Conn., perambulating the county in that region for 
the purpose of settling a village there. In 1670 we find him ex- 
erting himself, before the General Court at Hartford, to procure 
an act of incorporation, changing the name of the village to that 
of Wallingford, which was carried into effect the 12th day of 
May, 1670. At this time he was a member of the General Court 
for New Haven. Afterwards he was frequently a member of said 
Court as a representative from Wallingford. He was a very active 
member of the company, and a leader among the settlers. His 
name was early placed on the committee for the distribution of 
the common lands, where it remained for a succession of years, 
and he was placed at the head of a committee to gather and 
organize a church. He died in 1707. 

John Moss, Jr., son of John the emigrant, was born October 
12, 1650; died March 31, 1717; married Martha Lathrop, and 
resided in New Haven and Wallingford. 

Solomon Moss, son of John and Martha Moss, was born July 9, 
1690; died October 10, 1752. He married for his first wife Ruth 
Peck, who died March 29, 1728, at Wallingford. 

Solomon Moss, Jr., son of Solomon and Ruth Moss, was born 
October 31, 1719; died in 1755. He married Elizabeth Fenn, 
November 30, 1743. He was jailor at New Haven, and died 
suddenly at Nine Partners. 

Moses Moss, son of Solomon and Elizabeth Moss, was born 
August IS, 1751, at Nine Partners; died May 7, 1847. He mar- 
ried Mary Button, November 20, 1775. 

Asahel Morse, son of Moses and Mary Moss, was born Sep- 
tember 16, 1778, and died October 19, 1827. He married Rhoda 
Lewis, May 11, 1 801. He resided at Litchfield, Conn. 

Aldson Morse, son of Asahel Morse, was born at Litchfield, 
Conn., May 20, 181 1. He removed to Wilkes-Barre in 1835, 
and until the time of his death, July 22, 1874, was a prominent 
citizen of Wilkes-Barre. He was actively connected with the 
First Presbyterian Church of this city. Mr. Morse was married 
twice. His first wife, who died childless, was Eliza Fairchild, of 

Edward Kendall Morse. 247 

New Britain, Conn. He married for a second wife Marcia Ken- 
dall, daughter of Joshua Kendall, of Granby, Conn. She is the 
mother of the subject of our sketch. Mr. Morse's only other 
child is Jennie Fenn Dana, wife of George S. Dana, of Utica, 

Edward K. Morse was educated at Wyoming Seminary, 
Kingston, Pa. ; studied law with Andrew T. McClintock, of this 
city, and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county. May 2, 
1864. During the late civil war he was a member of Captain 
Ricketts' Company I, Third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
This was during the Sharpsburg campaign, in 1862. In 1863 he 
was a member of Captain Finch's Company K, Thirtieth Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers. He filled the position of quar- 
termaster's clerk. This was known as the Gettysburg campaign. 
He enlisted under Captain Ricketts, but as the latter refused to be 
sworn into the service of the United States, E. W. Finch, of this 
city, was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Mr. Morse continued in the practice of his profession for about 
six years, devoting himself wholly to what is known as office 
practice. He had no inclination whatever for those forensic dis- 
plays which serve most frequently to bring lawyers to the notice 
of the public. He possessed, however, an admirable conception 
of the branch of duties to which he applied himself, especially of 
conveyancing; wrote an excellent hand; and would probably 
have achieved both profit and distinction therein had he adhered 
to them ; but other and more congenial fields of labor, at the 
period stated, lured him out of the practice of the profession 

Mr. Morse is a Democrat in politics, and, while not given to 
active campaigning, any more than he was to activity in what 
might be called the field work of the law, he nevertheless always 
takes a deep, quiet interest in the affairs of his party. 

He is a gentleman of first rate general attainments ; possesses, 
by inheritance, a moderate fortune ; and is one of the to-be-envied 
few, who, by happy content with what they have, are protected 
against the multiplied, grievous vexations of constant strife for 

248 RuFus James Bell. 


Rufus James Bell was born September 9, 1829, at Troy, N. Y.. 
He was educated at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vt., at Wil- 
liam's Colleg'e, Williamstown, Mass., and at Harvard Law School, 
Cambridge, Mass., where he graduated in 1852. He was ad- 
mitted to practice at Albany, N. Y., in 1S53, and until his removal 
to Wilkes-Barre in 1864, practiced in the city of New York. 
Mr. Bell is of New England descent, his grandfather, Jonathan 
Bell, as also his father, Ebenezer Bell, being natives of Stamford, 
Conn. His father removed to Troy, N. Y., and was a prominent 
merchant in that city. Mr. Bell was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county, September 27, 1864. He married April 25, 
1 860, Mary Catharine, daughter of the late O. B. Hillard, of this 
city. The fruits of this union are three children ; Oliver Hillard 
Bell, Mary Conyngham Bell, and Emma Gertrude Bell. 

Mr. Bell is well known throughout Luzerne county, more, 
however, as a writer than as a practicing attorney. He was the 
first clerk to the upper end mine inspectors under the ventilation 
law and its supplements, and from the time of his appointment 
to that position has always been more or less actively identified 
with the labor movement in the county, of which the miners, 
coristituting the most numerous branch of our workmen, have 
been at once the substance and the subject. During the years 
1877 to '79, when the labor movement, having united with the 
greenbackers, so-called, in the formation of an independent party, 
played so important a part in our local and state politics, Mr. 
Bell served constantly on the party committees and as an editorial 
writer on their official organ, the Reformer. He is a writer of 
much force and fluency, and being radical in his convictions and 
enthusiastic by nature, indited, during the pendency of the power 
of the greenback-labor party, as it was named, many very elo- 
quent appeals to its followers, and many very bitter excoriations 
of the systems it antagonized. He was by odds the best of all the 

George Shoemaker. 249 

quill-wielders, so to speak, of the organization named, and the 
mainstay of their paper. Before connecting himself with the new 
party Mr. Bell had been a democrat (and is still one) and a fre- 
quent contributor to the Luzerne Union, under the management 
of Beardslee & Co. He has not for some years been in active 
practice in his profession. 


George Shoemaker was born June 28, 1844, at Forty Fort, 
Luzerne county, Pa., where he now resides. His father wa.s 
George Shoemaker, long a well known resident of Luzerne 
county, and a brother of Lazarus Denison Shoemaker, of the 
Luzerne county bar. The mother of George Shoemaker, Jr., 
was Rebecca, daughter of John Jones, of Berwick, Pa. 

Mr. Shoemaker was educated at the Wyoming Seminary, 
Kingston, Pa., and at the High, School, Freehold, N. J. He 
studied law with his uncle, L. D. Shoemaker, and was admitted 
to the bar of Luzerne county, January 6, 1865. He is now 
extensively engaged in agricultural pursuits and in tae raising 
and sale of stock. 

On October 10, 1873, ^r. Shoemaker was married to Ann E., 
daughter of John D. Hoyt, of Kingston. They have no children. 

In a series of biographies of members of the legal profession, 
it is difficult to say much of one, who, though educated to the 
law and passing a creditable examination as to its principles, has 
never practiced. Mr. Shoemaker is a gentleman of quiet and 
unobtrusive demeanor, who, probably, would not have achieved 
much distinction as a pleader; but his correct business habits and 
his successful adventures in the financial and industrial world 
forbid the belief that, had he entered upon a practitioners career, 
his advice would have been otherwise than safe and shrewd, and, 
as a consequence, largely sought and liberally compensated. He 
did not need, however, to burden himself with its trials and 
troubles. His inclinations led him to agriculture, and in that and 

250 James Mahon. 

incidental fields of labor he has found ample and genial occupa- 
tion for the active mind and physical vigor with which he has 
been by nature endowed. He is a good citizen, well read, and 
an enjoyable companion. 


James Mahon was born March 17, 1837, at Carbondale, Luz- 
erne (now Lackawanna) county, Pa. He was educated in the 
public schools of his native state, and admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county, January 6, 1865. In 1866 Mr. Mahon was 
elected district attorney of the Mayor's Court of Scranton, 
The term was for three years. In 1876 Mr. Mahon was the 
democratic candidate for state senator in the Twentieth sena- 
torial district, but was defeated by George B. Seamans, the 
republican candidate. Patrick Mahon, the father of the sub- 
ject of our sketch, is a native of Kilbride, Mayo county, Ireland. 
He emigrated to America in 1829, when twenty-eight years of 
age, and is now a resident of Shamokin, Pa. The mother of 
James Mai on is Catharine, daughter of Michael Kelly, also of 
Kilbride, Ii eland. Mr. and Mrs. Mahon were married previous to 
their arriv;.! in this country. Peter Mahon, of Shamokin, a 
member of the Northumberland county bar, and district attor- 
ney of that county, is a brother of James Mahon. 

Mr. Mahon married May 25, 1866, Margaret Ann lieffron, a 
native of the city of New York. She was the daughter of Patrick 
Heffron, a native of County Mayo, Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. 
Mahon have a family of three children living, one son, Anthony, 
and two daughters. 

James Mahon's tall form and well cut features are familiar to 
all habitues of the courts of Luzerne county. He looks older 
than he is, having been more or less afflicted by illness during a 
number of years, though he is now enjoying comparatively fair 
health. He has many of the attributes upon which great politi- 
cal popularity is frequently builded, as is attested by his election 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 251 

to the district attorneyship of Scranton, and by the fact that 
all who know him have a kind word to say in his behalf. Al- 
though his education was only such as the public schools afforded, 
yet he is an industrious and apt student of the theories of the 
law and of the statutes ; and having always been an extensive 
reader of both legal and general literature, he has acquired 
a stock of information to which many a client has found occasion 
to be thankful. He is a conscientious adviser, too, who would 
rather lose a fee than dupe a client. His practice, perhaps, on 
this account, might otherwise be larger. 


The family name of Lamberton is of pure Scottish origin, and, 
like all of the ancient surnames of Scotland, territorial in its 
derivation and associated with the earliest historic times of that 
country. Dr. Gordon, in his Ecclesiastical Chronicles of Scot- 
land, says " it was a family of some note in the south of Scotland ; 
an ancient lowland name." Frequent mention is made of the 
De Lambertons, chiefly in Berwickshire, where their estates 
principally lay, as well as in Ayrshire. The name occurs, he 
states, as early as the reign of Edgar (1097— 1 107), in a charter 
granted by him to the monks of St. Cuthbert, and subsequently 
in other grants. 

To the letter sent by the Scottish barons to the Pope in 1320, 
the seal of Alexander de Lamberton is appended ; its bearings 
corresponding so far with those of Bishop de Lamberton, being 
three escallop shells reversed. 

John de Lamberton, the son of Richard de Lamberton, bound 
himself to pay twelve boles of wheat to King Edward of England, 
and his bond is extant in the public record office. This same 
John de Lamberton appears on the roll of Scottish nobles and 
others invited to accompany King Edward into Flanders, May 
24, 1297. This roll comprises some of the first names now 
existing in Scotland and the border country. 

252 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

John de Lamberton was sheriff of Stirling 1263, 1265, and 
1266, in the reign of Alexander III., but whether this is the same 
John de Lamberton is not known. It is also said that various 
persons of the name signed the famous Ragmans' Roll. 

In 1336 Robert de Lamberton grants a charter of his lands of 
Eyton, Eymouth, Coldingham, and Flemington to William Stute, 
of Berwick, and seals it with his seal. 

The ruins of the chapel of Lamberton are still extant about 
three miles north from Berwick, in the parish of .Mordington. 
Within this chapel, in 1 502, Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry 
VII. of England, was espoused to James IV. 

In the reign of Robert I., William Lamberton, bishop of St. 
Andrews, in consequence of the severity of the times, granted 
to the monks of Kelso power to apply to themselves certain rev- 
enues of the church ; and in a papal taxation of Coldingham and 
its dependent chapels, of the fifteenth century, the moiety due 
from the " Ecclesia de Lambertone " is specifically set down. 

Perhaps the most famous one of the name in early historic 
times was William de Lamberton, bishop of St. Andrews from 
A. D. 1298 to 1328. He was chancellor of Glasgow in 1292, 
and in the charter was called William de LambyrtoAi. He was 
elected bishop in September, 1297, and was by Pope Boniface 
VIII., on June 17, 1298, preferred to the episcopate of St. Andrews, 
and is in the papal rescript styled " Willelmo de Lamberton." 
Gordon says " Lamberton was indebted for his nomination partly 
to his friend, Sir William Wallace, whose influence in Scotland 
at that juncture was almost unbounded. He passed the first 
years of his episcopate in France as the representative of Wallace. 
His name is to be met with in many ancient writs and charters. 
He strenuously opposed the encroachments made by King Ed- 
ward I. of England upon the constitution of Scotland, and con- 
tributed his hearty endeavors to set and keep King Robert the 
Bruce upon the Scottish throne. 

Lamberton, along with Wishart, of Glasgow, and David, of 
Murray, were the three bishops who crowned Bruce as king, at 
Scone, on March 27, 1306. For this Lamberton and Wishart 
were made prisoners and conveyed in fetters to England. He 
was afterwards liberated, and the next year presided at an assem- 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 253 

bly of his clergy at Dundee, asserting in the strongest terms 
Robert the, Bruce's right to the crown of Scotland. He com- 
pleted the cathedral of St. Andrews, which had been one hun- 
dred and fifty-eight years in building, and had it consecrated in 
the presence of King Robert the Bruce, and of the clergy and 
most of the knights and barons of the kingdom. It was, in 1559, 
demolished in one day by a mob excited by a sermon of John 
Knox. In 1324, at York, he was one of the commissioners of 
Scotland for endeavoring to effect a peace between it and Eng- 

Burton, in his history of Scotland, says, " while he was in power 
indeed, Wallace kept a sort of ambassador in France in William 
Lamberton, bishop of St. Andrews. Lamberton was, in fatt, his 
own bishop. When the See became vacant William Comyn 
was the candidate favored by King Edward, who, in an eccles- 
iastical process at the Vatican, and other charges, set forth that 
the bishop had gone to France, where he advocated the cause of 
the rebellious Scots and excited the traitor Wallace by prospects 
of French aid. After the death of Red Comyn at the hands of 
Bruce, the bishop of St. Andrews, assisted by Wishart and Mur- 
ray, crowned Robert de Bruce King of Scotland. 

"Among the illustrious captives were two great prelates, Lam- 
berton, of St. Andrews, and Wishart, of Glasgow. None had 
been so versatile and so indefatigable in stirring up the people, 
and no laymen had broken so many oaths of allegiance to Ed- 
ward ; yet he was content to imprison them, afraid to dip his 
hands in clerical blood. We have seen that Lamberton, bishop 
of St. Andrews, was a zealous partaker with Wallace in his strug- 
gle for the purely national party. Whether it was the bishop's 
advice or not, Bruce met him in the abbey of Cambus Kenneth, 
the scene of Wallace's great victory in June, 1 304, and there the 
two entered into a league with each other, which was put in 
writing and sealed and authenticated by all the solemn rites of 
the period. It is the earliest existing specimen of a kind of doc- 
ument which we shall frequently meet with afterward. There 
are no engagements as to any distinct course of action, but the 
two bound themselves to general co-operation. Having discussed 
possible future perils, they resolve to aid and comfort each other 

254 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

when these come to pass. They are to stand by each other 
against all enemies. If either learns of any danger to the other, 
immediate warning is to be sent and co-operation in averting it, 
is the most material clause, perhaps, of all. Neither is to under- 
take any serious affair without taking counsel of the other. They 
bind themselves to this obligation by solemn oath ; at the same 
time, as in any such modern contract for the supply of goods as 
a court of law would give effect to, either party failing to keep 
the engagement, is to be subject to a pecuniary penalty. It is 
fixed at ;£"io,ooo. The purpose it was to be put to, when secured, 
takes us back from the attorneys' style book to the age and its 
conditions. The money was to be applied for the recovery of 
the Holy Land, and be dropped into the great fund lost in the 
crusades." This document is given at length by Sir Francis 

Subsequent events showed that Lamberton represented the 
feelings of the churchmen who had their own independence to 

" Then the allegiance of the church to Bruce meant a great 
deal more than spiritual or ecclesiastical support, important as 
that might be. The religious houses held large baronies, and 
could call out a great population, probably not much less than 
a third of the fighting men of the country." Burton, Vol. II. , 
p. 238. 

Bruce in his deadly quarrel with Comyn charged him with 
betraying certain secrets of his. Burton says probably the bond 
with Lamberton. 

After the defeat of Wallace at Falkirk by the English under 
Edward I., in 1298, Lamberton, the elder Bruce, and John 
Comyn were appointed regents of Scotland. 

Lamberton, according to Wynton, died " in the Priors' cham- 
ber of the abbey in June, 1328, and was buried on the north 
half of the High Kirk;" i. p., on the north side of the High 
altar, but no vestige can be traced. 

From earliest times the family of Lamberton have lived in 
Ayrshire, Scotland, near the barony of Lambrochton, and in and 
near the village of Kilmaurs, in that shire. Some have thought 
that the name, being territorial, might have originated from the 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 255 

barony above named. But though the names are introconverti- 
ble, and in the burial ground of the parish church of Kilmaurs 
may be seen a headstone with the two names of the same kins- 
people on it, this origin is not probable. The barony of Lam- 
brochton never belonged to any of that name, or of the name of 
Lamberton, but was in earliest times the estate of the de More- 
villes, de Ferrars, and the de la Zuches and their descendants, 
who were partisans of Baloil in his contention for the Scottish 
crown. On the accession of Bruce these estates were confis- 
cated and granted to his adherents, the Cunynghames, earls of 
Glencaim, who possessed them until the sixteenth century, when 
they passed to the Montgomerys, earls of Eglington. 

Besides, at and before the time of the grant by Bruce, the 
name of Lamberton was pure and distinct and well known, for 
William de Lamberton, the bishop of St. Andrews, was then 
the friend of Bruce and Wallace. 

Only by tradition can the family name be traced through the 
long period intervening between the time of Bruce and the time 
of the anti-prelacy agitation in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. During this latter period the tradition is distinct and 
well defined that in consequence of the religious persecution 
some members of the family fled to the north of Ireland, clearly 
indicating the affinity between the two branches of the family 
in Scotland and Ireland. 

" The times of the religious persecution," mentioned both in 
Ulster and Ayrshire as a descriptive term, and which drove so 
many of the Covenanters to Ireland, must have been after the 
attempt of Charles II. to revive Episcopacy in Scotland in 1661, 
and after the defeat of the Covenanters on the Pentland hills in 
1666, and at Bothwell bridge June 22, 1679, and during the dra- 
gonnades of Claverhouse, which followed. 

General James Lamberton, the grandfather of Charles Lytle 
Lamberton, the subject of our sketch, was born near London- 
derry, in the province of Ulster, according to the statement of one 
of his daughters, now deceased, in the year 1755, and by another 
account some four years earlier. He was the son of Robert 
Lamberton, who lived at Oughill, four miles from Londonderry, 
and who was a prosperous cloth merchant. His mother's name 

256 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

was Finley. Robert had one brother, James, and another whose 
name is not now known. He died at about the age of eighty. A 
generation or two preceding him his ancestor, with two brothers, 
fled from Scotland, in consequence of the rehgious persecution 
there, and sought refuge among the Presbyterians of Ulster ; one 
of the brothers settling in county Antrim, and the other two in 
the adjoining county of Derry. The family tradition in the lat- 
ter county is that they came from a place called " Lambrochton," 
and " that the family there are of the original stock from which 
they have sprung," which, as we have already stated, is a barony 
of that name near the village of Kilmaurs, in Ayrshire. From 
the shores of Antrim and Derry, which look out upon the north 
Atlantic, the highlands of Scotland are distinctly visible in the 
distance, and the crossing could easily be made in a day or night 
by an ordinary fishing smack. The family traditional history is 
that the grandmother of James Lamberton was in Londonderry 
during the siege in 1689, at which time this branch of the family 
must have been in Ulster. 

General Davis, in his History of Bucks County, Pa., says: "The 
third race to arrive [in Pennsylvania] was the Scotch-Irish, as they 
are generally called, but properly Scotch, and not the offspring 
of the marriage of Gaelic and Celt. They were almost exclu- 
sively Presbyterians, the immigration of the Catholic Irish setting 
in at a later period. The Scotch-Irish began to arrive about 
1 7 16— 18. Timid James Logan had the same fear of these immi- 
grants that he had of the Germans. They came in such numbers 
about 1729 that he said it looked as if Ireland is to send all her 
inhabitants to this province,' and feared they would make them 
selves masters of it. He charged them of possessing themselves 
of the Conestoga manor ' in an audacious and disorderly man- 
ner ' in 1730. The twenty shillings head tax laid the year before 
had no effect to restrain them, and the stream flowed on in spite 
of unfriendly legislation. No wonder ! It was an exodus from 
a land of oppression to one of civil and religious liberty. 

"The Scotch-Irish have a history full of interest. In the six- 
teenth century the province of Ulster, in Ireland, which had 
nearly been depopulated during the Irish rebellions in the reign 
of Elizabeth, was peopled by immigrants from Scotland. The 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 257 

offer of land, and other inducements, soon drew a large popula- 
tion, distinguished for thrift and industry, across the narrow strait 
that separates the two countries. They were Presbyterians, and 
built their first church in the county of Antrim in 161 3. The 
population was largely increased the next fifty years under the 
persecutions of Charles II. and James II. in their effort to estab- 
lish the Church of England over Scotland. There has been but 
little intermarriage between the Irish and these Scotch-Saxons, 
and the race is nearly as distinct as the day it settled in Ireland. 
In the course of time persecution followed these Scotch-Irish 
into the land of their exile, and after bearing it as long as it 
became men of spirit to bear, they resolved to seek new homes 
in America, where they hoped to find a free and open field for 
their industry and skill, and where there would be no interference 
with their religious belief 

"Their immigration commenced the first quarter of the last 
century. Six thousand arrived in 1 729 ; and it is stated that, for 
several years prior to the middle of the century, twelve thousand 
came annually. A thousand families sailed from Belfast in 1736, 
and it is estimated that twenty-five thousand arrived between 
1 77 1 and 1773. Nearly the whole of them were Presbyterians, 
and they settled in Pennsylvania." 

General Lamberton emigrated towards the close of the war of 
independence and before the definitive treaty of peace, and settled 
in the Cumberland valley of Pennsylvania, amongst the Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians who had preceded him there in such great 
numbers. • It is also a tradition of the family that General Lam- 
berton emigrated in the same ship with the father of the late Pres- 
ident Buchanan. He arrived at Carlisle in the year 1783, before 
that having been for some time in Philadelphia, and for two years 
was in business with Major William Alexander, late a soldier of 
the Pennsylvania line, and a merchant of Carlisle; after which time 
he entered into business at Carlisle as a merchant on his own 
account, and for many years was one of the most successful mer- 
chants and business men of the Cumberland valley, sending 
across the passes of the Alleghenies, in packers' trains, goods to 
the west and southwest. On January 4, 1785, he was married to 
Jane McKeehen, a daughter of Alexander McKeehen — John 

258 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

George Butler, "minister of the gospel" at Carlisle, officiating. 
She died September i , 1 8 1 2, aged fifty-six years. 

Alexander McKeehen was a north of Ireland immigrant. It is 
not known when he came to the Kitochtinny or Cumberland 
valley, but he was probably one of the earliest settlers who im- 
migrated between 1730, 1740 and 1750, after which time for a 
whole generation there were no settlers of any other nationality. 
The majority of the settlers were men of means, intelligent and 
self-asserting. About 1784-85 we find Alexander McKeehen with 
General John Armstrong, sen., who had emigrated before 1748, 
and others of the well known names of Alexander, Blair, Craig- 
head, Creigh, Duncan, McClure, Grier, Denny, Lyon, Wray, 
Stuart, and many more familiar names of the early settlers, who 
were members of Rev. George Duffield's congregation, subscrib- 
ing £414 to finish the Presbyterian church at Carlisle, which had 
been commenced in 1757. Mr. Duffield had been pastor of the 
church for twelve or thirteen years before 1772, when he received 
a call to Philadelphia, and afterwards became chaplain of the 
Continental Congress. Alexander McKeehen died sometime 
after December, 1804. 

In 1792 the French National Convention met and established 
the republic, abolished the Bourbons, and declared their fraternity 
with all people who desired to be free. Early in the following 
year war with England was declared. The sympathy of the 
democratic-republican party, led by Mr. Jefferson, then secre- 
tary of state, was strongly with the French people, who had 
been our powerful allies. The federal party, led by Mr. Hamil- 
ton, was denounced as "the British party." This feeling, coupled 
with an obnoxious scheme of internal taxation devised by Mr. 
Hamilton, then secretary of the treasury, led to unequaled bit- 
terness between the political parties at that time formed and led 
by these two statesmen. It divided them everywhere and in 
everything. In Cumberland county Mr. Lamberton was a con- 
spicuous leader of the democratic-republican party. 

A new militia law was enacted in the year 1793 for the re-or- 
ganization of the militia of the state. Under its provisions an 
election for field officers was being held at the court house in 
Carlisle on June 20, 1793. James Lamberton had been commis- 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 259 

sioned on February ig, 1793, as major of the First battalion of 
Cumberland county militia, to rank as such from July 28, 1792. 
At this election an altercation took place relative to the quali- 
fication of some of the voters between Major James Lamberton 
and Mr. John Duncan, merchant and a member of the fed- 
eral party. He was a brother of Thomas Duncan, a prominent 
lawyer and afterwards one of the justices of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania. Late on the evening of the 21st, Mr. 
Duncan, by his friend and brother-in-law, Joseph R. Postlethwait, 
sent Major Lamberton a hostile message, giving ten minutes for 
an answer. Major Lamberton shortly after, by his friend, Mr. 
John Wray, delivered a message of acceptance. They met the 
next morning on the commons in the suburbs. Mr. Durican, 
with James Blaine as his second and accompanied by Mr. Postle- 
thwait; Major Lamberton with Robert Huston as his second. 
Colonel Wray was also present. They fought with pistols. At 
the request of Major Lamberton, before the firing, they shook 
hands. At the first fire Mr. Duncan was killed. 

James Blaine was the son of Colonel Ephriam Blaine, and the 
grandfather of Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine. A singular inci- 
dent of the sad affair is that Colonel Blaine married for his second 
wife the widow of John Duncan, deceased. 

In 1795 James Lamberton was elected by the people of 
Cumberland county to the sixth house of representatives of 
Pennsylvania, which met on December i of that year. He was 
re-elected the following year to the seventh house of repre- 
sentatives which met on December 6, 1796. This was during 
the administration of Governor Mifflin, the first governor of the 
state under the constitution of 1790. 

The legislature which assembled at Philadelphia in December, 
1795, was a reform legislature, seeking to carry out the pro- 
visions of the constitution of 1790. Among the subjects before it 
for consideration were : Laws mitigating imprisonment for debt ; 
for the establishment of " free schools ;" for improving roads and 
inland navigation ; giving to the courts further equitable powers ; 
the revival of the laws relating to bankruptcy ; concerning com- 
mercial paper and marine insurance ; for regulating the general 
elections, and to prevent frauds therein ; providing for election of 

26o Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

electors for president and vice-president, of the United States ; 
laws regulating the militia of the commonwealth, and for giving 
aid to the Pennsylvania hospital; all of which measures received 
the support of Mr. Lamberton. He also voted in favor of the 
amendment to the constitution of the United States, proposed by 
the state of Virginia, " that no person holding the office of a 
judge under the United States should be capable of holding, at 
the same time, any other office or appointment whatever ; " also, 
that a tribunal other than the senate be instituted for the trial of 
impeachment. He voted for the appropriation to Dickinson col- 
lege. He supported the removal of the seat of government to 
Lancaster from Philadelphia, until a permanent capital be there- 
after designated, and thus avoid the strong local influence of the 
proprietary interests at Philadelphia. 

The legislature which assembled in 1796, of which James 
Lamberton was also a member from Cumberland county, had 
before them the general revision of the election laws ; incorpo- 
rating the laws relating to the state and feideral elections into one 
system, and to make further provision to prevent frauds ; laws for 
regulating the militia ; for the establishment of public schools ; 
for preserving records of the land office ; laws concerning the 
territorial controversy at Wyoming; abolishing imprisonment 
for debt, and laws for the employment, relief, and support of the 
poor. In all of which legislation Mr. Lamberton took a con- 
spicuous part. The returns of the re-election of Governor Mifflin 
were presented to this legislature. The entire vote of the state 
was, in round numbers, thirty-one thousand, of which Governor 
Mifflin received about thirty thousand, F. A. Muhlenburg and 
Anthony Wayne the remainder. 

In January, 1804, Major James Lamberton was appointed and 
commissioned justice of the peace by Thomas McKean, governor 
of Pennsylvania. On October 28, 1 8 1 1 , he was commissioned bri- 
gade inspector, and as such mustered into the service of the 
United States the soldiers of the Cumberland valley, and accom- 
panied some of them to the northern frontier at the time of the 
late war with Great Britain. On July 4, 18 14, James Lamberton 
was appointed and commissioned brigade inspector of the First 
brigade of the Eleventh division, being for the county of Cum- 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 261 

berland, for the term of seven years. On the first Monday of July, 
1 82 1, James Lamberton was elected and afterwards commissioned 
major-general of the Eleventh division, composed of the counties 
of Cumberland, Perry, and Franklin, for the term of seven years, 
being the first major-general elected under the act of 1821. 

He had issue, Robert, Alexander, James, Christopher, Jane, 
and Esther. Alexander, James, and Esther died at Carlisle un- 
married. Christopher married, and died near Baltimore without 
issue. Jane, intermarried with John Noble, died at Carlisle, leav- 
ing issue; and from Robert, Charles Lytle Lamberton is descended. 

General Lamberton had brothers. Christopher, who had been 
educated in Scotland for the ministry, emigrated to America, 
read law with Judge Hamilton, at Carlisle, removed afterwards 
to the state of Ohio, where his descendents now are to be found. 
John emigrated to Venango county. Pa., where he died, leaving 
childreiL Huston and William never emigrated. Three sons of 
the latter, Robert, James, and William, emigrated to this country 
and settled in Venango county, Pa., where they became well 
known among the first citizens. Robert, as associate judge, 
merchant, and banker, has attained much prominence and great 
wealth, and has reared a large family, who are among the leading 
business men of the counties in which they live. 

General Lamberton, on March 27, 1789, had deeded to him by 
Alexander McKeehen and wife, the house and lot on High street, 
CarHsle, No. 117, and formerly within the stockade of 1753. 
Here he lived during his life, carrying on a large and lucrative 
business, and here he died. For many years he had retired 
from active business pursuits, devoting his time to the cultivation 
of his farm lands in the vicinity of the town. He was tall in 
stature, straight as an arrow, active and alert in movement, care- 
ful in attire, and to the last retained the old fashion of wearing 
his hair in a cue. He had been well educated, was intelligent, 
quick and decided, brave and determined, and a born leader 
among men. He died July 28, 1846, at the ripe age of ninety- 
one years, without physical infirmity and his mental faculties 
unimpaired. A contemporary writing of him says : " Descended 
from an old Scotch family who removed from their own country 
to the sister kingdom of Ireland, he inherited the same fearless- 

262 Charles Lytjle Lamberton. 

ness and determination so eminently characteristic of the Cove- 
nanters. He emigrated to this country before the close of the 
struggle which resulted in the freedom of the colonies, and from 
the time he became an American citizen he was ever found 
amongst those who firmly maintained the rights of the people. 
His upright character soon secured the respect of his fellow 
citizens, and he was placed in positions in which he was always 
true to his trust. Fearless in the expression of his sentiments, 
and as courageous in the defense of them, he was awed by no 
petty considerations of policy into silence, and though so long 
outliving the allotment of ' three score and ten,' he left a repu- 
tation unsullied by a dishonorable act." 

Major Robert Lamberton, son of James, was born March 17, 
1787, at Carlisle, was educated at Dickinson college, at that time 
under the charge of Rev. Dr. Davidson, and amongst others had 
for college mate James Buchanan, later president of the United 
States, between whom ever after were the strongest ties of friend- 
ship. He was a student at law preparing for admission to the 
Cumberland county bar when the late war with Great Britain 
was declared, at which time Major Robert Lamberton was ap- 
pointed paymaster in the service of the United States for the 
Pennsylvania forces on the northern frontier. He accompanied 
the troops to the frontier and into Canada. The exposure 
incident to his service there brought on chronic rheumatism, 
which afflicted him through life and ultimately caused his death. 
On the cessation of hostilities Major Lamberton returned to Car- 
lisle and engaged in mercantile pursuits, and later was appointed 
postmaster of Carlisle, which position he retained for many years. 

April 20, 181 5, by the Rev. H. R. Wilson, Robert Lamberton 
was married to Miss Mary Harkness, daughter of William Hark- 
ness, of Allen township, Cumberland county. 

William Harkness was born October i, 1739, '" the north of 
Ireland, and when quite a boy immigrated with his father, Wil- 
liam Harkness, sen., and settled among the Presbyterians of Done- 
gal, in the county of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He married, in 
1 77 1, Priscilla Lytle, of the same Scotch-Irish stock and living 
m the same settlement, a woman of great ability and energy of 
character. She was born in 1751. 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 263 

After the close of the harrassing Indian wars (by the treaty 
of Colonel Boquet) which ravaged the Cumberland valley until 
1764, William Harkness, jun., bought of the proprietaries on 
August I, 1766, land now in Allen township, in Cumberland 
county. The Indian titles having been extinguished and the 
boundary difficulties with the state of Maryland adjusted, the 
proprietary advertised that the office for the sale of lands west of 
the Susquehanna would be opened on August i, 1766, the set- 
tlers prior to that holding their lands under license certificates. 
Judge Huston says the number of applications issued on that 
day was six hundred and sixty-nine. The application of William 
Harkness was number thirty-eight. The survey was on January 
24, 1767, and patent issued subsequently. 

He and his neighboring settlers were often engaged in defend- 
ing their homes from the savage enemy, and in the work of the 
harvest fields there and in the Sherman's valley, carried their 
rifles with them for the common defense. They were armed 
agriculturists. The name of William Harkness is found on the 
list of taxables of Cumberland county as early as 1753. 

The Presbyterian settlers of the Cumberland valley were 
among the first to actively assert the rights of the colonists in 
the struggle with Great Britain. As early as July, 1774, the "free- 
holders and freemen from the several townships met in the First 
Presbyterian church, at Carlisle," passed resolutions of sympathy 
with Boston ; declared for non-importation from Britain ; recom- 
mended a colonial congress ; appointed deputies to it, and a 
committee of correspondence. In May, 1775, a county com- 
mittee was organized. Three thousand men were associated, 
and five hundred were taken into pay to be armed, disciplined, 
and marched on the first emergency, and for this purpose they 
voluntarily taxed themselves for ^^27,000. And by August of 
the next year they had nine hundred men in the field and more 
ready to march. Some of the companies marched under the 
command of their pastors, and some of them were already with 
Washington before Boston, and one company of riflemen under 
Captain William Hendricks marched with Arnold to Quebec. 

As early as May 28, 1776, the petition of the inhabitants of 
Cumberland valley was presented to the general assembly of 

264 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

the province in favor of separation and looking to independence. 

William Harkness entered the colonial service as an ensign, 
and together with Mr. Lytle, his brother-in-law, was, amongst 
other conflicts, at Brandywine and Germantown. At the latter 
place Mr. Lytle was killed by his side. 

After the war Mr. Harkness, by purchase, added to his property 
until he possessed a large estate of some seven hundred or eight 
hundred acres of the rich lands of the Cumberland valley. On 
it he erected a large stone dwelling house, among the first of that 
kind in the valley, and other buildings, and gave his time to agri- 
cultural and other business pursuits. Generous and open handed, 
his house was famous for its large hospitality. He cultivated his 
lands and welcomed his many guests with the help of his own 

In the registry of the last two hundred and ninety-seven 
slaves registered under the requirements of " An act to explain 
and amend an act entitled ' An act for the gradual abolition of 
slavery, &c., in Pennsylvania,' " passed the ist day of March, 
1780, among the records of Cumberland county, we find the 
well-known names of Armstrong, Buchanan, Butler, Caroth- 
ers, Crawford, Clarke, Craighead, Bryson, Duncan, Blain, Dunlap, 
Irvine, Galbraith, Gibson and others, that William Harkness re- 
turns those born on his estate. Some who desired it he after- 
wards manumitted at the age of twenty-one, seven years before 
the time fixed by law, having previously sent them to school and 
in other ways given them preparation for self-dependence. For 
others he built on his estate, houses, where they and their chil- 
dren resided until the death of his son, William Harkness, Feb- 
ruary 20, 185 1. At all times they were treated with the greatest 
kindness, and between them the utmost sympathy and affection 

William Harkness died May 4, 1822. Priscilla Harkness, 
his wife, died October 31, 1831, and both lie buried in the old 
grave yard at Silver's Spring, alongside the church of the pio- 
neers of the " lower settlement" beyond the Susquehanna, and 
of the founding of which the descendants of the early settlers, in 
the year 1883, celebrated its sesqui-centennial. 

Major Lamberton died at Carlisle, August 9, 1852, aged sixty- 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 265 

five years. Mary Harkness Lamberton survived him many years- 
She was born in April, 1791, and died at Carlisle, December 28, 
1 780, in the ninetieth year of her age. In many respects she was a 
remarkable woman. For sixty-three years she had been a regu- 
lar attendant and communicant of the First Presbyterian church 
of Carlisle. Tall and comely — of clear, prompt, and decided 
judgment, of great ability and energy — she permitted nothing to 
swerve her from the path of duty and the right. She devoted 
herself to the care and education of her children and to her life 
of Christian duty and example. No infirmity of age came upon 
her. Her physical activity and the humor and clearness of her 
bright mind remained with her until the last, when the beating 
pulse ceased in death. 

She left surviving four sons and two daughters : Robert Alex- 
ander Lamberton, late a member of the Dauphin bar, now presi- 
dent of Lehigh university ; Alfred John Lamberton, a prominent 
merchant of western Minnesota ; Charles Lytle Lamberton ; and 
Henry Wilson Lamberton, a banker and a leading business man 
of southern Minnesota and the present mayor of the city of Wi- 
nona; and two daughters, Mrs.. Mary Lamberton Paulding and 
Annie Graham Lamberton, who occupy the homestead at Carlisle. 
James Finley Lamberton, former prothonotary of Cumberland 
county and the father of Lieut. Commander B. P. Lamberton of the 
United States navy, and Colonel William Harkness Lamberton, 
late of the Venango county, Pa., bar, died before her, the latter 
leaving a son surviving him, W. R. Lamberton, a member of the 
bar of the city of New York. Two daughters, Priscilla and Jane, 
and a young son, Robert C, died many years before. 

Charles Lytle Lamberton was born on the 4th day of January, 
A. D. 1829. He was born, bred, and educated at Carlisle, Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania. At the age of nineteen he com- 
menced the study of the law under the tuition of his brother, Hon. 
Robert A. Lamberton, of Harrisburg, and during a portion of 
this time taught school in Cumberland county. He was admit- 
ted to the Dauphin county bar in August, 1850, but the death of 
an uncle, William Harkness, with whom Mr. Lamberton had been 
living, occurring, leaving a large estate to be settled, at the instance 
of the administrator, his kinsman Robert Bryson, he was induced 

266 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

to spend the greater part of one year assisting in the settlement 
of the estate. It was not until the summer of 185 1 that he 
turned his thoughts toward the active duties and pursuits of his 
profession. In the fall of that year, accepting inducements held 
out to him, he removed to Brookville, Jefferson county, Pa., and 
associated himself in the practice of law with the late Hon. Sam- 
uel A. Purviance, of Butler, Pa., a member of the constitutional 
convention of 1838, afterwards member of congress, attorney 
general of Pennsylvania, and later member of the Pennsylvania 
constitutional convention of 1874. To the wise counsels and 
good influences and professional training of this distinguished 
man, Mr. Lamberton believes himself indebted for much of his 
success at the bar and prosperity in life. In a remarkable degree 
he always manifested kindness and consideration for the younger 
members of the profession. He practiced in a wide circuit, was 
a learned lawyer, genial gentleman, and competed and stood 
abreast with the foremost lawyers of his time and state. Among 
the younger members who practiced at the Jefferson county bar 
at this time were Silas M. Clark and Isaac G. Gordon, at present 
two of the justices of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 

Indeed the first jury case Mr. Lamberton tried was Cuddy v. 
Eldred township, a case of negligence against the supervisors for 
non-repair of roads, in which he had the present Judge Gordon 
for his legal opponent, and in which Mr. Lamberton was fortunate 
in getting a verdict for his client. 

In the winter of 1851 and 1852, without any solicitation or 
even previous knowledge on his part, Governor Bigler appointed 
and commissioned him a member of his staff with the rank of 
lieutenant -colonel. In his profession he succeeded from the first. 
In the summer of 1853 Mr. Lamberton was offered a legal part- 
nership by Hon. James Campbell, of Clarion, afterwards the pre- 
sident judge of the district (Clarion, Jefferson, Forest, Venango, 
and Mercer). Believing that the county of Clarion offered a bet- 
ter field for professional success, he accepted the offer and in the 
summer of that year removed to Clarion, where their firm took a 
leading and commanding position, with an extensive and lucrative 
business extending over the counties of Clarion, Jefferson, Arm- 
strong, Venango, and Forest. 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 267 

For seven years Mr. Lamberton was a close student of his pro- 
fession, a diligent reader of history and English literature, and a 
vigorous and earnest practitioner. Belonging to the democratic 
party he took periodically an interest in his party politics, but with- 
out neglecting his profession. In 1856 he was elected a delegate 
to the democratic state convention, which for the first time sent a 
united delegation from Pennsylvania to a national convention, in 
the interests of James Buchanan for president. Subsequently he 
became a member of the democratic state committee, of which the 
late John W. Forney was chairman, who then made his famous 
campaign, carrying Pennsylvania for Mr. Buchanan; 

Mr. Lamberton sympathized with the friends of Stephen A- 
Douglass in his effort to prevent the introduction of slavery into 
the territories, and when the Charleston convention which gave 
Judge Douglass a majority had adjourned in i860, he called meet- 
ings and took the stump in behalf of instructing the delegates 
from his district to the national convention at its adjourned meet- 
ing at Baltimore, to vote for Stephen A. Douglass. 

After the election of Abraham Lincoln the cotton states had 
determined to secede from the union. South Carolina, on De- 
cember 20, i860, passed an ordinance of secession, and by Feb- 
ruary I, 1 861, she had been followed by Mississippi, Florida, 
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The drum-beat was 
heard all through the south, and early in February Jefferson Davis 
was elected president of the Confederate states, at Montgomery. 

In this exigency ex-Chief Justice Lewis and other leading citi- 
zens united in a letter to the chairman of the democratic state 
committee of Pennsylvania, asking him and his committee to call 
a state democratic convention, to be held in the interest of a 
peaceable adjustment of the momentous questions dividing the 
country. The call was accordingly issued for a convention to 
meet at Harrisburg, on February 21, 1861, and to be composed 
of twice the number of delegates as there were senators and 
members of the house of representatives. This convention was 
intended to voice the unanimous sentiment of the democratic 
party of Pennsylvania in favor of the preservation of the union 
under the constitution by peaceable measures of compromise be- 
fore the final resort to arms. Mr. Lamberton was sent as a dele- 

268 • Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

gate by the county of Clarion to this convention. Three hundred 
and ninety-nine members responded to the call, embracing in their 
numbers the ablest and most thoughtful men of the party through- 
out the state. General Henry D. Foster, of Westmoreland, later 
the democratic candidate for governor, was unanimously called 
to preside, assisted by a large number of vice-presidents and sec- 
retaries. A committee of forty-one, with General Henry D. Fos- 
ter as chairman, was appointed to proceed to Washington and 
deliver a copy of the resolutions and proceedings to the president 
of the United States, the vice-president, the senators and mem- 
bers of congress from Pennsylvania, and to the several members 
of the peace conference then in session. On that committee were 
the learned ex-Chief Justice Ellis Lewis ; the venerable Josiah Ran- 
dall, father of ex-Speaker Randall ; ex-Mayor Vaux, of Philadel- 
phia ; General George W. Cass, of Allegheny ; General Ephraim 
Banks, late auditor-general of the state ; Judge John W. Maynard, 
of Lycoming; General A. L. Roumfort, of Dauphin; and Hon. Asa 
Packer, famous then for his business enterprise and more famous 
since as the founder of a great university for free education. The 
other members of the committee were, Hon. F. W. Hughes, of 
Schuylkill ; James G. Campbell, of Butler ; Judge P. C. Shannon, 
of Allegheny ; W. H. Case, of Northumberland ; C. W. Carrigan, 
John N. Hutchison, George Williams, and Thomas J. Roberts, of 
Philadelphia ; Henry M. Miller, of Montgomery ; Victor E. Pio- 
lett, of Bradford ; Hon. John Creswell, of Blair ; A. J. Dull, of 
Armstrong; Hon. Hugh M. North, of Lancaster; Hon. Robert 
E. Monaghan, of Chester; Ira C. Mitchell, of Centre; Hon. R'. 
Bruce Petriken, of Huntingdon; General J. Y. James, of Warren ; 
Charles L. Lamberton, of Clarion ; Hon. Daniel Kaine, of Fay- 
ette ; Hon. M. C. Trout, of Mercer ; Hon. George H. Bucher, of 
Cumberland; Hon. J. L, Getz, of Berks; General William Patten, of 
Erie; Samuel Wetherell, of Northampton ; R. A. McConnell, of 
Greene ; John D. Roddy, of Somerset ; Adam Ebaugh, of York ; 
George W. Brewer, of Fitinklin ; L. S. Coryell, of Bucks ; Hon! 
Thomas Chalfant, of Montour; Hon. George Sanderson, of Lan- 
caster; and Hon. Steuben Jenkins, of Luzerne. 

On April 13, i86i,Fort Sumter surrendered to General Beau- 
regard, and on April 15 President Lincoln issued his. proclama- 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 269 

tion declaring a number of the states of the union in rebellion 
and calling upon the states which had not seceded for seventy- 
five thousand men. On the receipt of the news at the town of 
Clarion a private meeting was held at the law office of Campbell 
& Lamberton, to consult what was best to be done. At the in- 
stance of Mr. Lamberton a public meeting was at once called. 
He prepared the resolutions and addressed it, taking the ground 
that the time for enlisting men to sustain the federal government 
had come and moved for the appointment of a permanent com- 
mittee of enlistment. The committee was appointed and Mr. 
Lamberton was placed at the head of it. He and others held 
meetings in different parts of Clarion county, addressing the peo- 
ple in favor of enlisting troops to sustain the supremacy of the 
federal laws. Before long a company recruited from the hardy 
lumbermen of the Clarion river was ready to march under Captain 
William Lemon, which Mr. Lamberton organized and accom- 
panied to the camp at Pittsburgh. This was the first company 
recruited in the upper Allegheny valley. On April 28, 1861, 
Captain Lemon's company was mustered in, and served through- 
out the war as Company H, Thirty-seventh regiment. Captain 
Lemon was afterwards appointed lieutenant-colonel. So efficient 
had the work of the committee been that, by the early days of 
September, Clarion county, then with a voting population of 
about four thousand, had over ten companies, numbering over 
one thousand men, in the field ; the president j udge of the district 
and a graduate of West Point, Hon. John S. McCalmount, resid- 
ing at Clarion, having resigned his office to command a regiment 
(Tenth reserves. Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania volunteers). 

In the summer of 1861 Mr. Lamberton was presented by the 
democratic convention of Clarion county for the position of state 
senator by a large majority over all competitors combined. Later, 
in the district convention of the counties of Clarion, Jefferson, 
Elk, and Forest, he was nominated for senator on the first 
ballot. His republican opponent was the late Samuel M. Fox, 
of Foxburg, a large landholder and a wealthy and popular man. 
Although there was some division of sentiment regarding the 
war, Mr. Lamberton made no concealment of his views during 
the canvass. In reply to a letter from prominent citizens ad- 

270 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

dressed to him, he, on September 13, 1 861, in a public letter said : 
" It is well known to you, gentlemen, that until the commence- 
ment of hostilities between the general government and those 
now in armed rebellion, I was persistently for a peaceful arrange- 
ment, upon honorable terms, between the two sections of the 
country; but when hostile cannon thundered around Fort Sum- 
ter and caused the flag of our country, the symbol of its power 
and authority, to be lowered in defeat, and from an official source 
came the threat that a hostile flag should float over the capitol 
at Washington, I could not, and did not, hesitate how to choose ; 
I was unmistakably on the side of the constitutional government 
of the country. The issue was plain ; the government had either 
to overthrow them and execute the laws, or they would over- 
throw it and subvert the laws. Besides, gentlemen, in deciding 
that issue we are to solve the grand problem of man's capacity 
for self-government for all future time. Acting under the im- 
pulse of duty I gave public utterance to these sentiments in 
different parts of the country, and our democratic brethren, with- 
out stopping to enquire what party administered our government, 
gallantly vied with men of all parties as to who should do most 
for its preservation." 

At the ensuing election in October Mr. Lamberton was elected 
from that district to the senate of Pennsylvania for the years 

1862, 1863, and 1864. The senate of Pennsylvania contained 
during this time many able men. William A. Wallace, late 
United States senator, Hiester Clymer, William Hopkins, A. K. 
McClure, John P. Penny, Morrow B. Lowry, Benjamin Champ- 
neys, Winthrop W. Ketcham, George Landon, and many others ; 
and the legislation during the pendency of the civil war was 
mostly concerning the engrossing topics of the time, and the 
debates were of a highly interesting, exciting, and often of an 
acrimonious character. Although the youngest member of the 
senate, Mr. Lamberton at once took an active and leading part in 
the legislation and debates, and at all times sustained the govern- 
ment in every proper measure for the support of the federal arms 
and the restoration of the union under the constitution. 

At the election of United States senator during the session of 

1863, Mr, Lamberton placed in nomination Hon. George W. 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 271 

Woodward, and, at his request, subsequently withdrew it, when 
he gave his support in caucus and in joint convention to Hon. 
Charles R. Buckalew. 

Mr. Lamberton's three years in the senate comprehended the 
greater part of the war period, and were marked by the most 
exciting and important events in the history of the country. 
The conduct of men then occupying civil positions, especially 
those in the legislative halls of the state and nation, was almost 
as closely scrutinized as that of our officers in the field, and 
accordingly as they acquitted themselves of their almost equally 
grave responsibilities will their characters and capacities be 
measured in history. To democrats thus situated they were 
especially trying years. The urgent necessities of a vigorous 
prosecution of the war were made to mask the rashest of appeals 
to demagoguery and fanaticism, and to excuse the most violent 
assaults upon the constitution and popular rights. Democrats 
placing themselves in antagonism to these wrongs, laid them- 
selves constantly liable to be falsely adjudged guilty of sympathy 
with armed rebellion. The people were to a large extent blinded, 
excusably perhaps by the excitements and dangers of the great 
national exigency. The lip service of the deep-designing but 
loud-professing hypocrite was frequently mistaken for patriotism 
and rewarded with unstinted plaudits and honors, while the 
really patriotic caution of those who saw in the necessities of 
the hour, none for departure from the wise inhibitions of the 
fundamental law, were as often looked upon as evidencing a trea- 
sonable lack of faith in, and fealty to, the union. It required true 
bravery in those days to sustain public men in devotion to the 
constitution and democratic teachings ; the favor of the masses 
could be so cheaply bought by departure from them. 

Mr. Lamberton, as we have seen, was first for a peaceful ad- 
justment, by compromise and conciliation, of the grave issues 
then pending. When the firing on the flag at Sumter rendered 
this impossible, he was for war ; not to subjugate, but to re-unite. 
His speeches and votes in the senate of the state all conformed 
to the belief that " the union and the constitution were one and 
inseparable," and that to save the first in a condition worth saving 
the other must be religiously preserved. He supported every 

272 Charles Lytle Lamderton. 

measure looking to a proper prosecution of the war and the 
doing by Pennsylvania of its full share of that great work, as 
also of all measures intended to secure to the soldiers proper 
compensation, full meed of praise, and all their rights as citizens. 
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania having decided that the law 
granting the right of suffrage to the soldiers from the state in 
the field, and its exercise by them, was not in accordance with 
the organic law, he voted for an amendment to the constitution 
establishing the right. The currency at the time being greatly 
depreciated, he voted and spoke earnestly for resolutions request- 
ing congress to pay the soldiers in coin or its equivalent. He 
voted to pay pensions to the widows and minor children of 
deceased soldiers, and favored the bringing home of the sick 
and wounded of the Pennsylvania quota for treatment in hos- 
pitals within the state. He offered a resolution instructing the 
finance committee to bring in a bill authorizing the governor to 
have struck and presented to General Meade a suitable medal in 
gold and such other suitable testimonials as should be agreed 
upon, for presentation to each other officer, aon-commissioned 
officer and private, who had " wrought for thfs commonwealth 
deliverance from rebel invasion on the sanguinary and victorious 
field of Gettysburg." Mr. Johnson, of Lycoming, moved to 
amend this resolution by instructing the committee to " inquire 
into the expediency of such action." Mr. Lamberton spoke 
twice against this amendment, calling attention to his having 
himself introduced a bill to the same effect earlier in the session, 
which had been put to sleep in the committee on federal relations, 
and pleading eloquently that this doing of justice to brave men 
be not made a party question. The amendment, however, was 
adopted, and, as the committee never reported, the project fell. 
Subsequently General Meade, having said that he had a quarrel 
with the democracy of Penn.sylvania because he had been told 
that they had refused to recognize the services of the Pennsyl- 
vania soldiers in resisting Lee's invasion of our state, had his mind 
disabused of that erroneous understanding by being shown this 
resolution and the proceedings had thereon. 

At the beginning of the session of 1864 the democrats were 
placed in a false position on many questions affecting the soldier 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 273 

by a tie in the senate. The whole number of senators elected 
was thirty-three, of whom sixteen were democrats and seventeen 
republicans, but General Harry White, of Indiana, one of the 
seventeen, was a prisoner of war in Richmond at the time, and, 
of course, could not attend. Senator Penny, of Allegheny, who 
had been elected speaker at the close of the preceding session, 
insisted, contrary to all precedent, upon continuing in the speaker's 
chair. For six weeks there was a deadlock, when Mr. Penny, (a 
successor to General White having in the meantime been elected), 
resigned and broke it. During these six weeks it was the habit 
of the republicans to introduce measures affecting the war and 
the soldiers which the democrats, under other circumstances, 
would have unitedly supported, but which, as things were, they 
could not vote for without, as they believed, violating the sanc- 
tity of their oaths and establishing a dangerous precedent. They 
felt bound, as they read the law, to resist all affirmative legisla- 
tion of any kind or character, so long as the republicans insisted 
upon retaining Mr. Penny as speaker, though they were without 
a majority of the senators present. During the debate which 
this peculiar situation of affairs provoked, Mr. Lamberton spoke 
at length and vigorously in defense of the democratic attitude, 
and promising that the democrats would " go farther than the 
republicans dared go in behalf of the brave soldiers, scarred and 
weather-beaten, standing as a living battlement between the 
rebels and our homes, if they would but remove, as they could, 
the blocks from the wheels of legislation and permit a lawful 

It is not out of place here to mention the fact that in the demo- 
cratic district represented by Mr. Lamberton, three out of the 
five counties paid no bounties, and the fourth paid but a small 
amount, yet when the draft was made two of them were found 
to have more than their quota already in the field, while the whole 
district was short of its quota only one hundred and twenty-nine 
men. From Clarion county, if not from all, the soldiers in the 
field from this district gave a majority of their votes to the 
democratic candidate for president in the canvass of 1864. 

At other times than during this deadlock Mr. Lamberton 
showed that, while earnestly in favor of the suppression of the 

274 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

rebellion, he was equally earnest for the maintenance of the 
reserved rights of the states and the inalienable rights of the 
people : habeas corpus, trial by jury, liberty of the press, freedom 
of speech, sanctity of personal liberty, and security of private 
property. On March 6, 1863, a resolution came up for consider- 
ation which tendered the use of the senate chamber to ex- 
President Andrew Johnson, then " military governor of Tennes- 
see," and Governor Wright, of Indiana. An exciting debate 
ensued taking a wide range and involving the issues, purposes, 
and conduct of the war. Mr. Lamberton offered an amendment 
inviting General McClellan to visit the capital to address the 
legislature. This amendment he supported in a lengthy speech, 
which was subsequently reported in full in the Harrisburg Patriot, 
and highly commended in an editorial in the same issue of that 
paper. The speech was a powerful arraignment of the men who 
had perverted the war, as the democrats then believed, from an 
effort to preserve the union and constitution, to one for abolition 
and subjugation, and a grand tribute to the great soldier, McClel- 
lan. It was interrupted by the radical Lowry, of Erie, who 
charged that it was a speech better fitted to be delivered in Rich- 
mond than in the senate of Pennsylvania. Mr. Lamberton re- 
torted that he could well afford to be abused in such a cause by 
one who had counseled the payment of a premium for murder, 
whereupon Lowry, in fiery language, virtually repeated his notor- 
ious Pittsburgh harangue of two years previous, in which he 
said that if he were commander-in-chief he would " confiscate 
every rebel's property, whether upon two legs or four, and give 
to the. slave who brought his master's scalp one hundred and 
sixty acres of his master's plantation." 

Mr. Lamberton's votes on financial and economic questions 
seem always to have been measured by an undeviating loyalty 
to the best interests of the state and the soundest of general 
principles. He voted always to keep full faith with the public 
creditors, and maintain and preserve the fair fame of the state, by 
paying, as did Massachusetts, the interest on the public debt in 
specie or its equivalent, as provided by the laws under which the 
loans were negotiated. He was also with those senators who 
were against the scheme of the Pennsylvania railroad, by which 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 275 

that corporation finally confirmed the repeal of the tonnage taxes 
effected in the legislature of 1861, and, to use the language of 
Judge Black, " transferred to their own pockets an inconceivable 
sum justly due to the state," which, the judge continued, "was 
business rich to them and profitable beyond the dreams of ava- 
rice, while to the swindled taxpayers it was proportionately 

Examining Mr. Lamberton's senatorial record under the added 
light of the experiences which the intervening nearly quarter of 
a century has brought us, we are in justice compelled to the con- 
clusion that it was a record true to the principles of the demo- 
cratic party and the constitution, and evidencing an intelligent 
appreciation of the dangers, and patriotic devotion to the 
necessities, of the time. 

In 1864 Mr. Lamberton represented his congressional district 
as a delegate to the democratic national convention, which nom- 
inated General George B. McClellan for president; over which 
another candidate for president subsequently, Horatio Seymour, 
presided, and of which another candidate afterwards, Samuel J. 
Tilden, was a conspicuous member. Mr. Lamberton, at the ex- 
piration of his term, determined to retire from public life and 
devote himself to his profession and business. His law business 
having become scattered during his term in the senate, Mr. 
Lamberton determined to seek a wider and more lucrative field 
for professional pursuits, and selected Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne 
county, as his future home. 

The winter of 1864-65 he spent in Philadelphia engaged in 
some real estate enterprises, and after the close of the war and 
in the fall of 1865 removed to Wilkes-Barre, where he was ad- 
mitted a member of the Luzerne county bar, November 20, 1865, 
and opened a law office. In the summer of 1867 he visited 
Europe with the late Chief Justice George W. Woodward and 
other friends, making the regulation tour. During their absence 
Judge Woodward was elected to congress, the news of which 
they got from the pilot three hundred miles off Sandy Hook. 
Mr. Lamberton returned to his office and profession and steadily 
applied himself to the practice of law. In the winter of 1867-68 
he became one of the originators of the Miners' Savings Bank, of 

276 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

Wilkes-Barre ; was an original incorporator, and for fifteen years 
was an active director, except for a short interval, when he was 
a director of the Wilkes-Barre Deposit and Savings Bank. The 
Miners' Savings Bank has become one of the most prosperous 
institutions of the city of Wilkes-Barre. 

In 1868, at the earnest solicitation of the democratic- state 
committee, he reluctantly took charge of the canvass in Luzerne 
county with such efficiency that, at the state election preceding 
the presidential election, there was cast a democratic majority in 
the county of over thirty-five hundred. In 1872 he was sent as 
delegate to the democratic state convention at Reading, and was 
one of the committee of thirty-three, which selected fourteen del- 
egates-at-large to the constitutional convention. After thirteen 
were chosen, by a vigorous five minutes' speech he succeeded in 
having his friend, Hon. George W. Woodward, named for the 
fourteenth man, and then by resolution Judges Black and Wood- 
ward were placed at the head of the ticket. 

Mr. Lamberton was chosen as a delegate to the democratic 
national convention which met at Baltimore in 1872, and was 
named as a member of the committee on credentials from Penn- 
sylvania. In 1874 he took an active interest in the election of 
his friend, Hon. William A. Wallace, to the United States 

In 1876, at the invitation of the democratic state committee, 
Mr. Lamberton took the stump in Pennsylvania for the demo- 
cratic candidates, Tilden and Hendricks, speaking at Allentown, 
Easton, Bethlehem, Lock Haven, Williamsport, Reading, and 
Carlisle. His speech at the latter place, urging peace and recon- 
ciliation as the true road to public prosperity, was reported and 
printed in the public papers of the day. 

In 1877, without solicitation, the democratic county convention 
of Luzerne county presented his name for justice of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania in the following terms : "Resolved, That 
the Hon. C. L. Lamberton, of Wilkes-Barre, is hereby recom- 
mended to the ensuing state democratic convention for the office 
of judge of the Supreme Court, and the delegates from this 
county are respectfully requested to use all honorable means to 
secure his nomination." 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 277 

The Luzerne Leader, in a complimentary article, said truly, 
" this recommendation came without the knowledge of Mr. Lam- 
berton and was probably as much of a surprise to him as it was 
gratifying.'' Throughout the state it was favorably received by 
the democratic press. But Mr. Lamberton was not a candidate 
for that or any other office, and when the state convention met, 
before the balloting commenced, Hon. W. S. Stenger, the president 
of the convention, read the following letter : 

" Wilkes-Barre, August 21, 1877. 
" To the President of the Democratic State Convention : 

" Sir: The late democratic county convention of Luzerne unan- 
imously presented my name as a candidate for the nomination 
for justice of the Supreme Court. This high compliment was 
unsolicited, but is most gratefully appreciated. As the sentiments 
of the democratic party and the profession unmistakably point 
to a distinguished jurist in another part of the state, I beg leave 
to withdraw my name from your consideration. Thanking my 
friends throughout the state for the many expressions of their 
kindness towards me, 

" I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" Charles L. Lamberton." 

It was well known to Mr. Lamberton's friends that he was not 
a candidate, but was warmly in favor of the nomination of his 
friend, Hon. John Trunkey, the nominee of the convention, and 
was giving him all the aid he could, which was well known and 
appreciated by Judge Trunkey, who wrote him on September 3, 
1877: "Accept my acknowledgments for the friendly aid you 
gave in securing me the nomination, of which I have heard from 
several sources." 

In May, 1878, in company with Mrs. Lamberton, he went to 
Europe, traveled through Great Britain, central and western Eu- 
rope, spending the winter at Rome and in the south of France at 
Nice, returning in the spring of T879, He did not resume the 
practice of law, and his last two cases in the Supreme Court he 
argued at the Luzerne county term for 1880, one. Honor v. Al- 
brighton, Roberts & Co., an important case, involving for the first 
time the construction of the new mine ventilation law ; and the 
other, Church's Appeal, litigation involving a large and vakia- 

278 Charles Lytle Lamberton. 

ble property, and in which' Mr. Lamberton had been of counsel 
for thirteen years. 

In 1880 Mr. Lamberton took part in the presidential canvass, 
speaking in Philadelphia, Chester, Danville, Pottstown, and Al- 
toona, upon invitation of the democratic state central committee, 
and with Senator William A. Wallace at Youngstown, Ohio, and 
at Sharon, Pennsylvania. His speech at Altoona was reported 
for the Harrisburg Patriot, and the state committee circulated a 
large edition of it as a campaign document, and the late Judge 
Black, both by letter and orally on more than one occasion, pro- 
nounced it the ablest speech of the campaign he had seen up to 
that time. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Lamberton, accompanied by Mrs. Lamberton, re- 
turned to Europe, visiting Ireland, Scotland, Germany, and the 
valley of the Engadine, sailing forborne in November of the same 
year; in 1882 traveled in this country, and in the summer of 1883 
went abroad again, accompanied by Mrs. Lamberton, traveling 
through Holland^ Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia. 

On September 28, 1863, by Rev. Dr. Hoes, Mr. Lamberton was 
married to Miss Anna De Witt, of Kingston, Ulster county. New 
York, daughter of Colonel Jacob Hasbrouck De Witt and Sarah 
Ann De Witt, both of whom are now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. 
Lamberton have no children. 

From a memorial, published some years since, of Rev. Thomas 
De Witt, D.D.,lateofNew York city, we extract * * * " De 
Witt is a very ancient name in Holland, and many men of note 
for wisdom and statesmanship, for boldness in war and fortitude 
in disaster, bore the honorable name. Macauley tells of John 
De Witt, the grand pensionary of the province of Holland, 
• whose ability, firmness, and integrity raised him to unrivalled 
authority in its municipal councils.' Before his memorable 
death occurred one branch of the De Witt family had emigrated 
to America. ' Tjerck Claezen (thought to be a son of Nicholas) 
De Witt, who was born in 1620, came to New York in 1656.' 
An exact list of his descendants for nearly two hundred and 
fifty years may be found in the American Genealogical Revinv 
for December, 1874, edited by Mr. Charles Moore. The grand- 
father of Dr. De Witt (and of his brother, Colonel J. H. De Witt) 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 279 

was' Egbert, the seventh child of Andries.and his father, Thomas, 
was the seventh son of Egbert. He had nine sons and but one 
daughter, Mary, his tenth and last child, who married, in 1756, 
General James Clinton, and was the mother of the distinguished 
statesman De Witt Clinton. Several of Egbert's sons were sol- 
diers and officers in the revolutionary army. Thomas, the father of 
Dr. De Witt (and of Colonel De Witt), went in his early j'outh to 
join the American forces in Canada at the time of Wolfe's victory 
over the French and the surrender of Canada to the British. 
When the struggle to throw off the dominion of the mother coun- 
try began, he at once entered the continental service, soon ob- 
tained a commission as captain (and was subsequently pro- 
moted), and did not lay down his arms until the close of the 
war. In 1775 he again went into Canada, and was present 
in December of that year at the death of Montgomery, in the 
attack on Quebec. He was afterwards with Colonel Marinus 
Willet on the Mohawk, and at the siege of Fort Stanwix. In 
1782 he married Miss Elsie Hasbrouck, a descendant of one of 
the old French Huguenot families, who, when persecuted for 
their Protestantism, had fled, first to Germany, afterwards to 
Holland, and finally emigrated to America about the middle of 
the seventeenth century." 

From a biographical sketch of Colonel Jacob H. De Witt, in a re- 
cent history of Ulster county, we take the following : " The ' Ges- 
lachten von Dordrecht' in the Royal library at the Hague gives 
the descent of the De Witt family in an unbroken line from the 
year 1295 to September 8, 1639, (and the ' Wapen' book of the 
'Seven Provinces' continues it until 1756)." 

Some of the name, which was variously spelled Die Witte, 
De Witte, De With, De Wit, de Witt, and finally De Witt, 
served under William the Silent and were zealous supporters of 
the revolted provinces against Spanish oppression. After the 
death of John of Barneveldt, Jacob De Witt succeeded to the 
high honors of " Land Advocate of Holland." His son Corne- 
lius, the burgomei.ster of Dordrecht, " at the head of a Dutch 
fleet, with a stout Dutch admiral (De Ruyter) to do his bidding," 
sailed up the Thames, burning the English ships and sending con- 
sternation into the very heart of London. 

28o Charles Lytle Lamderton. 

Another son, John De Witt, one of the most distinguished men 
in the history of the Netherlands, became grand pensionary of 
Holland during the period between the separation from Spain and 
the opening of the thirty years' war, a position which at that time 
required the most consummate ability and statesmanship. Under 
his guidance Holland became a power among the nations of Eu- 
rope. Geddes, in his recent valuable work, " The History of the 
Administration of John De Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland," 
says of him that " he was a head and shoulders above nearly all 
the notable men of his time," and " one, moreover, on whose pub- 
lic virtue there .is hardly a blemish or spot." Tjerck Claus de 
Witt left his native land about the year 1648, and settled on 
the banks of the Twaalskill, now Rondout creek, within the limits 
of the present city of Kingston, and became the progenitor of 
that branch of the family to which Mrs. Lamberton belongs. J. H. 
De Witt was born in Marbletown, Ulster county, New York, on 
October 2, 1784. While yet an infant his parents removed to 
Twaalskill, now called Wilbur. His father, Colonel Thomas De 
Witt, one of nine sons, commanded a regiment in the continental 
army and served through the whole period of the revolutionary 
war. The only daughter in this large family married General 
James Clinton, and became the mother of De Witt Clinton. Colo- 
nel Thomas De Witt left surviving him three sons, Jacob H., Reu- 
ben, and Thomas, and one daughter, Mary, who married Thomas 
Thorp. Reuben died unmarried in 1859. Thomas, the youngest 
son, entered the ministry and died in 1874, having been for many 
years senior pastor of the Collegiate Reformed church of New 
York. Jacob H. De Witt spent the whole of his long life in his 
native county and was prominently identified with its interests 
and its people. In 18 12 he was adjutant of a regiment raised 
to prosecute the war with Great Britain, and subsequently re- 
ceived a commission as colonel. In 1810 he was elected by the 
Clintonian party to congress, where he took an active share in the 
great struggle preceding the Missouri compromise question. In 
1839, and again in 1847, he represented Ulster county in the state 
legislature. In 1823 Colonel De Witt married Sarah Ann Sleight, 
of Fishkill, Dutchess county, New York, a granddaughter of 
General Swartwout, who rendered distinguished service under 

Charles Lytle Lamberton. 281 

Wolfe in the French war, and who subsequently fought in the 
war of independence. 

"Colonel De Witt died in Kingston on January 30, 1857, in the 
seventy-third year of his age. He left surviving him his wife, 
who died in 1872, one son, John Sleight De Witt, and three 
daughters, Elsie, Mary, who married James S. Evans, a leading 
banker of Kingston, and Anna, who is the wife of Charles I-. 
Lamberton, of Pennsylvania. In his public career Colonel De 
Witt exhibited those qualities of sturdy honesty and independ- 
ence which descended to him from his Dutch ancestry, and in 
private life his gentle, kindly heart and old-fashioned courtesy 
endeared him to an ever-widening circle of friends." 

In the same history, writing of Tjerck Claesen De Witt, the 
author says : " he was the kinsman of John De Witt and Cornelius 
De Witt, the two brothers who were so distinguished in Holland, 
the former for nineteen years having successfully administered its 
goverhment — 1652 to 1672." He says further that "Tjerck Clae- 
sen De Witt came to this country from Zunderland, Holland, prior 
to April 24, 1656, when he married Barber Andries in New Am- 
sterdam. He was settled in Beverwyck, where he owned a house 
and lot which he exchanged with Madame De Hutter for two 
parcels of land in Esopus, containing one hundred and forty 
acres, September i, 1660. In 1661 he was still possessed of a 
portion of his patrimonial estate in Holland, from which he 
received the rents." Having disposed of all his property in 
Albany, he took up his permanent residence in Esopus (Ulster 
county) in 1660. In November, 1661, he assisted in the erection 
of a parsonage. Besides those already mentioned amongst his 
other descendants was Hon. Simeon De Witt, surveyor general 
of the state of New York from 1784 to 1835. And Thomas De 
Witt and thirty other descendants of Tjerck Claesen De Witt, 
immediately after the battle of Lexington, with others of the men 
of Ulster signed the famous articles of association, " Shocked by 
the bloody scene now acting in Massachusetts bay, do, in the 
most solemn manner, resolve never to become slaves, and do 
associate under all the ties of religion, honor, and love of coun- 
try, to adopt, and to endeavor to carry into execution whatever 
measures may be recommended by the continental congress." 

a82 John Lynch. 

During the war Ulster furnished three regiments for the conti- 
nental army, among whom were many of the signers of these 
articles of association. 

In his retirement from the active duties of political and pro- 
fessional life, Mr. Lamberton enjoys a comfortable income, with 
means sufficient to relieve him of all necessity for professional 
labor, and enabling him to devote much of his time to study and 
travel in our own and foreign countries, in which recreation, as 
already stated, he very frequently indulges. His European tours 
and habits of observation have given him a rich fund of informa- 
tion concerning foreign customs and politics, which makes him a 
delightful conversationalist; and no man keeps closer watch of 
the drift of governmental matters in his own country, or is a 
better prepared or safer counselor touching the political pos- 
sibilities or probabilities of the passing hour. 


John Lynch was born November i, 1843, at Providence, Rhode 
Island. His father, Patrick Lynch, was a native of Cavan, in the 
county of Cavan, Ireland, and who emigrated to this country in 
1830. Here he remained for a few years, and then returned to 
Ireland, where he married, and again came to this country. He 
removed to Nesquehoning about 1846, and resided there until 
1864, when he moved to Wilkes-Barre, where he died in 1878 at 
the age of seventy-five. He is remembered as a pleasant and 
agreeable gentleman, who had hosts of friends, and was beloved 
and respected by them. The mother of the subject of our sketch 
is Rose, daughter of the late John Caffrey, of the town of Cavan, 
Ireland. She is still living in this city at the age of sixty-five. 

John Lynch was educated in the public schools, at the 
seminary at Wyalusing, Bradford county. Pa., and at Wyoming 
seminary, Kingston, Pa.. During his youth, he did the or- 
dinary work of boys who have their own way to make in the 
world, working on the farm in the summer months, and going to 

John Lynch. 283 

school in the winter. Mr. Lynch studied law with Garrick M. 
Harding, and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county Novem- 
ber 20, 1865. He then entered the office of the late Charles 
Denison, and was for a year the chief clerk of the late sheriff, 
S. H. Puterbaugh. In 1866 he received the democratic nomina- 
tion for register of wills of Luzerne county, and was triumphantly 
elected, Captain Harry M. Gordon being his republican opponent. 
Mr. Lynch was the last lawyer who filled that office, and it is to 
be regretted that an office so important and needing such a 
knowledge of the law should be filled by a layman. Upon the 
organization of the city of Wilkes-Barre, in 1871, Mr. Lynch was 
appointed a councilman-at-large for the city, and filled the office for 
three years. During the years 1873 and 1874, he was attorney 
for the city of Wilkes-Barre. In 1877 he was a candidate for the 
democratic nomination for judge, but the honor was carried off 
by Ex-Judge Dana. In 1879 he was nominated by the greenback- 
labor party for the office of judge, but was defeated by Charles 
E. Rice, president judge of Luzerne county, the vote standing 
thus: Rice, 6951; William S. McLean, democrat, 5013; and 
Lynch, 4539. 

Mr. Lynch was married Januarj' 24, 1877, to Mary Cecelia, a 
native of Jenkins township, Luzerne county, and daughter of 
Patrick Lenahan, a native of Newport, Mayo county, Ireland. 
Mr. Lenahan was for many years a prosperous merchant in this 
city, and still resides here. The mother of Mrs. Lynch was 
Margaret, daughter of Hugh Durkin, a native of Tyrawley, county 
of Mayo, Ireland, and who died when Mrs. Lynch was but fourteen 
days old. Mr. and Mrs. Lynch have a family of two children^ 
Maria Lynch and Grace Lynch. John T Lenahan, of the Luz- 
erne bar, is a brother of Mrs. Lynch ; and James T. Lenahan, 
also a member of the Luzerne bar, a step-brother; Edward A. 
Lynch, also a member of the Luzerne bar, is a brother of John 

It may be set down as a rule, with just sufficient exceptions 
to make the study of them interesting, that those whose earlier 
years have involved the necessity of labor for a livelihood, and 
who subsequently fit themselves for one of the professions, bring 
to the practice of it the greater industry and the greater ingenuity. 

284 John Lynch. 

The rule is in keeping with that noticed in connection with our 
public schools that a large percentage of the best and most effi- 
cient scholars are the children of poor people. They see better 
things all around them than those to which in their homes they 
are accustomed ; they see or think they see, as is usually the 
case, that their parents' lack of education is the cause; and there 
is naturally developed in them an ambition to avoid that lacking 
themselves, and thus attain to higher conditions. 

John Lynch, as already stated, was required, as a boy, to give 
his summer months to labor, and his winter months of study 
were all the more diligently applied on that account. In school 
he was an apt scholar; in the office of his preceptor, when he 
had entered upon the study of the law, he was equally studious, 
and his bright mind was equally quick to respond to the precepts 
of the text books, so that he came to his examination amply pre- 
pared to pass it creditably, and to the bar fitted for real work. 

He has built up a very large and lucrative practice since then, 
and is noted for the persistency with which he pursues a case 
when once he has taken hold of it, until the last expedient is 
exhausted. In politics, Mr. Lynch has always been a democrat, 
and, excepting when made a candidate for the judgeship by the 
greenbackers, worked in each succeeding campaign earnestly for 
the success of the democratic party. Many contend that his 
acceptance of that nomination was an error. Perhaps it was, but 
it is the natural ambition of almost every lawyer to set upon the 
woolsack, and it must be confessed that the condition of the 
parties in the district upon the occasion alluded to was such that 
almost any lawyer, similarly situated and surrounded, would 
have been likely to permit his natural, and in every way laudable, 
desire for promotion in the profession to run away with his judg- 
ment. He was not alone in assuming that the nomination ten- 
dered him offered strong hopes of success. It was not in fact 
until the canvass had been some time in progress that it became 
at all generally apparent that the result would be as it was. 

Mr. Lynch takes comparatively little time from his professional 
duties, but has managed nevertheless to acquire a familiarity with 
general literature and a knowledge of men and affairs that suffice 
to fittingly adorn his appeals in jury trials and to make him a 

Charles Leonard Bulkeley. 285 

speaker much sought after for public occasions of a political 
or patriotic character. 

He has just entered middle life, has a vigorous vitality, and, 
barring any unforeseen accident, is evidently good for many 
more years of usefulness both as lawyer and citizen. 


Charles Leonard Bulkeley was born in Wilkes-Barre, Penn- 
sylvania, January 15, 1843. He is a descendant of Rev. Peter 
Bulkeley, who was of the tenth generation from Robert Bulkeley, 
Esq., one of the English barons who, in the reign of King John 
(who died in 12 16), was Lord of the Manor of Bulkeley, in the 
county Palatine of Chester. He was born at Odell, in the hun- 
dred of Willey, Bedfordshire, England, January 31, 1583. His 
father. Rev. Edward Bulkeley, D. D., was a faithful minister of 
the gospel, under whose direction his son received a learned and 
religious education suited to his distinguished rank. About the 
age of sixteen, he was admitted a member of St. John's college, 
at Cambridge, of which he was afterwards chosen fellow, and 
from which he received the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. He 
succeeded his father in the ministry in his native town, and en- 
joyed his rich benefice and estate, where he was a zealous preacher 
of evangelical truth about twenty years, and for the most part of 
the time, lived an unmolested non-conformist. At length his 
preaching meeting with distinguished success, and his church 
being very much increased, complaints were entered against him 
by Archbishop Laud, and he was silenced for his non-conformity 
to the requirements of the English church. This circumstance 
induced him to emigrate to New England, where he might enjoy 
liberty of conscience. " To New England he therefore came in 
the year 1635, and there, having been for a while at Cambridge, 
he carried a good number of planters with him up further into 
the woods, where they gathered the twelfth church then formed 
in the colony, and called the town by the name of Concord." 

286 Charles Leonard Bulkelev. 

Here he expended most of his estate for the benefit of his people, 
and after a laborious and useful life died March 9, 1659. Mr. 
Bulkeley was twice married. His first wife was Jane, daughter 
of Thomas Allen, of Goldington, whose nephew was lord mayor 
of London. By her he had twelve children, ten sons and two 
daughters. He lived eight years a widower, and then married 
Grace, a daughter of Sir Richard Chitwood. By her he had four 
children, three sons and one daughter. She survived him, and 
removed to New London, where she died April 21, 1669. 

Rev. Gershom Bulkeley, son of Rev. Peter Bulkeley, the puritan 
settler of Concord, Mass., and his second wife, Grace Chitwood, 
was born December 6, 1636, graduated at Harvard college in 
1655 before completing his nineteenth year. He married Sarah 
Chauncey, daughter of President Chauncey, of Harvard, the 
emigrant ancestor of the name, October 26, 1659. She was born 
in Ware, England, June 13, 163 1. In the year 1661, Mr. Bulke- 
ley located at New London as the second minister of the church 
in that place. Mr. Bulkeley is supposed to have removed from 
New London to Wethersfield in the year 1667. He was installed 
pastor of the church in Wethersfield the same year as successor 
to Rev. John Russel, who had removed to Hadley, Mass. He 
continued the pastor there about ten years, when he was dismissed 
in the year 1677. He then devoted himself to the practice of 
medicine and surgery. He was appointed by the general court 
in 167s surgeon to the army that had been raised against the 
Indians, and Mr. Stone was directed to supply his place in his 
absence. In 1676, while the party to which he was attached was 
in pursuit of the enemy, he was attacked by a number of Indians 
near Wachuset hill, in Massachusetts, and received a wound in 
his thigh. Soon after, Mr. Bulkeley devoted himself to the 
practice of medicine, and located on the east side of the river, in 
what is now Glastonbury, and became quite a landowner. As a 
clergyman, he stood at the head of his profession, and ranked 
among the first in medical science. He was famous as a sur- 
veyor, pre-eminent in his time as a chemist, and highly respected 
as a magistrate. He died at Wethersfield December 2, 17 13. 
On his monument is the following testimonial : " He was honor- 
able in his descent, of rare abilities, extraordinary industry, ex- 

Charles Leonard Bulkelev. 287 

cellent learning, master of many languages, exquisite in his skill 
in divinity, physic and law, and of a most exemplary and Christian 

Rev. John Bulkeley, son of Rev. Gershom and Sarah Chauncey 
Bulkeley, married Patience Prentice, daughter of John and Sarah 
Prentice, in 1701, and was father of twelve children. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1699, studied divinity, and was ordained 
as pastor of the church in Colchester, Conn., December 20, 1703, 
and took a high rank among the clergymen of his time. 

Hon. Colonel John Bulkeley, son of Rev. John and Patience 
Prentice Bulkeley, was born April 19, 1705, graduated at Yale 
college in 1725, studied law, and became eminent in his profes- 
sion. He was judge of probate, and held many important offices 
of trust, including that of colonel of the militia. He married 
Mary, daughter of Rev. Eliphalet Adams, M, A., pastor of the 
" First Church of Christ " in New London, Conn. He died 
July 21, 1753. The following inscription is from his monument: 
" The Hon. Judge Bulkeley, Esq., of Colchester, who for a 
number of years was a great honor to an uncommon variety of 
exalted stations in life." 

Eliphalet Bulkeley, a native of Colchester, Conn., son of Hon. 
John and Mary Adams Bulkeley, was born August 8, 1746. He 
married his cousin, Anna, daughter of Major Charles Bulkeley, 
of New London, Conn., September 16, 1767. On the 25th May, 
1773, when twenty-seven years of age, he was commissioned a 
captain in the Connecticut militia. When the troubles between 
this country and Great Britain assumed a threatening aspect. 
Captain Bulkeley became a firm and spirited advocate of the 
rights of his native land, and in March, 1776, when the American 
troops were collecting to drive the British from Boston, he, by 
his spirit and influence, led a full company of sixty men to join 
the standard of Washington. Having been appointed by the 
General Assembly of Connecticut " to be a captain of a company 
ordered to be raised for the defense of the colony," he was com- 
missioned by Governor Trumbull June lo, 1776; and on' May 
29, 1780, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty- 
fifth regiment of the Connecticut State militia. Colonel Bulkeley 
was very prominent in his day among the citizens of Colchester 

288 Charles Leonard Bulkeley. 

and of New London county. He held a commission of the peace 
in his native town for more than twenty years, and represented 
Colchester in the General Assembly of Connecticut during the^ 
years 1778, 1780, and 1788 to 1794. In the spring of 1807 he 
removed to Wilkes-Barre, Pa., and here he resided until his 
death, January 11, 1816. From May, 1814, to January, 1816, 
he was president of the Wilkes-Barre Borough Council. 

Jonathan Bulkeley, son of Eliphalet and Anna Bulkeley, was 
born at Colchester, Conn., July 8, 1777. He married February 
8, 1823, Elizabeth Simons, daughter of Rev. Joseph Simons, a 
native of Dublin, Ireland, who was a local preacher in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church during many years of his life. Mrs. 
Bulkeley was born March 28, 1806, and died July 31, 1883. She 
came to this country with her father when but a child. She is 
remembered during her long residence in this city as a remark- 
able woman in many respects, notably for her excellent business 
qualities, she having been active and energetic in watching her 
varied interests during thirty years of her life. Mr. Bulkeley 
became an invalid while she was still comparatively young, and 
this, with the ordinary cares of a family, added much to the 
exactions of her daily routine. Throughout her life she was a 
consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was 
the oldest member on the rolls of the Franklin street church. 
In his early days, Mr. Bulkeley was a midshipman in the United 
States navy, and was assigned to the " Trumbull," a twenty-four 
gun sloop, commanded by his cousin. Captain Jewett. He 
resigned his position in the navy in 1802, and the same year 
came to Wilkes-Barre, Pa., where he located and went into busi- 
ness. In October, 1815, he was elected and commissioned cap- 
tain of the cavalry company " attached to the Second regiment, 
Pennsylvania militia." He held the office of sheriff of Luzerne 
county for three years, being commissioned by Governor Joseph 
Hiester October 19, 1822. He died at Wilkes-Barre March i, 

Charles Leonard Bulkeley is the youngest son of Jonathan 
and Elizabeth Simons Bulkeley. He was educated in the public 
schools of his native city and at Wyoming seminary, Kingston, 
Pa. He read law in the office of Asa R. Brundage, and was 

Charles Leonard Bulkeley. 289 

admitted to the bar of Luzerne county January 8, 1866, on the 
recommendation of Andrew' T. McClintock, Stanley Woodward, 
and Edward P. Darling, the examining committee. In 1874 
Mr. Bulkeley was elected one of the aldermen of the city of 
Wilkes-Barre for the term of five years, and in 1879 ^^^ re- 
elected for another term. Hons. Morgan Bulkeley, mayor of the 
city of Hartford, Conn., and W. H. Bulkeley, at one time lieu- 
tenant governor of Connecticut, and more recently the republican 
candidate for governor of the same state, are cousins of Charles 
L. Bulkeley. Asa R. Brundage, of the Luzerne county bar, is a 
brother-in-law, his wife being the sister of Mr. Bulkeley. Mr. 
Bulkeley, in his young days, taught school in the township of 
Hanover and in the old borough of Wilkes-Barre. He writes 
an excellent hand, and has been employed at various times in 
most, if not all, of the offices in the Court House. He never 
married, and is one of that large class of citizens who, fitted by 
education and otherwise to play prominent parts in the drama of 
life, are nevertheless content with doing their full duty in the 
humbler stations. It has been mentioned that he has filled 
important positions in the several county offices. In all these 
his professional training served both him and the county admir- 
ably, and as alderman or justice of the peace it was of course 

There is a widespread and constantly growing belief that the 
law with reference to justices' courts should be changed, for all 
cities and populous suburban places especially, so as to provide 
for a lesser number of justices, require them to be learned in the 
law, and give them jurisdiction (subject to appeal of course) in a 
variety of cases now required to be tried in the Common Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions. A step somewhat in this direction was 
made by the new constitution, but affected Philadelphia and 
Allegheny counties only, and the innovation, although not so 
comprehensive as many think it should be, is believed to have 
been beneficient in results. It is obviously desirable to relieve 
the regular cjourts of record of the burden of as many of the 
minor causes, both civil and criminal, as possible, and it would 
be beyond question a boon to litigants in such causes if they 
could be determined in a court which is in continuous session. 

2 go Thomas Jerome Chase. 

The purpose of such a change could not, however, be effected 
unless the persons chosen to preside in them were better fitted 
for the service than most of those now hit upon to act as alder- 
men or justices of the peace. Hence the belief that they should 
be men learned in the law, or if not regularly graduated and 
admitted practitioners, at least men with more than an average 
understanding of the law. In such courts, men like Mr. Bulkeley 
would render effective service. 

He is a man in middle life, of a genial and generous disposition, 
who has many friends, and deserves them. 


Thomas Jerome Chase, a scion of an old New England family, 
was born in the township of Benton, Luzerne (now Lackawanna) 
county, Pennsylvania, May 26, 1844. He is the son of the late' 
Elisha W. Chase, a native of East Greenwich, Kent county, 
Rhode Island, who removed with his father, Gorton Chase, when 
but a bo)^ of six years of age, to Abington, Luzerne (now Lacka- 
wanna) county. Pa. He died in 1862. Gorton Chase died in 
1835. His wife was Freelove Potter, of an old Rhode Island 
family. The maternal grandfather of T. J. Chase was Thomas 
Phillips, a native of the city of Bath, England, where he was born 
February 22, 1769. He removed to Abington in 1812, and died 
there in 1842. His second wife, the maternal grandmother of 
the subject of our sketch, was the widow of Curtis Phelps, 
deceased. Her maiden name was Betsey Patterson, a native of 
Litchfield, Conn., where she was born in 1781. She died in 
Benton in 1848. The mother of Mr. Chase was named Welthea. 
Mr. Chase was educated in the common schools of Benton, in a 
select school taught there for two years, and a brief term at the 
Madison academy, Waverly, Pa. When not at school he did the 
ordinary work of a farmer's son until the age of eighteen years, 
when he enlisted in August, 1862, as a member of company B, 
in the One Hundred and Thirty-second regiment, Pennsylvania 

Thomas Jerome Chase. 291 

volunteers. He participated in the battles of Antietam and 
Chancellorsville, and was mustered out at the expiration of his 
term of service in May, 1863. He entered upon the study of 
law in 1864 in the offices of A. H. Winton and A. A. Chase, at 
Scranton, and was admitted to the Luzerne county bar Novem- 
ber 12, 1866. He then entered the office of the late E. S. M. 
Hill, then mayor of Scranton, and remained until April, 1867, 
when he removed to Nicholson, Wyoming county, Pa., and 
practiced until 1876, when he removed to Wilkes-Barre, where 
he has been in continuous practice since. While at Nicholson 
he was elected and served as a justice of the peace, and was also 
one of the school directors of that borough. During a portion 
of the time that he was reading law, he taught a public school in 
order to gain the means to continue his legal studies. Mr. Chase 
married September 10, 1874, Czarina A. Reynolds, daughter of 
S. P. Reynolds, a native of Benton. They have had one child, 
who died in 1879 at the age of four years. 

Like a large proportion, of the leading men, especially the 
professional men, of the Wyoming valley, Mr. Chase, it will be 
noted, traces his ancestry to the hardy pioneers of New England, 
and more remotely to old England. They were a hardy, cour- 
ageous, and determined people these first settlers of the Yankee 
states, and have given to their children and their children's 
children qualities of mental and moral man and womanhood 
which go far to evidence to the present generation that such was 
the case. Their flight from kingly persecution for refuge in a 
wilderness of itself tells a tale of devotion to religious conviction, 
of keen appreciation of the rights of manhood, and of willingness 
to bear heavy burdens and incur great sacrifices for the right of 
opinion ; and the stalwart men and the lovable, loyal women 
who have descended from their loins renew in their capabilities 
and virtues the testimony to those of so proud and self-dependent 
an ancestry. 

Like most of the others in our series of sketches, " Tom " 
Chase, as he is familiarly called, is a worthy son of worthy sires. 
He has earned and fully merits the glorious title of " good fel- 
low," which men apply to those in whom there is an ever present 
readiness to suffer almost any loss rather than harm another by 

2g2 Diego John Miller Loop. 

so much as a thought. He was a good soldier, though but a 
boy at the time of his enhstment, and his superiors give willing 
attestation of his manly and dutiful bearing at every period of 
his term of service, and in every task it imposed or emergency 
it brought. He is a lawyer of no mean attainments, though 
totally indisposed to the " fuss and feathers," so to speak, which 
not a few in our own profession, as .well as others, seek to palm 
off upon their patrons as evidence of deep knowledge and the 
ebullitions of genius. In other words, he is not a showy advocate, 
but is a safe adviser. 


Diego John Miller Loop was born in Elmira, N.Y., February 1 1, 
1823, and is a son of the late Peter P. Loop, a native of Elmira, 
Chemung county, N. Y., where he was born in 1793. He died at 
Belvidere, III, in 1854. His father, Peter Loop, jun., was one of 
the commissioners appointed by the Susquehanna company, Sep- 
tember 25, 1786. Any five of the said commissioners " shall be 
a court with power, etc., etc. ; this power to determine whenever a 
form of internal government shall be established in that country." 

D. J. M. Loop was educated at the Wilkes-Barre academy and 
at Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., from which he graduated in 
1844, and received his degree of A. M. in 1849. He read law 
with Hon. E. P. Brooks, of Elmira, N. Y., and at once removed 
to Illinois, where he was admitted to the Supreme Court of that 
state in June, 1847. He spent a year in the office of General S. 
A. Hurlbut, in Belvidere, III, and in April, 1848, removed to 
Fort Winnebago, Wisconsin territory, now Portage City, Wis. 
In the fall of 1848 he was elected the first district attorney of 
Columbia county. Wis., which office he held for two years. He 
was also city clerk for the same length of time. In January, 
1849, he was admitted to the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. In 
1864 he removed to Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1870, 
having practiced in the meanwhile in Columbia, Lancaster 

Diego John Miller Loop. 293 

county, and at Hazleton and Wilkes-Barre, in Luzerne county. 
He was admitted to the bar of the last named county December 
I, 1866. He again removed west, this time to Neosho, Newton 
county. Mo., where he practiced until 1874. He then removed 
to Joplin, Jasper county, Mo., where he remained until 1877. 
During a year of the time that he was at Joplin, he was elected 
the city judge. In 1879 he removed to Galena, Cherokee 
county, Kan. In July, 1880, he removed to Waverly, Tioga 
county, N. Y. In April, 1882, he again returned to Pennsylva- 
nia, and is now practicing at Nanticoke, in this county. 

The mother of Mr. Loop is Eliza Irene, daughter of the late 
General William Ross, sen., who was born in New London, Conn., 
March 29, 1761, and emigrated to Wyoming about 1775. The 
day previous to the " massacre " Mr. Ross was with the army in 
its march to Exeter, where the Hardings had been murdered, 
and would have been in the battle but that his older brothers 
needed his arms. At the flight the family were scattered, pass- 
ing through the wilderness by different paths, in a state of ex- 
treme privation and suffering, Mr. Ross and his mother taking 
the lower or Nescopeck way. Soon after the coming in of 
Spalding's company they returned. Having a taste for military 
affairs, he rose by regular gradations from major to brigade 
inspector and general in the militia. For twenty years he held 
the commission of a magistrate. In 18 12 he was chosen to 
represent the district composed of Luzerne and Northumberland 
counties in the senate of the state. 

With the surrender of the sword of Cornwallis peace succeeded 
the revolutionary strife, but not in Wyoming. The Indian bor- 
der feud and the question whether Pennsylvania or Connecticut 
should rule, still continued to agitate the valley of Wyoming. 
Timothy Pickering, a New England man by birth, clothed with 
official power by the state and invested with all the county offices, 
was sent here to pacify and heal up the local strife. It only aggra- 
vated the Connecticut settlers ; they invaded his home, took him 
prisoner by night, and carried him away captive. He was res- 
cued by General, then Captain, William Ross, at the head of a 
force of state militia, who received a serious wound in the strug- 
gle, which for some time was regarded mortal. He was rewarded 

294 Diego John Miller Loop. 

by the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania with a sword 
bearing the following inscription : 
" Captain William Ross : 

" The Supreme Executive Council present this mark of their 
approbation acquired by your firmness in support of the laws of 
the commonwealth on the 4th of July, 1788. 

" Charles Biddle, Sec'y." 

General Ross in his will states that he desires his sword " to 
be kept and preserved by my said son (William S. Ross) during 
his life, and after his decease to descend to, and be kept and pre- 
served by, my oldest male descendant from time to time forever." 
Under the above clause the sword is now in the possession of 
William Ross Maffet, of this city, son of Samuel Maffet and 
Caroline Ann Ross Maffet. Samuel Maffet was a prominent 
citizen of Wilkes-Barre and the proprietor of the Susquehanna 
Democrat, which he established in 18 10 with the following motto : 
" The support of the state governments in all their rights is the 
most competent administration for our domestic institutions and 
the surest bulwark against anti-republican tendencies." It was 
the organ of the democratic party, and was of the same size as the 
Gleaner, being eleven by seventeen inches. Mr. Maffet learned 
his trade as a printer with John Binns, at Northumberland and 
Philadelphia, whose name is familiar to every lawyer as the 
author of Binns' Justice. As an evidence of the esteem in which 
Mr. Maffet was held by his employer we insert the following 
letter : 

"July 6, 1809. 

" D'r Samuel : This day puts a period to the time for 
which you were bound to me. In all the time you have been 
with me you have conducted yourself with propriety ; never 
swearing, lying, or neglecting your master's business, I enclose 
you a check for 50;^ as an evidence of my entire approbation of 
your conduct. Through life conduct yourself as you have con- 
ducted while with me and you will secure, because you will 
deserve, the esteem and respect of the worthy and the good. 
Continue where you are and do as you have done and we will 
make satisfactory arrangements. I chuse to put my opinion of 
you in writing as the most permanent evidence of my affection- 

Diego John Miller Loop. 295 

ate solicitude for your well doing. Among your sincere friends 

rank me, and at all times calculate upon my best services. 

" I am, D'r Samuel, affectionately your true friend. 

" John Binns. 
" Mr. S.^MUEL Maffet.'' 

From 1815 to 1821 Mr. Maffet was register and recorder of 
Luzerne county, by appointment of Governors Snyder and 
Findlay respectively, and from February 8, 1821, to 1824, he 
was prothonotary, clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions and 
Oyer and Terminer, and clerk of the Orphans' Court by appoint- 
ment of Governors Heister and Shulze respectively. He was 
ensign from August I, 1814, and captain from May 22, 1818 
(each commission being for seven years), of the eighth company 
of the second regiment of the militia of Pennsylvania, his com- 
missions being signed by Governor Snyder and Governor Findlay. 

Samuel Maffet was a native of Linden, Lycoming county. Pa., 
where he was born July 7, 1789. He died in Wilkes-Barre 
August 15, 1825. His father, John Maffet, was a native of Dun- 
cannon, Tyrone county, Ireland, and emigrated to America in 
■1774. The widow of Samuel Maffet married, February 3, 1828, 
Elisha Atherton. Eliza Ross Miner, wife of Charles A. Miner, of 
this city, was their only child. Mr. Miner represented the city 
of Wilkes-Barre in the legislature of Pennsylvania from 1875 
to 1880. 

Mr. Ross was a strong-minded man ; he had studied human 
nature in the school of active life to great advantage, and per- 
formed the duties of all the various stations to which he was 
called with intelligence and integrity. Having lived to the good 
old age of eighty-two years, on August 9, r842, he closed his 
active and honorable life. Every fitting demonstration of respect 
was paid to his remains, the court adjourning to attend his 
funeral. The wife of General Ross was Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel Sterling and Elizabeth Perkins, his wife, who was born 
November 3, 1768, and died at Wilkes-Barre May 16, 18 16. 
Lieutenant Perrin Ross, who was born July 4, 1748, and Jere- 
miah Ross, born January 6, 1759, both of whom were slain at 
the massacre of Wyoming, were brothers of General Ross. Gen- 
eral Ross was the son of Jeremiah Ross, (son of Joseph Ross 

296 Diego John Miller Loop. 

and Sarah Utiey Ross, his wife), who was born July 26, 1721, and 
died at Wilkes-Barre February 8, 1777. His wife was Ann Paine, 
whom he married October 31, 1744. She died at Wilkes-Barre 
March 22, 181 3, aged ninety-four years. 

General William Sterling Ross, who was a son of General 
William Rbss and a brother of Eliza Irene Loop, was born in 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., August 11, 1802. He died on July 11, 1868^ 
lacking just one month of being sixty-six years of age. His 
birth and death occurred in the same room, the southeast part 
of the Ross family mansion, erected of oak materials, frame and 
clapboards, by Timothy Pickering, in the year 1787. He was 
commissioned associate judge of the courts of the county in 
1830, as the succes,sor of Hon. Jesse Fell, which office he retained 
until 1839 — the time of the adoption of the amended constitu- 
tion of the state. The duties of this office were discharged with 
much credit to himself and the entire approbation of the bar and 
the community at large. For a long succession of years he was 
a member of the borough council and generally its presiding 
officer. Quite as long he was a director and general manager of 
the Easton and Wilkes-Barre Turnpike Company, down to 1840 
the only great thoroughfare leading easterly to the seaboard from 
the Susquehanna. He was for many years a director in the 
Wyoming Bank and at the time of his death the president. He 
was also the president of the Wyoming Insurance Company at 
his decease, and was also a director in the following corporations: 
The Wilkes-Barre Water Company, the Wilkes-Barre Bridge 
Company, the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, and 
the Home for Friendless Children. He was also a member of 
the vestry of St. Stephen's church. Probably no one of Gen- 
eral Ross's contemporaries had more to do with the various local 
associations of the town for a third of a century than he had, 
and he was remarkably punctual in his duties in all the labors 
these associations demanded and required of him. He repre- 
sented the Luzerne district in the senate of the state during the 
sessions of 1845-6-7. The last year of his term he was speaker 
of that body. 

In 1 86 1 General Ross joined the republican party (he having 
previously been a democrat), and was by them elected to the 

Diego John Miller Loop. 297 

General Assembly for the session of 186 1-2, and in this service 
his conduct and business capacity were marked with much 
ability and unblemished integrity. In 1862 he was nominated 
by the republican party of Pennsylvania for the office of surveyor 
general, but was defeated in the election by James P. Barr, of 
Allegheny county. He married December i, 1825, Ruth Tripp 
Slocum, daughter of Joseph Slocum. The ceremony took place 
in the Slocum house, on the Public square. This was the first 
brick building in Wilkes-Barre, and was erected by Joseph 
Slocum in 1807. It is still standing, and is occupied by Brown's 
book store. Mrs. Butler remembers that her father was 
cautioned against building with brick, on the supposition that 
this material would not stand the damp climate of the valley. 
That his judgment to the contrary was not in error is shown by 
the present condition of the brick walls, which are in perfect 
condition after an exposure to the " malarial dampness " of 
seventy-seven years. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. 
Enoch Huntington, who was pastor of St. Stephen's Episcopal 
church from 1824 to 1827. 

Mrs. Loop, the mother of the subject of our sketch, was born 
August 25, 1799, and was married to Peter P. Loop in 1820. 
She is still living, and resides at Rochester, N. Y. Rev. Dewitt 
Clinton Loop, of the Protestant Episcopal church, is a brother 
of D. J. M. Loop, as is also Edward Sterling Loop, for many 
years cashier of the Wyoming bank at Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

On September 2, 1854, D. J. M. Loop was married to Mrs. 
Lydia L. Peabody, nee Richmond, daughter of Truman Rich- 
mond, of New Milford, Conn. They have no children. 

The number of places in which Mr. Loop has pursued his pro- 
fession, together with his election to a judgeship in Missouri, 
fully attest his knowledge of the law and ability as a practitioner. 
He comes, as the foregoing record shows, of good stock, both by 
his father and his mother, and gives evidence of his inheritance 
unimpaired from each, of many of the traits which bore them 
creditably and successfully through the numerous trying ordeals 
to which life in the Wyoming valley in the earlier days was sub- 
ject. He is not so well known individually, for reasons that will 
be obvious to the readers of these lines, as many of the attorneys 

2gS William Swan McLean. 

practicing at the Luzerne bar, but with all who do know him he 
is a favorite as a lawyer, a citizen, and a man. Upon the basis 
of a liberal education he has buildeda general knowledge of men 
and affairs invaluable in the legal profession and contributive to 
those capacities which make men most useful in a community 
and appreciated for their companionship by their fellow men. 


William Swan McLean was born May 27, 1842, at Summit 
Hill, Carbon county, Pennsylvania. His father, Alexander 
McLean, who was born in 1800, emigrated to America in 18 19, 
and settled in what is now Carbon county. He was one of the 
pioneer coal operators in the country, and operated at Summit 
Hill until 1848, when he removed on what is now known as the 
McLean farm, then in Wilkes-Barre township, now in the city of 
Wilkes-Barre. After his removal to this county, he was exten- 
sively engaged in coal operations, not as an operator, but as a 
large stockholder in many of them. He was largely interested 
in the Wyoming Coal Company, which was incorporated in 
1838, and was one of the first joint stock coal companies 
formed in the Wyoming valley. Mr. McLean was a native of 
Fernlestra, in the county of Derry, Ireland. He died March, 
1868. His father was James McLean. The grandfather of 
Alexander McLean was Gilbert McLean. He was a native of 
the Isle of Skye, and was a member of the clan McLean. His 
wife was Margaret Dugan. He removed to Ireland about the 
middle of the last century. The mother of William S. McLean, 
and wife of Alexander McLean, was Elizabeth Swan, daughter 
of James Swan. She was born near Londonderry, and emigrated 
with her father to this country when but a child. Mr. Swan 
was a man of considerable note and wealth in his native land, 
and was intimately connected with the Irish rebellion in 1798 as 
a United Irishman. He emigrated to this country in 1817, and 

William Swan McLean. 


lived and died in Mauch Chunk, Rev. Hugh Swan, a Presby- 
terian clergyman, and a brother of James, was executed by the 
British government for complicity in the rebellion. 

W. S. McLean was educated at the Wilkes-Barre academy, of 
which Sylvester Dana was principal, and at Lafayette college, 
Easton, Pa. Mr. Dana was a lawyer, and was admitted to the 
bar of Luzerne county November 7, 1828. He forsook the 
practice, and devoted his life to the cause of education. Mr. 
McLean graduated in 1865, and was chosen by the faculty as the 
valedictorian of his class. While Mr. McLean was at college, 
he entered the military service in 1862 as a member of Captain 
Thomas W. Lynn's Company 1, Fifth regiment, Pennsylvania 
militia. He remained in the service but a few weeks, and was 
discharged with his company at the expiration of the term. 

Mr. McLean read law with G. Byron Nicholson, and was 
admitted to the bar of Luzerne county August 19, 1867. From 
1866 to 1869, Mr. McLean was a niember of the board of school 
directors of the township of Wilkes-Barre. He was also secre- 
tary of the board for the same length of time. He is and has 
been city attorney since 1875, and attorney for the commissioners 
of Luzerne county since 1883. In 1868 Mr. McLean delivered 
the Master's Oration at the request of the faculty of Lafayette 
college upon the occasion of his receiving the Master's degree. 
In 1879 Mr. McLean was the democratic candidate for judge of 
Luzerne county, but owing to the formation of the greenback- 
labor party, he was defeated by Charles E. Rice, president judge 
of Luzerne county. He is prominent in democratic circles, and 
in 1883 was chairman of the committee on resolutions in the 
democratic state convention of that year. For many years he 
was a director in the First National Bank of Wilkes-Barre and 
Wilkes-Barre Deposit Bank. 

The late James McLean, a prominent coal operator in Carbon 
county, and the first president of the First National Bank of 
Wilkes-Barre, was a brother of W. S. McLean, as was also the 
late Samuel McLean, one of the earliest emigrants to California 
at the breaking out of the gold fever. He was afterwards a 
representative in congress for two terms from Montana territory. 
He was also provisional attorney-general for Colorado. He 

300 William Swan McLean. 

afterwards purchased a plantation in Nottoway county, Virginia, 
and died there in July, 1877. 

George McLean, another brother, was register of the land office 
in Montana territory under appointment of President Johnson. 

W. S. McLean was married November 23, 1871, to Annie S. 
Roberts, daughter of George H. Roberts, of Philadelphia. He 
was for many years a member of the firm of Conrad & Roberts, 
a prominent hardware firm in Philadelphia. George H. Roberts, 
jun., who was attorney-general of Nebraska for six years, and 
at present special counsel for the Union Pacific railroad company, 
residing in Nevada, is a brother of Mrg. McLean. 

Mr. and Mrs. McLean have a family of three children living, 
George Roberts McLean, William Swan McLean, and Margaret 
Stevenson McLean. 

There are few men better known, and fewer still more generally 
liked, in Wilkes-Barre than William Swan McLean. That he is 
an able lawyer is fully explained in his having been the nominee 
of his party for president judge, and in his occupancy of the 
positions of legal adviser both to the city council of Wilkes-Barre 
and the commissioners of Luzerne county. In the first-named 
of these positions, he has served continuously for nine years, and 
in that time has, of course, become a recognized authority in 
municipal law. He was for a number of years the senior 
partner of the firm of McLean & Jackson, during which time 
the firm enjoyed a collection business that was unusually exten- 
sive and profitable, and that could neither have been secured or 
maintained but for the energy displayed in obtaining moneys due 
clients, and the promptitude with which they were paid over 
when collected. It is not especially a credit to the profession, 
but is nevertheless a fact, that there are other lawyers who might 
have a good deal larger share of this generally lucrative line of 
legal business if they were not, to use the expression of a recently 
disgusted client, " so slow to disgorge." 

Mr. McLean has been a member of the Examining committee 
of the Luzerne bar, and has figured in very many important 
causes, both in the civil and criminal courts, acquitting himself 
invariably as one well booked in the principles of the law, and 
vigorous and efficient in its practice. 

Andrew Hunlock. 301 

He is an easy, pleasant speaker, not only in the court-room 
and before a jury, but on the stump, and in every political con- 
test for years past has done good service for his party in this 
capacity in Luzerne and elsewhere. His always genial demeanor 
has secured him a widespread popularity with people in all 
classes and conditions of life, and his energies were conspicuously 
instanced in the vigorous campaign he made, in the presence of 
extremely dispiriting circumstances, for the judgeship, and the 
flattering vote he received on that occasion. 

Mr. McLean is the possessor of a fair-sized collection of the 
works of the best authors, and, though never without legal 
business to attend to, manages to steal enough time from his pro- 
fessional duties to familiarize himself with their best thoughts. 
This, his favorite recreation, is an example which all who emulate 
will find to their advantage, professionally as well as socially. 


Andrew Hunlock was born in Kingston, Pennsylvania, May i, 
1839. ^^^ '^ "f^ New England descent, from which place his great 
grandfather, Jonathan Hunlock, sen., emigrated at an early day, 
and was the first settler of Union (now Hunlock) township, where 
he located in 1773. Andrew's grandfather, Jonathan Hunlock, 
as also his father, Jameson Hunlock, were natives of Hunlock 
township, being born at Hunlock's Creek, Pa. The wife of Jona- 
than Hunlock, jun., was Mary Jameson, who was born in 1780, 
and died in 1818 at Hunlock's Creek, where she lies buried. She 
was the daughter of John Jameson, a descendent of John Jame- 
son, who, in the year 1704, left the highlands of Scotland, of 
which he was a native, and sought a new home in Ireland. He 
settled in the town of Omagh, county of Tyrone, where he mar- 
ried Rosanna L-vin. He continued his residence in Ireland until 
17 1 8, when he emigrated with his family to America, landing,- 
after a long and dangerous voyage, in the town of Boston, in the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. He remained in Boston until the 

302 Andrew Hunlock. 

spring of 1719, when he removed to Voluntown, Windham 
county, Conn., where he purchased a tract of land, upon which 
he hved for many years and died. He had two brothers, Robert 
and Henry, both of whom emigrated to America, and landed at 
Philadelphia in the year 1708. John Jameson was a man of 
strong will and prejudices. It is said he never yielded until 
fully convinced of error. * 

"He was of that stubborn crew, 

Presbyterian true blue. 

Who prove their doctrine orthodox 

By apostohc blows and knocks." 

His son, Robert Jameson, was born in the town of Omagh, 
Ireland, December 25, 1 7 14, and was four years of age when his 
parents came to America. In the year 1747, he married Agnes 
Dixon, who was also born in Ireland, and came to America 
when quite young with her father, Robert Dixon, and settled in 
Windham county. Conn. Robert Dixon was one of the com- 
mittee of the Susquehanna Land Company, as shown by the 

following receipt : 

" Voluntown, March 30 day, A. D. 1768. 

" Then received of Robert Jameson, of Voluntown, in Wind- 
ham county, as he is one of the company of the purchasers of 
the Susquehanna Lands so called, the sum of nine shillings lawful 
money, in full complyance of the voat of said company at their 
meeting held at Windham by adjournment on the sixth day of 
January last, for one whole right or share in s'd purchase. I say 
rec'd by me. " Robert Dixon, 

" One of the com'tee for s'd company." 

Nathan F. Dixon, United States senator from Rhode Island 
from 1839 to 1842, was a descendant of the same family. In the 
fall of 1776, Robert Jameson and his wife, Agnes, with all their 
sons and daughters (except John, who had preceded them) bade 
farewell to their old home in Voluntown, and set out for Wyom- 
ing, on the Susquehanna. They brought with them a few articles 
of household furniture and an agricultural implement or two, 
■which they conveyed in a large cart drawn by three yoke of 
oxen. The sons walked alongside driving the oxen and helping 
the cart over new and badly opened roads. The daughters, 

Andrew Hunlock. 303 

clothed in homespun, traveled afoot and drove thirty head of 
sheep. The journey was performed in about three tedious 
weeks. John, who had gone before to prepare a home, met 
them at Lackawaxen, and conducted them to their homely 
dwelling- In Hanover township. Mr. Jameson, before leaving 
Connecticut, obtained the following passport: 

" Windham, November 4, 1776. 
" The bearer hereof, Mr. Robert Jameson, has been for many 
years an inhabitant in the town of Voluntown, in the county of 
Windham, and state of Connecticut, and is now on his journey, 
with his wife and family and family furniture, to remove to the 
town of Hanover, on the Susquehanna river, and is a friend to 
the United States of America, and has a right to remove himself 
and family as above. " Sam'l Gray, 

"Justice of the Peace and one of the committee of s'd Windham." 

Robert Jameson lived nine or ten years after his removal to 
Hanover, where he died in the seventy-second year of his age of 
consumption, and was buried in the graveyard of the old Han- 
over Presbyterian church. His wife, Agnes, died in Salem 
township in the seventy-eighth year of her age of fever, and lies 
buried in the old Salem graveyard. 

John Jameson, son of Robert Jameson, preceded his father to 
Wyoming, where he arrived in 1773. He located himself on a 
tract of land in Hanover township, on the public road leading 
from Wilkes-Barre to Nanticoke, where he cleared several acres, 
and enclosed a comfortable log house containing two rooms and 
a half-story loft accessible by means of a ladder. The fire place 
was constructed without jams on the Dutch plan. The windows 
were of small size, with six panes or lights, and as a substitute 
for glass oiled paper was used. The structure compared favor- 
ably with the dwelling places of neighboring settlers, and indeed, 
as the logs were hewn, the edifice was considered superior to 
anything in the neighborhood. It was to this place he welcomed 
his father's family in 1776. The same year he married Abagail 
Alden, who came to Wyoming with her father in 1773. Early 
in the spring of 1776, before the family of his father arrived in 
Wyoming, he enlisted in a company under Captain Strong, and 

304 Andrew Hunlock. 

was elected lieutenant. The company was united with the Con- 
necticut troops, and marched to New Jersey to unite with the 
army under Washington. He was also present in Plunkett's 
battle in December, 1775, at or near the Nanticoke dam. On 
the morning of July 3, 1778, he, in company with his brothers, 
William and Robert Jameson, and a man named Coffrin, who 
worked for him, left home with theii" rifles and joined the devoted 
band who encountered the invading English tories and Indians 
in the celebrated battle or massacre of Wyoming. Robert 
Jameson and James Coffrin were killed in the battle. Wifliam 
had the lock of his gun shot away, and was wounded. John 
Jameson escaped barely with his life. Hastening to his home, 
he found his aged father and mother, with his wife and sisters 
and younger brothers, anxiously awaiting news of the battle. 
" What news, John ? " inquired the father. " We are defeated," 
was the reply; "Robert and Coffrin are dead, and V/illiam is 
wounded; the Indians are sweeping over the valley spreading 
fire and death in every direction, and we must fly for our safely," 
The Jamesons, Aldens, Hurlbuts, and other families set out at 
once for old Hanover, in Lancaster county. The old men, 
women, and children were placed in boats, and sent down the 
Susquehanna river. John Jameson, with his brothers, Alexander 
and Joseph, and his mother, who carried her son Samuel in her 
arms, performed the journey on foot to Fort Augusta, now Sun- 
bury, Pa. They undertook to drive the cattle before them, but 
owing to their haste, and to the thick underwood and the almost 
unpassable roads or paths, they lost almost all of them. One 
>oke of oxen strayed into Northampton county, but were after- 
wards recovered. As soon as the families were safely landed in 
old Hanover, John Jam.eson returned to look after the farm and 
household goods. He occasionally visited Lancaster county, 
but the families did not come back to their homes in Wyoming 
until 1780. On July 8, 1782, Mr. Jameson, with his youngest 
brother, Benjamin, and a neighbor, Asa Chapman, started from 
his home in Hanover for Wilkcs-Barre. Riding on horseback 
on the public road, and approaching the open ground of the old 
church at Hanover green, John Jameson observed Indians in the 
thickets on his right. He exclaimed " Indians," and immediately 

Andrew Hunlock. 305 

fell dead, pierced by three balls. His horse fled and left his rider 
on the ground, where he was afterwards found, scalped, toma- 
hawked, and murdered. Chapman and horse were both wounded, 
but escaped. Mr. Chapman died a few days after. Benjamin 
Jameson's horse wheeled at the first fire, and carried him home 
in safety. They were the last men killed in Wyoming by In- 
dians. Thus died John Jameson in the thirty-third year of his 
age. He possessed perseverance and great powers of endurance, 
and was in every respect a thorough-going pioneer. He was 
buried in the graveyard of the Hanover church near the spot 
where he was killed. We have already stated that the wife of 
John Jameson was Abagail Alden. She was descended from John 
Alden, the first of the American families of that name, and who 
was one of the pilgrims, who landed at Plymouth, Mass., in the 
year 1620. He was at that time about twenty-two years of age, 
consequently was born in 1598. He married Priscilla Mullins, 
or Molines, in 1623. The circumstances of his courtship and 
marriage are as follows : Captain Miles Standish had lost his 
wife, and very soon after her death he conceived a tender regard 
for Priscilla Mullins, or Molines, daughter of William Mullins, 
or Molines, who was also a passenger with John Alden in the 
Mayflower. He made known his desire to make Priscilla his 
wife to her father through John Alden, his messenger. The 
father made no objection, but saw his daughter must be consulted. 
Priscilla was called in. Alden was a man of noble form, of fair 
and somewhat florid complexion and engaging manners. He 
arose and gracefully stated to the maiden the wishes of Captain 
Standish. After a pause, she turned her frank and pleasant 
countenance on the messenger and said: "Prithee John, why do 
you not speak for yourself? " John Mushed, and took the hint, 
bade farewell for the present, and communicated the result to the 
captain. He afterwards visited on his own account, and their 
nuptials were solemnized with due form. When Alden visited 
Cape Cod for the purpose of marrying Priscilla, as there were no 
horses in the colony, he went mounted on the back of a bull, 
which was covered with a piece of handsome broadcloth. After 
the ceremony was performed, John lifted Priscilla to his seat on 
the bull, and led her home on the ungainly animal by a rope 

3o6 Andrew Hunlock. 

fastened to a ring in his nose. Captain Jonathan Alden, son of 
Hon. John Alden, settled in Duxbury, Mass., on the ancient 
homestead. He married Abagail Hallet, daughter of Andrew 
Hallet, also of Duxbury, December lo, 1672. His wife died 
August 17, 1725, aged eighty-one years. Captain Jonathan 
Alden died February 17, 1697, and was buried under arms, and 
a funeral discourse was delivered by the Rev. Ichabod Wiswell, 
which was printed. 

Andrew Alden, son of Captain Jonathan Alden and his wife, 
Abagail, married Lydia Stamford February 4, 17 14. 

Prince Alden, son of Andrew Alden and Lydia, his wife, 
married Mary Fitch, of New London, Conn. The first settle- 
ment in Newport township was made by Major Prince Alden in 
1772 near the borough of Nanticoke. Their daughter Abagail 
married John Jameson. John Adams, president of the United 
States, and John Quincy Adams, also president, were lineally 
descended from Hon. John Alden in the fifth and sixth genera- 
tions respectively. After the death of John Jameson, Mrs. 
Jameson managed her affairs with prudence and economy, and 
afterwards took Shubal Bidlack as a second husband. He was 
a grandson of Christopher Bidlack, who settled in Windham, 
Conn., in 1722, where he died. His son. Captain James Bidlack, 
married Abagail Fuller, and came with his fa.mily to the Wyom- 
ing valley in 1777 from Windham. Captain James Bidlack, one 
of his sons, commanded one of the Wilkes-Barre companies at 
the battle and massacre of Wyoming, and there lost his life. 

Benjamin Bidlack, a brother of James, was a famous soldier in 
the Revolutionary war, and afterwards a noted Methodist minis- 
ter of the old school. He was the father of Benjamin Alden 
Bidlack, who represented {he county of Luzerne in the legislature 
of Pennsylvania in 1834 and 1835. He was elected a member of 
congress as a representative of Luzerne and Columbia counties 
in 1840, and re-elected in 1842. He was appointed by President 
Polk minister to the republic of New Granada, where he died. 
His widow, who subsequently married Thomas W. Miner, M. D., 
is still living. Shubal Bidlack was the third son of Captain 
James Bidlack, sen. On one occasion during the Pennamite and 
Yankee war, Mrs. Bidlack left Wyoming for Easton, where her 

Andrew H unlock. 307 

father, Major Prince Alden, with upwards of twenty other Con- 
necticut settlers, were confined in jail. She took a number of 
letters intended for the prisoners, which were carefully folded and 
concealed in her roll (the hair in those days being carefully 
done up in a roll) on the top of her head. As she passed along 
the Indian path at night, she was discovered and arrested near 
Bear Creek by Colonel Patterson, the Pennamite commander. 
The letters in her roll escaped the suspicious Pennamite, and 
she was permitted to pass without further molestation. She 
arrived safely in Easton, and communicated the state of affairs 
at home to her father and other prisoners. She was a member 
of the first Methodist class formed in Hanover, and the house 
of the Widow Jameson was a home for the early Methodist minis- 
ters. William Jameson, a brother of John, who was wounded 
at the battle of Wyoming, was murdered by the Indians in the 
lower part of the present city of Wilkes-Barre October 14, 1778, 
and was buried in the old Hanover graveyard. The mother of 
Andrew H unlock was Maria Royal, daughter of the late George 
Royal, of Germantown, Pa. The Royal family is of English 
descent, and emigrated from New England to Philadelphia, where 
the grandparents of Mr. Hunlock resided for many years. 

Mr. Hunlock was educated at Wyoming seininary. He read 
law with Lyman Hakes, and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne 
county November 10, 1868. He has never held any political 
office, but has been a trustee of the Memorial Presbyterian 
church of this city from its organization to the present time. 
For a number of years he was president of the Anthracite Sav- 
ings Bank of Wilkes-Barre. He is unmarried. 

Mr. Hunlock inherited a competence to which he has since, 
by prudent investments, added very largely. His possessions 
include a considerable landed estate, and the management of it 
consumes much of his time, both as owner and attorney. This 
interest has given him a familiarity with local land titles, and the 
general subject of real estate law, which makes him a recognized 
authority therein. While he husbands his wealth, and omits no 
fair opportunity for adding to it, Mr. Hunlock is a liberal dis- 
penser to the needy. He has given to every charitable institution 
in this vicinity, and the deserving never go away from him 

3o8 David Morgan Jones. 

empty-handed. These beneficences are accompHshed without 
any ostentation whatever. He doubtless recalls the stories of 
the hardships his ancestry were compelled to undergo in their 
battles for a livelihood, and is impelled thereby to a sympathizing 
view of the struggles of those in this generation who have had 
none of previous generations to give them a start in life. 

Mr. Hunlock, although not a member of any church, is a 
presbyterian in religious belief 

In his general demeanor, he is one of the quietest and most 
unobtrusive of men, but beneath his placid exterior sleeps a lion 
which, when awakened to fight in a righteous cause, fights as 
lions should. Those who infer, from his general avoidance of 
controversy of any kind, that there is nothing of the antagonist 
in him, realize that their error has been a serious one when they 
do provoke him to the attitude of an adversary, either in the 
practice of the law or out of it. 

Mr. Hunlock has numerous and varied business interests in 
Wilkes-Barre, is a cultured gentleman, and a friend it pays to 


David Morgan Jones was born in the city of New York 
September 2, 1843, and was prepared for college at the Scranton 
high school. He entered Lewisburg university, from which he 
graduated in 1867, and received his degree of A. M. in 1870. 
He was the poet of his class, and in 1870 was the poet of the 
Alumni society, and in 1880 delivered the address before the 
Literary societies of the university, his subject being William 
Lloyd Garrison. Mr. Jones read law with J. Merrill Linn at 
Lewisburg, and was admitted to the bar of Union county in 
August, 1868. He then removed to Luzerne county, where he 
was admitted a member of the bar February 27, 1869. He was 
professor of languages in the West Pittston seminary during a 
portion of the years 1868-69. During the year 1870 he was 
deputy treasurer of Luzerne county under G. M. Miller, treasurer, 

David Morgan Jones. 309 

and in 1871 he was deputy clerk of the courts under George P. 
Richards, clerk. In 1870 he was a candidate for nomination for 
that office in the republican convention, but was defeated by Mr. 
Richards by one vote only. Mr. Jones has been in the continu- 
ous practice of his profession in Wilkes-Barre since his admission 
to the bar with the exception of about six months, when he 
practiced in the borough of Pittston. He is a ready writer and 
a poet of no mean merit. In 1882 a volume of his poems, en- 
titled " Lethe and other Poems," was issued from the press of 
J. B. Lippincott, of Philadelphia. A poem recently written by 
him on Blaine, entitled " The Next President," has been inserted 
in the columns of the Philadelphia Press, the New York Tribune, 
Chicago Herald, the Cincinatti Commercial Gazette, and other 
metropolitan papers. 

The father of the subject of our sketch is Rev. Theophilus 
Jones, a Baptist minister residing in this city.- He was a convert 
of Christmas Evans, a noted Welsh divine, and was a member of 
his congregation when ordained to the ministry. He was one of 
seventeen children, and is the son of Thomas Jones, who was a 
well-to-do and prosperous farmer and master weaver. Rev. Mr. 
Jones is a native of Caerfili, Wales, where he was born in 18 10, 
and emigrated to America in March, 1843, settling in New York 
city, where he had his first charge. Mr. Jones has been in the 
ministry for upwards of fifty years, and has preached in English 
and Welsh in many of the principal churches of his countrymen 
since his residence in America. He is also a fluent speaker in 
the English language, and has filled appointments in various 
English churches. He studied for the ministry in the Abergava- 
ney Baptist college, in Wales. The mother of D. M. Jones is 
Mary Ann, daughter of David Morgan, who was a native of 
Llandilo, Caermarthanshire, Wales. Mr. Morgan was one of the 
gentry of Wales, and carried on an extensive tannery in con- 
nection with his landed estates. His oldest son and the brother 
of Mrs. Jones is Sir David Lloyd Morgan, who was knighted for 
eminent services in the English service, and was latterly inspector 
surgeon-general in charge of the Plymouth (England) hospital. 

D. M. Jones married November 28, 1867, Sarah Jane, daughter 
of James L. Williams, of the city of Scranton, Pa. They have 

3IO Elliott Pardee Kisner. 

two children, Emily Gertrude Jones, and Theophilus Ralph Jones. 
Mr. Jones is a republican in politics, and has done effective work 
for his party in the press and as a speaker. 

He is a lawyer of good parts, and has figured in not a few 
important causes, being a favorite adviser and advocate with 
those of the nationality of his parents, who are numerous in this 
and adjoining counties. He is of unassuming manners, and, 
though not an orator, is an earnest and effective pleader before a 
jury, as on the stump. 

It is by reason of his numerous poetical efforts, however, that 
he is best known. Coming from a nation whose every genera- 
tion is rich in song writers and song renderers, many of whom 
have reached the highest rungs of the ladder of distinction, Mr. 
Jones came naturally by his poetical inclinations, which he has 
assiduously cultivated, and which, as above related, have found 
expression in numerous productions that have been widely cir- 
culated and favorably criticised by the best judges. 


Elliott Pardee Kisner was born at Hazleton, Pennsylvania, 
August I, 1845, where he still resides. He has a law office in 
that place as well as in this city. His great grandfather, John 
Kisner, who died near Berwick October 4, 1804, was without 
doubt from Germany. His grandfather, Jacob Kisner, was a 
native of Northampton county (born 1772). He removed at an 
early day to Salem township, in this county, where he married 
Margaret, daughter of Sebastian Seybert, sen. Under Mr. 
Seybert's will, proved in 18 10, Mrs. Kisner was devised "one 
hundred and fifty acres of land in Shickshinny valley," in the 
township of Salem. William Kisner, the father of the subject of 
our sketch, is a native of Salem township, where he was born 
January 11, 1809. He was one of the pioneers of the borough 
of Hazleton, and settled there over fifty years ago. He was 
one of the earliest employees of Ario Pardee, who was one of 

Elliott Pardee Kisner. 3 1 1 

the pioneers in the coal business in that region, and had charge 
of his store, and as purchasing agent. At times it became 
necessary for Mr. Kisner to guarantee the purchases he made 
from the Salem and Huntington farmers for Mr. Pardee, as they 
considered him worth much more money than his employer 
Since that time Mr. Pardee has become one of our milHonaires. 
Mr. Kisner has been one of the active business men of the 
borough of Hazleton as merchant and banker. He was a justice 
of the peace for fifteen years, his first election occurring in 1843, 
and as such married quite a number of the early settlers of that 
region. It was before the day of settled ministers, and the 
Methodist itinerant made the circuit only once in about six 
weeks. He is at present president of the Hazleton Savings 
Bank. As a citizen, Mr. Kisner has filled all, or nearly all, the 
borough offices, such as councilman, school director, etc. He 
has been a life-long member of the Presbyterian church ; and in 
politics is a democrat, and during the lifetime of the late Hen- 
drick B. Wright was an active worker with him. The mother of 
the subject of our sketch is Ann, daughter of Sebastian Seybert, 
jun., and is a native of Salem township. Sebastian Sibert, sen. 
(now spelled Seybert), settled about 1780 in Salem township, 
near the mouth of Seybert s creek, about a mile west of Beach 
Haven. Here he built a grist mill, saw mill, fulling mill, and a 
distillery. The grist mill was of logs, had but one run of stones, 
and could grind only from four to six bushels of grain a day. 
The saw mill was of the old " flutter wheel " style, and would 
cut about one thousand feet of lumber in twenty-four hours. 
The fulling mill was of the most primitive kind; and the dis- 
tillery was the best that could be built at that day. Mr. Seybert 
was one of a family of several brothers, who removed to Salem 
shortly after the Revolutionary war. Both he and his son, 
Sebastian, were natives of Northampton county. Pa. He was 
one of the wealthy men of his day, and at the time of his death, 
in 1810, was the owner of seven hundred acres of the best land 
in Salem township. His son, Sebastian Seybert, jun., succeeded 
him in the milling business, and added a store and blacksmith 
shop to the other industries named. On March 17, 1824, he was 
commissioned by Governor Shulze a justice of the peace for the 

312 Elliott Pardee Kisner. 

townships of Huntington, Salem, and Union. The appointment 
was during good behavior, or, in other words, for Hfe. It is to 
be regretted that the law was ever changed, for in those days 
only worthy and intelligent men were chosen. In 1833 he was 
elected one of the county commissioners of Luzerne county for 
three years. 

E. P. Kisner was prepared for college at Franklin, Delaware 
county, N.Y. He then entered Hamilton college, Clinton, N. Y., 
from which he graduated in 1867. Charles E. Rice, president 
judge of Luzerne county, was a classmate of . Mr. Kisner. He 
entered the law school of Columbia college, N. Y., in the fall of 
the same year, and from thence to the law school of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1869 as LL. B. 
His legal preceptor in Luzerne county was Edmund L. Dana, 
and he was admitted to the bar of the same August 16, 1869. 
Mr. Kisner's continuous studies caused his eyesight to fail, and 
for two or three years after his admission he did very little busi- 
ness. In 1 87 1 he was a candidate for member of the legislature 
of Pennsylvania, but was defeated. In 1872 he was again a 
candidate for the legislature, and was elected, leading his ticket. 
His seat was contested, but Mr. Kisner sat in the legislature of 
1873 during the session, with the exception of five days, when 
he was ousted, both he and his contestant receiving full pay for 
the session. In 1881 and 1882 he was secretary of the State 
Central Democratic committee. He has held no other political 
office. For the past ten years he has been a director of the Hazle- 
ton Savings Bank, and is at present vice-president of the same. 

The so-called Pennsylvania Dutch stock from which Mr. 
Kisner hails is one that has yielded many of Pennsylvania's most 
distinguished men. In the learned professions, in mechanics, 
and in political life, many of its scions have left enduring marks. 
Kor a number of years, Pennsylvania's governors were all from 
this source, and none whose lot it has been to preside over the 
destinies of this great commonwealth have shed greater lustre upon 
themselves or it. This origin is distinguishable in Mr. Kisner's 
general appearance, as also in his disposition and temperament. 
His legal education, as above noted, was very thorough, and, in 
connection with studious habits and close application since, has 

Isaac Platt Hand. 31,^ 

made him an excellent adviser. One of the most distinguished 
of his fellow practitioners, who has been associated with him in 
a number of important cases, says " he brings to his practice 
great energy and a clever comprehension of the essential facts in 
a suit, as also an admirable capacity for outlining methods of 
prosecution." He has an extensive, important, and lucrative 
practice, much of which is in the Orphans' Court, where large 
interests are nearly always involved, and there is, as a rule, the 
greatest necessity for careful preparation and continuous, indus- 
trious application to the interests of clients. 

We have mentioned the fact of his having been secretary of 
the state committee of the democrats in the campaigns of 1881 
and 1882. In this position he was a tireless and yet prudent 
worker, fertile of resource and fearless in execution. The chair- 
man of the committee, W. U. Hensel, Esq., of the Lancaster bar, 
bears lavish tribute to the excellence of Mr. Kisner's service in 
that capacity. Mr. Kisner has frequently been a delegate to 
local and state conventions, and member of local committees of 
his party, and always, when acting in such capacity, has taken a 
leading part, contributing by his wise counsel and indomitable 
perseverance largely to the attainment of the object sought. 

He is well up in general literature, keeps thoroughly conver- 
sant with the news of the day, drives and likes good horses, has 
a comfortable competence, is a cheerful companion, and, in all 
respects, a good cifizen. 


Isaac Platt Hand was born in Berwick, Columbia county, 
Pennsylvania, April 5, 1843. He is a descendant of John Hand, 
an early puritan from Maidstone, county of Kent, England, who 
was one of a party that left Maidstone in 1648. On landing, 
they first went to Lynn, Massachusetts, but, not liking that 
region, they sent a delegation to the east end of Long Island, 
then in possession of the Shinnecock Indians, to view the land. 

314 Isaac Platt Hand. 

Their report was favorable. Through the governors of the 
Hartford and New Haven settlements, they purchased from the 
Indians the town of Easthampton, Long Island, for about thirty- 
pounds, which was paid in blankets, powder and shot, cloth, etc. 
They soon organized a government, by the election of selectmen 
and the adoption of a code of laws. They divided up a portion 
of the land, giving to each family a small farm and town lot, 
upon which houses were built. They also provided at once for 
the support of a pastor and the establishment of schools. In all 
this John Hand was one of the leading spirits. His name stands 
first on the documents which relate to the purchase from the 
Indians, and on the list of the first body of selectmen. The 
records show that, in 1657, John Hand, John Mulford, and 
Thomas Barber were the men before whom legal proceedings 
were conducted. IrenJEus, in the Nezv York Observer of August 
21, 1884, thus describes Easthampton of to-day : " No village in 
the state of New York has undergone less change by the influ- 
ence of modern improvement than Easthampton. Its one broad 
street, its wind mills, its geese and its graveyard, its antique, 
quaint and peculiar residences hold their own without fear or 
shame. Hundreds of city people find rest and delight in its 
cool, sequestered shades during the heats of summer, and seek 
the gently sloping beach for grateful bathing in the surf The 
house in which ' Home, Sweet Home ' was composed is still 
pointed out to inquiring strangers; indeed, two are rivals for the 
honor, and you take your choice. Artists have made sketches 
of the picturesque interiors and e.xteriors of the old habitations 
that remain as specimens of what was elegant in its day, and 
magazines have been adorned with the illustrations. Repose is 
the genius of the place. Nothing is in haste. Not a minute 
faster does time go now than it did ten years ago when I was 
here, and, having need to use the telegraph, found the office 
closed, with a notice that the operator had gone crabbing. Now 
I went to the barber's, and a notice on the shop door informed 
customers that he was in town every other day. It is very rest- 
ful to be in such a place. No rude alarm disturbs the quiet of 
this venerable retreat. It never yet has heard that most unearthly 
of all earthly sounds, the railroad shriek. The clear, sweet bugle 

Isaac Platt Hand. 315 

blast announces the coming of the post coach, also the peripatetic 
vendor of clams. Rarely does the inhabitant say, ' I am sick.' 
Health, peaqe, content, and comfort dwell here from age to age, 
the same in substance as it was in the beginning. The forefathers 
of the hamlet sleep in the country churchyard, successive genera- 
tions lie by their side, all waiting, with their first pastor, for the 
last trump to 'break up old marble' and call them to the grand 
assize." John Hand died in 1660. He had a son, John, who 
had a son, John, who had a son, Aaron, who was the grandfather 
of the subject of our sketch. He was an elder for years in the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church of Albany, N. Y. He was married 
to Tamar Platt at Kingsbury, N. Y., August 17, 1794. He died 
at Albany, N. Y., October 27, 1832, aged fifty-nine years. His 
wife died at Greenwich, N. J., January 16, 1854, aged eighty-one 
years. The father of Isaac P. Hand was Rev. Aaron Hicks Hand, 
D. D., who was a son of Aaron and Tamar {nee Platt) Hand. 
He was born in Albany, N. Y., December 3, 181 1, and died 
March 3, 1880. He was a graduate of Williams college, Mass., 
in the class of 183 1. He entered Princeton seminary, N. J., as a 
student of theology, from which he graduated in 1837, and was 
licensed as a minister by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, N. J., 
April 25, 1837, soon after which he went on account of his health 
to Georgia, where he supplied the churches of Roswell and 
Marietta from 1838 to 1841. He was ordained by the Presby- 
tery of Flint River, Georgia, April 11, 1841, after which time he 
returned to the north, and supplied the church at Berwick, Pa., 
from 1842 to 1845. As pastor of the church at Greenwich, 
Warren county, N. J., from September 2, 1851, until November 
2, 1870, he labored most efficiently and successfully. He was 
installed over the church at Palisades-on-the-Hudson, June 14, 
1 87 1, and continued in charge of it until released, September 16, 
1879, in consequence of increasing infirmities. He then removed 
with his family to Easton, Pa., where he spent his last days. 
Doctor Hand was an earnest and faithful minister of the gospel. 
He was a diligent student, and a writer of force and intelligence. 
For many years he was a trustee of Lafayette college, and from 
it received the degree of Doctor of Divinity. The wife of Rev. 
A. H, Hand was Elizabeth, youngest child of Captain John L. 

3i6 Isaac Platt Hand. 

Boswell, of Norwich, Conn. Her father's family, for generations, 
had been physicians; and her grandfather, Dr. Lemuel Boswell, 
of Norwich, intended that his son John should follow the calling 
of his ancestors, but the youth could ill brook the restraints and 
self-denials of the profession, and took the matter into his own 
hands by going to sea at an early age. He rose from one posi- 
tion to another until he became captain, at the age of twenty, of 
the ship " Sally," concerning which we find the following notice 
in " The History of Norwich," by Miss Caulkins : " Probably 
the highest duty ever paid by Norwich merchants on a single 
cargo was in October, 1798, when the ship Sally, John L. Bos- 
well, entering from St. Domingo, was charged at the custom 
house $12,121." In one of his voyages Captain Boswell's vessel 
was chased by pirates, overtaken, and boarded, but the crew were 
finally victorious. The villainous- looking cimeter now in the 
possession of a grandson of Captain John is a reminder of the 
days when those jolly sea-robbers made things lively " as they 
sailed" o'er the Spanish main. Having secured what was for 
those days a considerable fortune, he gave up a sea-faring life, 
and married, at about the age of thirty, Miss Hetty Coit. The 
remainder of Captain Boswell's, life was spent in his native town, 
where he died in 1842, a respected and honored citizen. Miss 
Hetty Coit was the lineal descendant of Deacon Thomas Adgate, 
one of the original proprietors and settlers of Norwich in 1659. 

Amos Richardson must have come to New England before 
1640. We find him in Boston as early as 1645, but he was 
doubtless there several years before. He is described as a 
" merchant tailor," and was a man of great respectability and of 
a good estate. After the departure of Stephen Winthrop, the 
governor's son, for England in 1641, he was agent for him in 
New .England, as he afterwards was for his brother John, the 
first governor of Connecticut after the charter. With Dean 
Winthrop and others he was one of the original grantees of 
Groton, Conn., though he never went there to live. He was 
made freeman in 1665, and removed to Stonington, Conn., in 
1666, of which town he was a representative in 1676 and 1677. 
He was a man of strong convictions and of determined energy 
and will, with a good deal of original talent, kind-hearted, but 

Isaac Platt Hand. 317 

never submitted to a wrong without an effort for the right. He 
died at Stonington August 5, 1683. Stephen Richardson, third 
son of Amos Richardson, was born in Boston June 14, 1652. 
He was a man of character and influence ; lived and died in 
Stonington, Conn. Amos Richardson, second son of Stephen 
Richardson, was born in 168 1.^ He settled in Coventry, Conn. 
Nathan Richardson, eldest son of Amos Richardson, was born 
March 20, 1725. Nathan Richardson, fifth son of Nathan 
Richardson, was born at Coventry, Conn., October 27, 1760, and 
removed to Manchester, Vermont, about 1780, and from thence 
to near Burlington, Chittenden county, Vermont, where he soon 
after died. He was an upright Christian man. William P. 
Richardson, son of Nathan Richardson, was born at Manchester, 
Vermont, July 22, 1784. In his early childhood he developed 
more than an ordinary aptness to learn, and excelled as a reader. 
During the whole period of his life, few men in his position were 
oftener called upon to read in public. In the Congregational 
church, of which he was a member, regular service at that time 
was always kept up on the Sabbath in the absence of the minis- 
ter. On such occasions — and they occurred hundreds of times 
during his life-time — Mr. Richardson was invariably called upon 
by one of the deacons to conduct the service, and to stand in the 
pulpit and read a sermon to the congregation. For weeks, and 
sometimes months, he served in this way the church in the 
absence of the pastor. He studied theology under the instruction 
of the Rev. Ebenezer Kingsbury (the grandfather of E. P. Kings- 
bury, of Scranton), pastor of the Congregational church, Jericho 
Centre, Vermont. On account of the protracted sickness of his 
mother, who required his constant care, he was compelled to 
relinquish all thought of the clerical profession. Mr. Richardson 
married September 7, 1807, Laura, daughter of Captain John 
Lyman. He was an old school Jeffersonian democrat, an ardent 
supporter of Madison and Monroe's administrations, and a decided 
advocate of the war of 1812. He enlisted as a volunteer, and 
was an officer of his company, which was" ordered to Plattsburg 
a short time before the battle. After the close of the war he 
purchased a farm near Jericho Centre, directing his attention to 
agricultural life. He was for many years a justice of the peace, 

3i8 Isaac Platt Hand, 

often a member of the board of selectmen, and represented Chit- 
tenden county in the legislature of the state in 1821, 1822, and 
1824. He wrote the early history of Jericho township, which 
was published in Thompson's Gazetteer of the state. He early 
became interested in the cause of education, and secured the 
establishment of a good academical school in his township; and 
was president of the first organized temperance society in his 
town. When more than eighty years of age, he removed, with 
his wife, to Butternuts, Otsego county, N. Y., spending the 
remainder of their days with their son-in-law, Edward Converse. 
Mr. Richardson, the father of J. L. Richardson, died February 
28, 1871. 

J. L. Richardson, the father of Mrs. I. P. Hand, was born near 
Jericho Centre, Chittenden county, Vermont, September 15, 
1816. The county was named after one of the first and most 
renowned governors of the state, the county in which Colonel 
Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, lived and died, the native 
county of Senator Edmunds, the native county of Doctor Higbee, 
superintendent of public instruction in Pennsylvania, and the 
first public school which Mr. Richardson attended was soon after 
taught by the father of President Arthur. His first term in the 
academy of his native town found him a schoolmate of Judge 
Poland, now and for many years a member of congress from 
Vermont. At the age of nineteen, Mr. Richardson taught his first 
school, near his native town, and soon after entered Burr seminary, 
at Manchester, Vermont, then under the principalship of his 
relative. Rev. Lyman Coleman, D. D., subsequently professor of 
ancient and modern history in Lafayette college, teaching winters, 
however, during the four years of his connection with the semin- 
ary. He left Manchester in 1842 on a visit to his sister Hannah, 
who, with her husband, John G. K. Truair, had charge of the 
Gilbertsville academy and collegiate institute at Butternuts, Otsego 
county, N. Y. He spent a year at this place, teaching in the 
academy, and during one term was associated with the late Rev. 
Reuben Nelson, D. D., who was a teacher of languages in the 
same institution. Mr. Richardson came to Luzerne county in 
1843, and taught school for several years. In the fall of 1855, 
while he was principal of Madison academy, at Waverly, Pa., he 

Isaac Platt Hand. 319 

was commissioned by Andrew G. Curtin, then secretary of state 
and superintendent of public instruction, as superintendent of the 
schools of Luzerne county. The act authorizing a superintendent 
was* passed in 1854, and the late Rev. J. W. Lescher was the first 
superintendent, but he resigned shortly after the act went into 
effect. Mr. Richardson's first act as superintendent was to issue 
the following circular : 

" Fellozv Teachers : As you are about to enter upon the arduous 
and important duty of training the youthful mind, it can hardly 
be necessary to remind you of the responsibility attendant upon 
the positions you are to occupy. At least for a brief period, the 
moral and intellectual training of far the larger portion of the 
children and youth of Luzerne county will devolve upon you. 
Around the faithful teacher clusters a moral grandeur which no 
other profession can claim. You are to act directly upon the 
human mind, just at that period of its existence when impressions 
are the most lasting, and when its direction is the most easily 
given. With this view of the subject, parents are about to sur- 
render to your guidance and care the most precious gifts which 
heaven has bestowed upon them. Remember their deep anxiety 
as they watch the mental and mdral development of their child- 
ren while under your instruction and supervision. Remember 
'that, just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.' You are to 
do an important part of the work in preparing those under your 
charge for the practical duties of life. The great moral and 
political machinery of the state will soon be propelled by those 
who are now young. Be careful, then, how you deal with the 
future jewels of our country. Cultivate in them a love of study 
and correct thought; impress upon their young minds the prin- 
ciples of moral right as the only sure basis of their future useful- 
ness. We are acquainted with many of the difficulties which 
will attend your efforts. Many of you will be without proper 
apparatus for your school-rooms, without a uniformity of text- 
books, located in miserable houses, entire;ly unfit for the noble 
design of education. But be of good cheer, for we believe a 
better day is coming. School directors are beginning to act in 
the right direction. The citizens of our thriving villages are 
beginning to feel uneasy when they view their splendid churches 

326 Isaac Platt Hand. 

and their magnificent hotels, etc., in contrast with their small, 
dingy, gloomy school-houses. The contrast is producing un- 
pleasant sensations of mind, and shows a want of propriety, har- 
mony, and consistency. But we are rejoiced to know, that, in 
several places, efforts are in progress to leave these miserable 
school buildings to the moles and bats, and in their places erect 
others better fitted for the education of those of whom it was 
said, ' Of such is the kingdom of heaven.' If you find your 
school-rooms not furnished with black board surface, maps, 
charts, etc., urge the directors to provide them for you. If 
school boards see that you are anxious by any means in your 
power to secure the improvement of your pupils, they will not 
be backward in assisting you. It will become my duty to visit 
your schools during the wmter — a duty I intend without fail to 
perform. We shall note the progress your schools are making, 
and your own tact and skill as teachers. I would suggest that 
you procure and read Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching, 
take the Pennsylvania School Journal, and you will be more likely 
to succeed in your profession. Keep a faithful report of the 
attendance, progress, and deportment of your pupils. Organize 
so far as you can town teachers' associations for mutual improve- 
ment in the art of teaching, and be assured of my willingness to 
co-operate with you in efforts to elevate the common schools of 
our county. " J. L. Richardson, 

" County Superintendent." 
Mr. Richardson did much to improve the efficiency of our 
schools, and as the office of county superintendent was very 
much opposed by a large number of our people at the first, he 
did much to elevate the office and gain for it the commendation 
of the people. He held the position for five years, and then 
voluntarily retired. He was succeeded in the office by Rev. 
Abel Marcy. The Richardsons are a race of teachers. They 
are found everywhere scattered throughout the country, in our 
colleges, seminaries, public schools, and in every department of 
scholastic labor. Of the brothers and sisters of Mr. Richard- 
son, Betsy, Nathan, and Martin L. taught in Vermont; Mrs. 
Edward Converse taught in Lackawanna county more than 
thirty years ago; Mrs. J. G. K. Truair had charge of the 

Isaac Platt Hand. 321 

ladies' department in the Gilbertsville academy and collegiate 
institute; Mrs. Emily Hillhouse taught an academical school in 
Columbus, Ohio ; and Simeon L. taught in Minnesota. Thus, 
out of a family of ten children that grew up to manhood, eight 
were teachers. It is a fact worthy of note, that, during a portion 
of the time that J. L. Richardson was county superintendent of 
Luzerne county. Rev. Willard Richardson was county superin- 
tendent of Susquehanna county, and Judson Richardson was 
county superintendent of Sullivan county. Mr. Richardson was 
for six years an agent of the New York American Missionary 
Association, and as such addressed thousands of his countrymen 
in favor of the newly-created citizens of African descent. His 
first year's residence in that capacity was in St. Louis, Mo., devot- 
ing his time to the organization of schools and employing teachers 
for them. He visited the states of New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Vermont, and raised thousands of dollars for his work among the 
freedmen. He is a pioneer anti-slavery man, and cast his vote for 
James G. Birney, John P. Hale, and other anti-slavery leaders. 
At the age of fourteen, he signed the pledge at a temperance 
meeting, of which his father was president, and he has never 
drank a glass of wine in his life. In two presidential campaigns, 
he was employed by the state committee of the temperance 
organization to canvass for votes, and to do all in his power to 
build up the cause. He has also been agent and solicitor for 
the Tunkhannock Republican, a temperance paper, and also for 
the Scranton City Journal. In 1879 he retired to a farm in 
Cooper township, near Danville, Montour county. Pa., where he 
now resides. He married June 19, 1846, Catharine Heermans, 
at that time living in Hyde Park (now Scranton), Pennsylvania. 
She was a sister of Edmunds and John Heermans, and niece of 
the late Joseph Fellows. 

Richard Lyman, the patriarch of all the Lymans of English 
descent in America, was born in High Ongar, Essex county, 
England, and was baptized October 30, 1580. The date of his 
birth is not known. He married Sarah Osborne, of Halstead, in 
Kent. She went to America with her husband and all their 
children, and died in Hartford, Conn., about the year 1640, soon 
after the death of her husband. Mr. Lyman embarked about the 

322 Isaac Platt Hand. 

middle of August, 163 1,. with his wife and children, in the ship 
" Lion," for New England, taking their departure from the port 
of Bristol. There went in the same ship Martha Winthrop, the 
third wife of John Winthrop, at that time governor of New Eng- 
land, the governor's eldest son and his wife and their children, 
also, Eliot, the celebrated apostle of the Massachusetts Indians. 
The ship made anchor before Boston on November 2, 163 1. 
Richard Lyman first became a settler in Charlestown, Mass., 
and, with his wife, united with the church in what is now called 
Roxbury, under the pastoral care of Eliot, the apostle to the 
Indians. He became a freeman at the General Court June 11, 
1635, and on October 15, 1635, he took his departure with his 
family from Charlestown, joining a party of about one hundred 
persons, who went through the wilderness from Massachusetts 
into Connecticut, the object being to form settlements at Wind- 
sor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. He was one of the first settlers 
at Hartford. The journey from Massachusetts was made in 
about fourteen days' time, the distance being more than one 
hundred miles, and through a trackless wilderness. They had 
no guide but their compass, and made their way over mountains, 
through swamps, thickets, and rivers, which were not passable 
but with the greatest difficulty. They had no cover but the 
heavens, nor any lodgings but those which simple nature afforded 
them. They drove with them one hundred and sixty head of 
cattle, and, by the way, subsisted in a great measure on the milk 
of their cows. The people carried their packs, arms, and some 
utensils. This adventure was the more remarkable as many of this 
company were persons of figure who had lived in England in honor, 
affluence and delicacy, and were entire strangers to fatigue and 
danger. Richard Lyman, on this journey, suffered greatly in 
the loss of cattle. He was one of the original proprietors of 
Hartford, and there is little doubt that he and his wife formed a 
connection with the first church in Hartford, of which the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker was pastor. His will, the first on record at 
Hartford, is dated April 22, 1640, and is the first in the valu- 
able collection of Trumbull, and stands Record I., p. 442, fol- 
lowed by an inventory of his estate. He died in August, 1640, 
and his name is inscribed on a stone column in the rear of the 

Isaac Platt Hand. 323 

Centre church, of Hartford, erected in memory of the first settlers 
of the city. His wife, Sarah, died soon afterwards. Richard 
Lyman is reported to have began hfe in the new world as a man 
of " considerable estate, keeping two servants." 

John Lyman, known as Lieutenant Lyman, born in High 
Ongar, September, 1623, came to New England with his father. 
He married Dorcas, daughter of John Plumb, of Branford, Conn. 
He settled in Northampton, Mass., where he resided until his 
death, August 20, 1690. Lieutenant John Lyman was in com- 
mand of the Northampton soldiers in the famous Falls fight, 
above Deerfield, May 18, 1676. Moses Lyman, son of Lieutenant 
John Lyman, was born in Northampton, Mass., P'ebruary 20, 
1623, and died February 25, 1701. Captain Moses Lyman, the 
only son of Moses Lyman, was born February 27, 1689, and 
died March 24, 1762. He married Mindwell Sheldon, December 
13, 17 1 2. Simeon Lyman, son of Captain Moses Lyman, was 
born in 1725 in Northampton, Mass,, settled in Salisbury, Conn., 
and joined the church in that place in 1740 by letter from the 
church in Northampton. He married Abigail Beebe, of Canaan, 
Conn., and both died in Salisbury in the year 1800. John 
Lyman, son of Simeon Lyman, of Salisbury, Conn., was born 
March 11, 1760. He married Huldah Brinsmade, of Stratford, 
Conn. He emigrated to Jericho, Vermont, soon after the Re- 
volutionary war, among the first settlers of the state. He was a 
man of deep thought, sound judgment, and an earnest Christian. 
As a bold and fearless soldier and sure marksman, he served 
faithfully his country in the war of the Revolution. He- died in 
1840. Laura Lyman was born November 10, 1789, and married 
September 7, 1807, William P. Richardson. She died at Butter- 
nuts, Otsego county, N. Y., February 28, 1869. 

In an address delivered by Hon. Lyman Tremain, a descendant 
of Richard Lyman through Simeon Lyman, at a reunion of the 
Lyman family, he uses this language : " How mighty and mar- 
velous are the physical, moral, and political changes that have 
been wrought in the condition of our country since Richard 
Lyman first entered the valley of the Connecticut. These can 
only be briefly sketched on this occasion. Eleven years before 
he landed at Boston, the pilgrims had planted their footsteps 

324 Isaac Platt Hand. 

upon the rock at Plymouth, and laid broad and deep the found- 
ations of free religious worship and republican liberty. Two 
years before, King Charles the First had granted the charter 
incorporating ' The Governor and Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England.' One year before, John Winthrop had 
been chosen governor of Massachusetts, and had emigrated to 
the colony, leaving his wife in England to follow him when her 
health would allow. * * * These feeble colonists have 
become a mighty nation. Where stood those primeval forests 
now stand populous cities, flourishing towns and villages, and 
smiling farms and farm houses, while the journey that then 
required fourteen days for its accomplishment is now made by 
the iron horse several times every day." 

Isaac Platt Hand was prepared for college at Gayley's prepara- 
tory school, at Media, Pa., after which time he entered Lafayette 
college, from which he graduated in 1865. From June 30, 1863, 
to August, 7, 1863, during the late war, he was a member of 
Company D, Thirty-eighth regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers. 
From 1865 to 1867 he was principal of the Hyde Park (Scranton) 
public schools. He was clerk of the City Council of Scranton 
from 1868 to 1870. Mr. Hand read law with the firm of Hand 
and Post, at Scranton, and practiced there until December, 1870, 
when he removed to Wilkes-Barre. He was admitted a member 
of the Luzerne county bar November 15, 1869, and for six years 
was the junior member of the firm of Wright (C. E.) & Hand. 
Mr. Hand was elected in 1880 a member of the school board of 
the Third district of this city, and in 1883 was re-elected without 
opposition. He is now secretary of the board, and has been its 
presiding officer. For the past four years he has been the secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Wilkes-Barre academy, and during the 
past year one of the trustees of the Wilkes-Barre female institute. 
He is also grand commander for Pennsylvania of the American 
Legion of Honor. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, 
and is prominent in republican political circles. He was chair- 
man of the republican city committee for four years, and in 
1880 was chairman of the republican county committee, but has 
never been a candidate for any political office. Hon. Alfred 
Hand, additional law judge of Lackawanna county, is his cousin. 

Is^Ac Platt Hand. 32^ 

Isaac P. Hand was married May 3, 1 871, to Mary Lyman Richard- 
son, daughter of J. L. Richardson. They have five children hving 
— Kathleen, Isaac Platt, Bayard, Laura, and Richardson Hand. 

It has already been remarked that Mr. Hand has never yet 
held a political office. This is not because he might not have 
done so, had his inclinations led him in that direction. In fact, 
he is very generally regarded by his party friends as possessing 
in a marked degree qualities which fit him for public position, 
added to the address and energy essential to success in these 
days of hot rivalry for political station. Very frequently his 
name has been canvassed in connection with nominations for the 
legislature and other official honors. Up to within a short time 
previous to the holding of the Republican senatorial convention 
of the year 1884, it was quite generally expected that he would 
be its nominee. That he could have had that distinction for the 
mere asking is conceded ; that he would have been pleased to 
accept it, had circumstances permitted, there is excellent reason 
for believing; but a young lawyer just coming into a paying 
practice, is not always wisest in yielding to such ambitions, and 
Mr. Hand's persistent refusal to become a candidate, though 
urgently solicited by many friends, was based upon that reason- 
ing. Later on, if he lives and preserves his strength, and when 
the yieldings of his professional services shall have made him 
more independent of private clients, it is probable that he may 
be influenced to take the public as a client, in which event there 
is little doubt among those who know him best but that he could 
grace whatever position he may aspire to, and to which he may 
be selected. 

His services in the school board to which he has been so long 
attached attest alike his devotion to the interests of popular 
education and his fitness as a worker in that important field. 

As an attorney, he is less given to forensic effort than to that 
industrious and searching investigation of a cause against which 
no mere argument, unless based upon similarly careful prepara- 
tion, is likely to prevail. Before the court there is far more in 
the matter of what he says than in the manner of his saying it. 

Personally, Mr. Hand stands high with all his acquaintances. 
Thoroughly well read, and an earnest but good natured conver- 

326 Edmund Gkiffin Butler. 

sationalist, he is always a popular figure in social assemblages. 
His tastes, however, are unusually domestic for one who takes 
such a marked interest in politics, and all the time he can spare 
from his professional and other public duties are spent in the 
quiet of his happy family circle. 


Edmund Griffin Butler was born June 11, 1845, at Wilkes- 
Barre, Pennsylvania. He is a descendant of Zebulon Butler, 
who emigrated to Wyoming in 1769. Zebulon Butler was born 
at Lyme, New London county. Conn., in 173 1, and was one of 
the first patriots who opposed British tyranny and dared to be 
free. He entered early into the provincial service, and served 
the mother country through the French war. He commenced 
his military career as an ensign, and soon rose to the rank of 
captain. He participated in the memorable hardships of the 
campaign of 1758 on the frontiers of Canada, at Fort Edward, 
Lake George, Ticonderoga, and Crown Point. In 1762 he was 
at the protracted siege of Havana. On his way he was on board 
one of the six vessels that were shipwrecked. All on board 
narrowly escaped a watery grave. They were on the beach nine 
days before they were relieved. On August 9 the last of the 
fleet arrived before Havana. The defense was obstinate — -'the 
sufferings of the besiegers great. Captain Butler shared largely 
in the dangers of the attack — the glories of the victory. He 
sailed for his long absent home on October 21 in the " Royal 
Duke," and encountered many perils during the voyage. On 
November 7 the ship began to leak so rapidly that it was with 
difficulty that her crew were transferred to another vessel near 
by before she went to the bottom. He arrived at New York 
December 21, and once more met the warm embrace of anxious 
relatives and friends. He had won enduring laurels ; he stood 
high as a brave and skillful officer — an esteemed and valued 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 32^ 

citizen. He then left the army, and enjoyed the peaceful pleasures 
of private life until the revolutionary storm began to concentrate 
its fearful elements. He was ready to brave its pitiless peltings. 
He had rendered arduous and valuable service to the mother 
country; he was well qualified to repel her ungrateful conduct, 
and render efficient aid in the defense of his native soil. When 
the tocsin of war w^s sounded from the heights of Lexington, he 
promptly tendered his services — was appointed a colonel in the 
Connecticut line, and repaired to the post of honor and danger. 
He was actively engaged in the campaigns of 1777-8-9. During 
the last year he was commissioned colonel of the Second Con- 
necticut regiment. He was with Washington in New Jersey, 
and was greatly esteemed by him. A short time previous to the 
revolution, he was one of a company from his native state that 
had purchased Wyoming valley from the Indians. Many settlers 
had located there, and cleared up much of the forest. Although 
fully remunerated for their lands, pursuant to contract made with 
their chiefs in grand counsel assembled, the red men were un- 
willing to leave a place so enchanting and congenial with their 
views of happiness. In this they were encouraged by the British 
and tories, most of the inhabitants having declared for liberty. 
Most of their effective force of near two hundred men was in the 
American army. Soon after the departure of these troops, the 
savages assumed a menacing attitude, manifesting a disposition 
to violate the terms of peace they had solemnly sanctioned when 
paid for their lands. Several stockade forts were erected,- a 
company of rangers organized, and placed under the command 
of Captain Hewitt. Every precaution was taken to guard against 
surprise; the movements of the red men were narrowly watched; 
their apparent designs closely observed. It soon became evident 
that they were preparing for a bloody sacrifice. An express was 
dispatched to the board of war, representing the approaching 
danger, requesting the return of the troops, who had recently 
joined the army, leaving their homes exposed to all the horrors 
of savage cruelty, rendered more awful by the more bloodthirsty 
tories of the valley. The request was not granted at once as it 
should have been, and was entirely too late to ward off the fatal 
slaughter and carnage that took place when these brave men 

328 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

were within two days' march of their murdered wives, children, 
and friends who slumbered in death, deeply gashed with the 
tomahawk. In the latter part of June a number of canoes were 
discovered descending the river just above the valley, filled with 
Indian warriors. They attacked a party of the inhabitants who 
were at work on the banks of the Susquehanna, killing and 
making prisoners of ten. They were evidently concentrating 
their forces for the purpose of an attack upon the settlement. 
At that critical juncture Colonel Zebulon Butler arrived. A 
large body of the savages had assembled at a point on the 
mountain opposite Wintermoot's fort. The militia, under the 
command of Colonel Denison, assembled at Forty Fort on July 
I. They scoured the western borders of the valley — discovered 
the bodies of those who had been massacred a few days before — 
killed two Indians, and returned. Not supposing danger so 
near, each man repaired to his own house for provisions. On 
July 3 most of the men able to bear arms, amounting to about 
four hundred persons of all classes, assembled again at Forty 
Fort. Some remained in the smaller forts with their families, 
presuming on the delay of an attack. The command of the 
troops was given to Colonel Butler. They were poorly armed, 
and had but a small supply of ammunition. But few of them 
had ever been engaged in battle, and were not familiar with 
military tactics. In a few moments after Colonel Butler had 
assumed the command, news was brought that the enemy had 
entered the upper end of the valley, and were advancing down- 
ward. A council of war was held, and an unfortunate resolve 
made' to march out and attempt to arrest the savages in their 
career of desolation and carnage. The troops proceeded some 
distance from the fort, and took an advantageous position on the 
banks of Abram's creek, near Maltby, where they supposed the 
enemy would pass on their way to the principal fort. There 
they remained for nearly an hour without seeing the foe. 
Another council of war was held, which resulted in adding to 
the error of leaving the fort, that of attacking the enemy in their 
position, contrary to the opinion of several officers. Colonel Butler 
among the number, who were as brave but more judicious than 
those who urged the fatal movement. The order to advance 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 329 

was given. They had not proceeded more than a mile when the 
advanced guard fired upon several Indians, and found Fort Win- 
termoot in flames. The force of the enemy was concentrated at 
Fort Wintermoot, amounting to one thousand one hundred 
effective men, consisting of Indians, tories, and British regulars. 
Echo returned demoniac yells of the savages from the surround- 
ing hills — the forest resounded with the appalling war whoop. 
Another serious error was committed by the ill-fated Americans. 
Not until they were upon the battle field did they learn the 
superior force, of the revengeful foe. As the little band ap- 
proached, they found the Indians and tories formed in line, 
their right resting on a swamp, commanded by Indian chiefs ; the 
left, reaching to Fort Wintermoot, headed by Colonel John 
Butler. Colonel Zebulon Butler led the right, and Colonel 
Denison the left, of the Americans to the attack. So determined 
was this Spartan band on victory that the right of the enemy 
gave way in a few minutes closely pursued by Colonel Zebulon 
Butler. In consequence of part of the Indians passing the 
swamp to gain his rear, Colonel Denison ordered his men to fall 
back. Many supposing he had ordered a retreat, the line became 
confused and broken. At that unfortunate juncture, the Indians 
rushed upon it with such fury that it could not be rallied. At 
that critical moment, Colonel Zebulon Butler rode towards the 
left, and first learned the misfortune of Colonel Denison, and saw 
his men retreating in disorder. He was then between two fires, 
and near the advancing enemy. Before the troops on the right 
were apprised of the fate of the left, they were nearly surrounded 
by the savages, and compelled to retreat precipitately. The rout 
was general — the slaughter horrible — the scene terrific. But 
about ninety survived, among whom were Colonels Butler and 
Denison, who were more exposed than most of the others. The 
few who escaped from the dreadful carnage of that fatal day 
assembled at Forty Fort. So heartrending was this defeat that 
the surviving inhabitants were willing to submit to any terms to 
save their lives. In discussing the terms of surrender, it was 
insisted that Colonel Zebulon Butler and the remains of Captain 
Hewitt's company, being continental soldiers, should be surren- 
dered as prisoners of war. Colonel Denison desired time to 

330 Edmund GRif^FiN Butler. 

consult with his officers, which was allowed. Returning, he 
hastened to Wilkes-Barre, where, having an interview with 
Colonel Zebulon Butler, it was judged expedient that he and the 
fourteen men remaining of Hewitt's command should immedi- 
ately retire from the valley. Ordering the men to Shamokin, 
Colonel Butler threw a bed upon his horse, took Mrs. Butler 
behind him, and that night tarried at the Nescopeck valley (now 
Conynghani), twenty miles from Wilkes-Barre, and from there 
to Gnadenhutten, on the Lehigh, where he made the following 
report to the board of war : 

" Gnadenhutten, Penn township, July loth, 1778. 
"Honored Sirs: On my arrival at Westmoreland, which was 
only four days after I left Yorktown, I found there was a large 
body of the enemy advancing on that settlement. On the ist of 
July, we mustered the militia, and marched toward them by the 
river above the settlement — found and killed two Indians at a 
place where, the day before, they had murdered nine men en- 
gaged in hoeing corn. We found some canoes, etc., but, finding 
no men above their main body, it was judged prudent to return ; 
and as every man had to go to his own house for his provisions, 
we could not muster again till the 3d of July. In the meantime 
the enemy had got possession of two forts, one of which we had 
reason to believe was designed for them, though they burned 
them both. The inhabitants had some forts for the security of 
their women and children, extending about ten miles on the 
river, and too many men would stay in them to take care of 
them ; but, after collecting about three hundred of the most 
spirited of them, including Captain Hewitt's company, I held a 
council with the officers, who all agreed that it was best to attack 
the enemy before they got any farther. We accordingly marched, 
found their situation, formed a front of the same extension of the 
enemy's, and attacked from right to left at the same time. Our 
men stood the fire well for three or four shots, till some part of 
the enemy gave way; but, unfortunately for us, through some 
mistake, the word retreat was understood from some officer on 
the left, which took so quick that it was not in the power of the 
officers to form them again, though I believe, if tliey had stood 
three minutes longer, the enemy would have been beaten. The 

Edmund Gkiffin Butler. 331 

utmost pains were taken by the officers, who mostly fell. A 
lieutenant-colonel, a major, and five captains, who were in com- 
mission in the militia, all fell. Colonel Durkee, and Captains 
Hewitt and Ransom, were likewise killed. In the whole, about 
two hundred men lost their lives in the action on our side. 
What number of the enemy were killed is yet uncertain, though 
I believe a very considerable number. The loss of these men so 
intimidated the inhabitants that they gave up the matter of fight- 
ing. Great numbers ran off, and others would comply with the 
terms that I had refused, The enemy sent flags frequently ; the 
terms you will see in the inclosed letter. They repeatedly said 
they had nothing to do with any but the inhabitants, and did 
not want to treat with me. Colonel Denison, by desire of the 
inhabitants, went and complied, which made it necessary for me 
and the little remains of Captain Hewitt's company to leave the 
place. Indeed, it was determined by the enemy to spare the 
inhabitants after the agreement, and that myself and the (ew 
Continental soldiers should be delivered up to the rjavages ; upon 
which I left the place, and came away, scarcely able to move, as 
I have had no rest since I left Yorklown. It has not been in my 
power to find a horse or man to wait on the Board till now. I 
must submit to the Board what must be the next step. The 
little remains of Hewitt's company, which are about fifteen, are 
gone to Shamokin, and Captain Spaulding's company, I have 
heard, are on the Delaware. Several hundred of the inhabitants 
are strolling in the country destitute of provisions, who have 
large fields of grain and other necessaries of life at Westmore- 
land. In short, if the inhabitants can go back, there may yet be 
secured double the quantity of provisions to support themselves, 
otherwise they must be beggars, and a burden to the world. 

" I have heard from men that came from the place since the 
people gave up that the Indians have killed no persons since, 
but have burned most of the buildings, and are collecting all the 
horses they can, and are moving up the river. They likewise 
say the enemy were eight hundred, one half white men. I 
should be glad that, if possible, there might be a sufficient guard 
sent for the defense of the place, which will be the means of sav- 
ing thousands from poverty, but must submit to the wisdom of 

332 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

Congress. I desire further orders from the honorable Board of 
War with respect to myself and the soldiers under my direction. 

" I have the honor to be your honor's most obedient humble 
servant. " Zebulon Butler." 

On July 4 Colonel Denison entered into a capitulation with 
Colonel John Butler to surrender the fort on condition that the 
lives of the survivors should be preserved, and not further molested 
in person or property. These conditions were solemnly agreed 
to, but were most disgracefully violated. As the Indians marched 
in they commenced an indiscriminate plunder. Butler was 
appealed to, but replied that he could not control them, walked 
out, and left them to finish their work in their own way. Find- 
ing themselves .still at the mercy of the Indians, the inhabitants 
fled to the nearest settlement, towards the Delaware, about fifty 
miles distant, through a dense wilderness and over rugged 
mountains. Their flight was a scene of widespread and harrow- 
ing sorrow. Their dispersion being in an hour of the wildest 
terror, the people were scattered, singly, in pairs, and in larger 
groups, as chance separated or threw them together in that sad 
hour of peril and distress. Let the mind picture to itself a single 
group, flying from the valley to the mountains on the east and 
climbing the steep ascent — hurrying onward and filled with 
terror, despair, and sorrow; the affrighted mother whose hus- 
band has fallen — an infant on her bosom — a child by the hand — 
an aged parent slowly climbing the rugged steep behind them. 
Hunger presses them severely. In the rustling of every leaf, 
they hear the approaching savage ; a deep and dreary wilderness 
before them — the valley all in flames behind — their dwellings 
and harvests all swept away in this spring flood of ruin — the 
star of hope quenched in this blood-shower of savage vengeance. 
There is no work of fancy in a sketch like this. Indeed, it can- 
not approach the reality. There were in one of these groups 
that crossed the mountain — those of them that did not perish by 
the way — one hundred women and children, and but a single 
man to aid, direct, and protect them. Their sufferings for food 
were intense. One of the surviving officers of the battle, who 
escaped by swimming the river, crossed the mountain in advance 
of many of the fugitives, and was active in meeting them with 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 333 

supplies. " The first we saw on emerging from the mountains," 
said a Mrs. Cooper, " was Mr. Hollenback riding full speed from 
the German settlement with bread! and O! it was needed; we 
had saved nothing, and were near perishing ; my husband had 
laid his mouth to the earth to lick up a little meal scattered by 
some one more fortunate." After their departure, the savage 
tories and red men laicj waste the town of Wilkes-Barre and 
most of the houses in the valley, plundering or destroying all 
the property they could find. They then drove the cattle and 
horses to Niagara. They had fully satiated their thirst for blood 
— desolation was completed — vengeance was gorged — nature 
mourned over the dismal scene. 

Colonel Zebulon Butler left Gnadenhutten and proceeded to 
Stroudsburg, where he met the returning Wyoming troops and 
a few of those who had escaped on the day of the unfortunate 
battle. In August he was ordered to return with such force as 
he could collect and take possession of Wyoming valley. On 
his arrival he found a few Indians, who were collecting the cattle 
that the main body had left. They fled precipitately without 
their plunder. Colonel Butler erected a new fort at Wilkes-Barre, 
and established a well-regulated garrison, which he commanded 
until the winter of 1780, keeping the tories and savages at bay, 
not risking a general action, but killing them off in detail by 
scouting parties of sharp-shooters whenever they approached the 
settlement. The expedition of General Sullivan in 1779 paralyzed 
the Indian power upon the Susquehanna, and restored a good 
degree of confidence in the inhabitants. In December, 1780, 
Colonel Butler was ordered to join the continental army, and 
left Captain Alexander Mitchell in command of the fort. After 
serving his country faithfully to the close of the war of independ- 
ence, the colonel returned to the vale of Wyoming to enjoy the 
fruits of his perilous toils and the gratitude of the inhabitants 
whom he had nobly aided and protected. In January, 1774, an 
act was passed by the General Assembly of Connecticut enacting 
all the territory within her charter limits from the river Delaware 
to a line fifteen miles west of the Susquehanna into a town, with 
all the corporate powers of other towns in the colony, to be 
called Westmoreland, attaching it to the county of Litchfield, 

334 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

Connecticut. This town was about seventy miles square. Zebu- 
Ion Butler was, on March i, 1774, chosen moderator of the first 
town meeting, and also town treasurer. In November, 1776, the 
town was incorporated into a county, called Westmoreland, and 
Zebulon Butler was appointed a justice of the peace, as he had 
been one in the town. He was also a member of the Connecti- 
cut General Assembly from Westmoreland in the years 1774, 
1775, and 1776. On August 30, 1787, after the establishment of 
Luzerne county, he received from the Supreme Executive Council 
of Pennsylvania the honorable appointment of lieutenant of the 
county, which he held until the office was abrogated by the new 
constitution of 1790. The act of assembly forming Luzerne 
county named Mr. Butler one of the trustees to locate and erect 
a court house and jail. John Butler, the grandfather of Zebulon 
Butler, and probably his son, John Butler, Zebulon's father, were 
natives of Ipswich, Suffolk county, England. John Butler, the 
elder, was born in 1653, and died March 26, 1733. He married 
Catharine, daughter of Richard Houghton, of New London. 
John Butler, the younger, married Hannah Perkins. Thomas 
Butler was the brother of John Butler, the elder, and was the 
grandfather of Colonel John Butler, the tory leader in the battle 
of Wyoming. The brothers, John and Thomas Butler, were 
residents of New London in 1682. Walter, son of Thomas 
Butler, received a military appointment in the Mohawk country, 
and in 1728 was promoted to the captaincy of the " Forts," and 
in 1742 his family removed from New London to join him. 
Captain Butler was the ancestor of Colonels John and Walter 
Butler, who were associated with the Johnsons as royalists. 

Zebulon Butler was thrice married. First, to Anna Lord, 
December 23, 1760. The fruits of this union were three child- 
ren — Zebulon Butler, who died in infancy; Lord Butler; and 
Hannah, consort of Roswell Welles, a lawyer of handsome 
talents and attainments. The second wife of Colonel Butler was 
Lydia, daughter of Rev. Jacob Johnson, the first go.spel minister 
of Wyoming. Their union was brief, and a son, the late Captain 
Zebulon Butler, was their only child. While on duty at West 
Point near the close of the war. Colonel Butler married his third 
wife, Phebe Haight. They had three children— the late Steuben 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 335 

Butler, of Wilkes-Barre ; Lydia, who intermarried with George 
Griffin, who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county in 1800, 
and who was for many years afterwards a leading lawyer in the 
city of New York. The late Rev. Edmund Griffin, whose ac- 
curate and extensive learning and brilliant talents gave promise 
of unusual usefulness and fame, and whose early death was so 
deeply lamented, was the son of George Griffin. Ann, who 
married John Robison, was the third child. Their only daughter 
married the late Hendrick B. Wright. Dearly beloved by his 
immediate friends, esteemed by all who knew him, the waning 
years of Colonel Butler were crowned with the most refined 
comforts of social and domestic life. He glided down the stream 
of time smoothly and calmly, and on July 28, 1795, he fell asleep 
in the arms of his Lord and Master, deeply mourned and sin- 
cerely lamented. His career closed as brightly as it had been 
glorious and useful. He was an amiable companion, a virtuous 
citizen, a consistent Christian, a brave, noble, worthy, honest 

Lord Butler, eldest son of Zebulon Butler, that survived to 
manhood, was born at Lyme, Conn., February 28, 1770. Charles 
Miner, in his " History of Wyoming," says : " Lord Butler was 
but a youth in the time of the Revolution ; yet he was some time 
in camp with his father. I mention this because associating them 
with officers of rank had doubtless an influence on his manners 
in after life. He was tall — more than six feet, straight as an 
arrow; his countenance manly, with bold Roman features; his 
manners grave and dignified. Courteous he was, but it was the 
courtesy of a gentleman who felt the dignity of his own charac- 
ter; lofty and reserved to those who loved him not — no one 
approached him with a joke or a slap on the shoulder. A man 
of active business habits ; he wrote a bold, free, and excellent 
hand, and his accounts and affairs were always in the strictest 
order. He rode admirably, and appeared extremely well on 
horseback — no one loved a nobler, steed than he. An iron grey 
was his favorite. I have seen him an hundred times on horse- 
back, and never indifferently mounted — never without a hand- 
some riding whip — never without gloves. These trifles will give 
you a better idea of the man — his appearance and habits — than 

336 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

perhaps a more studied description. He was always and every- 
where the gentleman. Decided in his political opinions, and 
free in expressing them, his opponents said he was proud. If 
an unworthy pride was meant, the charge was unjust. But if 
an election was depending and he a candidate, he would neither 
shake hands with nor smile on a man with whom he would not 
have done the same as cordially if he had not been on the lists. 
His delicacy in this particular was probably carried rather to 
excess ; for no truer republican ever lived — no one had a more 
sincere regard for his fellow men — no man was more devoted to 
the independence and liberty of his country. But his reserve, 
which enemies construed into hateur, was the result of early 
associations. His father, the gallant Colonel Butler, who had 
been much with British officers in the old French war, and with 
the accomplished French officers in the war of the Revolution, 
had a good deal of dignity and gravity about him." Lord Butler 
was for many years one of the most active public men in Luzerne 
county. Besides the militia offices which he filled, until he rose 
to the rank of general, he held the commission of the first sheriff 
of Luzerne county. On August 17, 1791, he was commissioned 
prothonotary, clerk of the Quarter Sessions and Orphans' Court, 
and register and recorder of Luzerne county. From October 30, 
1789, to December 20, 1790, he was a member of the Supreme 
Executive Council of the state. Under the constitution of 1790, 
a senate took the place of a council. In 1801 he was a member 
of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. From 1815 to 18 18 he was 
one of the commissioners of Luzerne county, and for some time 
held the position of county treasurer. He was the first post- 
master in Wilkes-Barre, and held the office from 1794 to 1802. 
He was one of the incorporators of the Wilkes-Barre academy, 
and served on the board of trustees from 1807 to 1824, the year 
of his death. He was for seven years president of the board. 
From 1806 to 1808 he was a member of the town council of the 
borough of Wilkes-Barre, and president of the same. He was 
also burgess of the borough from 181 1 to 181 4. In all these 
varied offices General Butler sustained the highest character for 
faithfulness and ability. No public servant ever deserved better 
of the public. If he would not condescend to flatter their preju- 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 337 

dices, he yet delighted all with his intelligeiice and zeal to pro- 
mote their best interests. He was a man of stern integrity, and 
lived and died highly respected and esteemed ; while in the family 
and social circle, he was justly and tenderly loved. General But- 
ler married Mary, daughter of Abel Pierce, who was the son of 
Major Ezekiel Pierce, one of the original settlers at Wyoming 
in 1763. He was the ready writer in early days, and for a suc- 
cession of years clerk of the town, the records being in his 
handwriting. He had five sons, all grown to manhood, when he 
removed to Wyoming, and must therefore have been advanced 
towards the decline of life. Their names were Abel (father of 
Mrs. Butler), Daniel, John, Timothy, and Phineas. When, in 
June, 1778, the two independent companies were consolidated into 
one, under Captain Spaulding, Timothy and Phineas were com- 
missioned first and second lieutenants. Timothy was one of 
the three who rode all night before the battle, arrived after the 
troops had marched out, followed, and fell. John was also slain 
in the engagement. Major Pierce was one of the members from 
Westmoreland to the Connecticut assembly in 1775. Among 
General Butler's children, Sylvina married Judge Garrick Mallery, 
who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county August 8, 1810. 
He was a native of Middlebury, Connecticut, where he was 
born April 17, 1784. He was one of the board of trustees of the 
Wilkes-Barre academy from 181 1 to 1832. In 1828 and 1829 he 
was burgess of the borough of Wilkes-Barre. He was a member 
of the legislature of Pennsylvania during the years 1826, 1827, 
1828, and 1829. He was president judge of Berks county, and 
afterwards of Northampton county. He died at Philadelphia 
July 6, 1866. Ruth Ann married Judge John N. Conyngham, 
who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county April 3, 1820, and 
who was burgess of the borough of Wilkes-Barre in 1827 and 
1828, and from 1834 to 1838. H e was also a member of the town 
council in 1849 and 1850. He was a member of the board of 
trustees of the Wilkes-Barre academy from 1824 to 1838. He 
was born in Philadelphia in 1798, and died from the result of an 
accident in Mississippi in 187 1. In 1839 he was commissioned 
president judge of Luzerne county, and, with the exception of 
the years 1850 and 185 1, he remained in commission until his 

338 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

resignation in 1870.' His sons, William L. Conyngham and 
Major Charles M. Conyngham, are residents of this city. His 
daughter, Ann, became the wife of Bishop William Bacon 
Stevens, of the Protestant Episcopal church. Phebe married Dr. 
Donaldson ; Pierce married Temperance Colt ; John L. married 
Cornelia Richards (mother of Mrs. Judge Stanley Woodward) ; 
Chester, who was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county August 
8', 1820, and who was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature 
in 1832, 1838, 1839, and 1843, ^nd from 1846 to 1850 a member 
of congress from the county of Luzerne. Rev. Zebulon Butler was 
for many years an esteemed pastor of a Presbyterian congregation 
at Port Gibson, Mississippi. Lord Butler, youngest son of 
General Butler by his first wife, was born October 18, 1806. He 
was a civil engineer by profession, but up to the year 1829 was 
a farmer and merchant. From 1829 to 1834 he was engineer 
and superintendent of the North Branch canal. From 1835 to 
1839 he was engineer of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Slack 
Water Company and on the railroad from White Haven to the 
top of the mountain. He was a pioneer coal operator at Pittston 
with his brother. Colonel John L. Butler, and his brother-in-law. 
Judge Mallery, in 1840. He followed the business until near 
the end of his life, which occurred November 27, 1861, in the 
brick house now occupied by Brown's book store, on the Public 
square. This house was built by his father-in-law, Joseph 
Slocum, in 1807, and was the first brick building, and also the first 
three-story building, erected in the county of Luzerne. He was a 
member of the town council of the borough of Wilkes-Barre 
from 1851 to 1855, and also from 1857 to 1859. Mr. Butler was 
a warm and personal friend of the late Rev. Reuben Nelson, 
D. D., and took an active part as one of the trustees of Wyoming 
seminary. He served as trustee from the opening of the seminary 
in 1844, and continued a member of the board until 1857. He 
was secretary of the board of trustees during the j^ears 1852 and 
1853. In i860 he was an elector on the Bell and Everett presi- 
dential ticket. From 1823 to the day of his death Mr. Butler 
was an active member of the Franklin street Methodist Episcopal 
church. He served the church of his choice as class leader, 
exhorter, Sabbath school superintendent, steward, trustee, and 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 339 

teacher. His wife, Abi S., who is still living, was converted at a 
camp meeting held at Spring Brook, Luzerne (now Lackawanna) 
county, in September, 1821, and is the oldest surviving member 
of the Franklin street M. E. church. The first infant Sabbath 
school for white children in Wilkes-Barre was organized by 
Mrs. Butler in 1829. Previous to this time, a Sunday school for 
colored people was held in Rev, Ard Hoyt's kitchen, which was 
taught by Misses Hoyt, Jewett, and Bowman. 

Anthony Slocombe is recorded as one of the forty-six " first 
and ancient purchasers," A. D. 1637, of the territory of Cohannet, 
which was incorporated March 3, 1639, with the name of Taun- 
ton, in New Plymouth, now Massachusetts, and from which the 
present townships of Taunton, Raynham, and Berkley have been 
organized. The interests of the several purchasers were in the 
ratio of six, eight, and twelve, Mr. Slocombe purchasing eight 
shares. Giles Slocombe, son of Anthony, was born in Somerset- 
shire (?) England, and, coming to America, he settled in what is 
now the township of Portsmouth, in Newport county, Rhode 
Island. He and his wife were early members of the Society of 
Friends. The Friends' records for Portsmouth, Rhode Island, 
show that " Joan Slocom, the wife of old Giles, she Dyed at 
Portsmouth the 31st 6 mo. 1679." He died in 1682. Samuel 
Slocum, son of Giles, was born probably about the year 1657. 
He was the heir first named in his father's will in 168 1. He 
probably married and resided in or near Newport, Rhode Island. 
The records of Newport previous to December 6, 1779, were 
carried away during the Revolutionary war, and remained in a 
vessel submerged in the East river, New York, for three years. 
The books were recovered, but were in such bad condition that 
much of their contents was lost past recovery. Giles Slocum, 
son of Samuel, was born in or near Newport, Rhode Island. He 
was married there November 23, 1704, by Joseph Sheffield, 
assistant, to Mary Paine, daughter of Ralph and Dorothy Paine, 
of Freetown, Massachusetts. He was admitted freeman of 
Newport in May, 1707, and died there previous to 1724. Hon. 
Joseph Slocum, son of Giles Slocum, was born in Newport, 
Rhode Island, January 30, 1706, and was married September 27, 
1724, to Patience, daughter of Caleb Cam They removed to 

340 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

East Greenwich township, Rhode Island, where he was admitted 
freeman in 1732, and became a farmer and dealer in land. He 
was chosen deputy to the Rhode Island General Assembly from 
West Greenwich — after the division of the township — in the 
years 1741, 1742, and 1744. But little has been ascertained 
concerning his later history. It is presumed that he removed to 
the Wyoming valley, Pennsylvania, about 1763, as he is named 
as one of the early settlers there by Charles Miner in his History 
of Wyoming, and is on the list of the first settlers at Wyoming. 

Jonathan Slocum, son of Joseph, was born in East Greenwich 
township, Kent county, Rhode Island, May i, 1733, and was 
married to Ruth Tripp, daughter of Isaac Tripp, February 23, 
1757, by Ebenezer Slocum, justice of the peace. After marriage 
they resided in Warwick, Rhode Island. The tide of emigration . 
which had set in a few years before this date from Connecticut 
to Wyoming — then claimed by Connecticut — had increased, and 
some residents of Rhode Island joined the movement. Joseph 
Slocum, his father, and Isaac Tripp, his father-in-law, removed 
thither about 1763, and Jonathan, leaving his family behind, 
followed them about 1771, as is shown by the following record: 

" A lot surveyed to Colonel Lodwick Ojidirk in ye township 
called ye Capoose Meadow passed into the hands of Jonathan 
Slocum in 1771 on account of Slocum's Doeing ye. Duty of a 
settler for Ojidirk." 

This lot was within or near the limits of the city of Scranton, 
Pennsylvania. It appears that Jonathan Slocum returned to 
Rhode Island, as his name is again found on the records there as 
"of Warwick," in a sale of land under date of April 16, 1774. 
At this time his household numbered fourteen head as follows : 
ten children, two negro and two Indian servants. It is highly 
probable that he returned to the Wyoming valley the same year. 
He settled with his family in a house now near the corner of 
Canal and Scott streets, in Wilkes-Barre, and there his daughter, 
Frances, was seized by Indians November 2, 1778, under the 
following circumstances : A party of Delaware Indians visited 
Wyoming, and directed their way to Mr. Slocum's residence. 
Nathan Kingsley had been made prisoner by the Indians, and 
bis wife and two sons were taken in by Mr. Slocum, and afforded 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 341 

the protection and comforts of a home. When the Indians came 
near, they saw the two Kingsley boys grinding a knife before 
the door. The elder of the lads was dressed in a soldier's coat, 
which it is presumed was the special reason of his being marked 
as a victim. One of the savages took deadly aim at this young 
man, and he fell. The discharge of the gun alarmed Mrs. Slocum, 
and she ran to the door, where she saw the Indians scalping the 
young man with the knife which he had been grinding. She 
secreted herself until she saw a stalwart Indian lay hold of her 
son, Ebenezer, a little lad who, by an injury in one of his feet, 
had been made lame. The idea that the little fellow would fail 
to keep up with the party, and would be cruelly butchered, 
rushed with such force upon the mind of the mother that she 
■forgot all considerations of safety, and, running up to the Indian, 
and pointing at the foot of the boy, exclaimed, " The child is 
lame ! he can do thee no good." Little Frances, about five 
years old, had hid, as she supposed, under the stairs, but had 
been discovered by the Indians. The savage dropped the bo}', 
and seized the little girl, and took her up in his arms. All the 
entreaties of the mother in this case were treated with savage 
scorn. The oldest daughter ran away with her youngest 
brother, Joseph, the grandfather of the subject of our sketch, 
about two years old, with such speed and in such affright that 
the savages, after yelling hideously at her, roared out laughing. 
They took the remaining Kingsley boy and a colored girl, and 
away they went, little Frances screaming to '' mamma" for help, 
holding her locks of hair from her eyes with one hand and 
stretching out the other. Charles Miner, in his History of 
Wyoming, says : " The cup of revenge was not yet full. Decem- 
ber 16, 1778, Mr. Slocum and his father-in-law, Isaac Tripp, an 
aged man, with William Slocum, a youth of nineteen or twenty, 
were feeding cattle from a stack in the meadow in sight of the 
fort when they were fired upon by Indians. Mr. Slocum was 
shot dead, Mr. Tripp wounded, speared, and tomahawked. 
Both were scalped. William, wounded by a spent ball in the 
heel, escaped and gave the alarm, but the alert and wily foe had 
retreated to his hiding place in the mountain. This deed, bold 
as it was cruel, was perpetrated within the town plot, in the centre 

342 Edmund Griffin ButleR. 

of which the fortress was located. Thus, in a Httle more than a 
month, Mrs. Slocum had lost a beloved child, carried into cap- 
tivity, the doorway had been drenched in blood by the murder 
of an inmate of the family, two others of the household had been 
taken away prisoners, and now her husband and father were both 
stricken down to the grave, murdered and mangled by the mer- 
ciless Indians. Verily, the annals of Indian atrocities written in 
blood record few instances of desolation and woe to equal this." 
In August, 1837, fifty-nine years after the capture, a letter ap- 
peared in the Lancaster Intelligencer, written by Colonel G. W. 
Ewing, of Logansport, Indiana, dated January 30, 1835, a year 
and a half previous, stating : " There is now living near this place, 
among the Miami tribe of Indians, an aged white woman, who, a 
few days ago, told me that she was taken away from her father's 
house on or near the Susquehanna river when she was very 
young. She says her father's name was Slocum ; that he was a 
Quaker, and wore a large brimmed hat; that he lived about a 
half a mile from a town where there was a fort. She has two 
daughters living. Her husband is dead. She is old and feeble, 
and thinks she shall not live long. These considerations induced 
her to give the present history of herself, which she never would 
before, fearing her kindred would come and force her away. 
She has lived long and happy as an Indian; is very respectable 
and wealthy, sober and honest. Her name is without reproach." 
This letter, as a matter of course, awakened great interest, and 
her brothers, Joseph and Isaac Slocum, repaired to Logansport, 
where they fortunately met Mr. Ewing. The lost sister received 
notice of their arrival, and came to Logansport on horseback, 
accompanied by her two daughters, all dressed in fine Indian 
costume. Frances, before her captivity, had received a blow on 
her finger in the smithshop which crushed the bone, and when 
the brothers saw the wounded hand, they embraced her and burst 
intj tears. She related the leading events of her life. She stated 
that she had been adopted into an Indian family, and had been 
kindly treated. She said that young Kingsley had died after a 
a few years. When grown up she had married a chief, and her 
Indian name was Maconaquah, Young Bear. In subsequent 
years she was again visited by her brothers and other members 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 343 

of the family. A life-size portrait of her was painted, and is 
now in possession of Mrs. Abi Slocum Butler, of this city. 
When arrangements were being made by the government to 
settle the Indians of Indiana west of the Mississippi, Mr. Slocum 
did not forget his sister. He petitioned congress in her behalf, 
and succeeded in enlisting powerful support. Hon. B. A. Bidlack 
took charge of the bill, and John Quincy Adams made one of 
his strong speeches in its support, and it became a law. The 
bill provided that one mile square of the reserve, embracing the 
house and improvements of Frances Slocum, should be granted 
in fee to her and her heirs forever. She remembered the kind- 
ness, and went down to the grave in a goodly old age with the 
gratitude of a warm heart, and wishing many blessings upon her 
brother. During her last sickness, which was brief, Frances 
Slocum refused all medical aid, declaring that, as her people 
were gone and she was surrounded by strangers, she wished to 
live no longer. She departed this life March 9, 1847, aged 
seventy-four years. She had Christian burial, a prayer being 
made at her house, and her remains conducted to the grave by a 
clergyman. Frances Slocum sleeps upon a beautiful knoll near 
the confluence of the Missisinewa and the Wabash by the side 
of her chief and her children, where her ashes will rest in peace 
until the morning of the resurrection. Mrs. Slocum died at 
Wilkes-Barre May 6, 1807. William Slocum, who was wounded 
at the time his father and grandfather were killed, was elected 
sheriff of Luzerne county in the year 1795, when it included the 
present counties of Luzerne, Lackawanna, Susquehanna, Wyom- 
ing, and the greater part of Bradford. He held that office until 
1799, a"d then retired to his farm in Pittston township, where 
he was elected justice of the peace in 1806. He was classed 
among the prominent and influential men of his county. Judith, 
the oldest daughter of Mr. Slocum, married Hugh Forsman, a 
farmer in Wilkes-Barre. He was a subaltern in Captain Hewitt's 
company during the Wyoming massacre, and was one of the 
fifteen of that corps who escaped the slaughter, and he was the 
only one who brought in his gun. 

Joseph Slocum, son of Jonathan, was born at Maiden, Rhode 
Island, April 9, 1777. He settled in Wilkes-Barre, and was 

344 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

a blacksmith and farmer. He was chosen the first captain of 
the "Wyoming Blues" military company in 1805. On April 
28, 185 1, he was appointed by Governor Johnson one of the 
associate judges of Luzerne county. He was a member of the 
town council of the borough of Wilkes- Barre during the years 
1818, 1819, 1829, and 1830. He was one of the incorporators 
of the Wilkes-Barre academy, and was a member of the board of 
trustees from 1807 to 1838, twenty-five years of which time he 
was its treasurer. The township of Slocum and Slocum post- 
office were named in his honor. He married, in 1800, Sarah, a 
daughter of Jesse and Hannah Welding Fell, natives of Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania. His fourth daughter, Abi S., the mother 
of the subject of our sketch, was born June 22, 1808, in Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., and became the wife of Lord Butler. 

Joseph Fell, son of John and Margaret Fell, was born at 
Longlands, in the parish of Rochdale, county of Cumberland, 
England, October 19, 1668. He learned the trade of carpenter 
and joiner with John Bond, of Wheelbarrow Hill, near Carlisle, 
and worked at it as long as he remained in England. He 
married Elizabeth Wilson, of Cumberland, in 1698, and in 1705 
immigrated to America with his wife and two children. They 
sailed in the Cumberland, and made the capes of Virginia in 
twenty-nine days from Belfast. Landing at the mouth of the 
Potomac, they made their way by land and water via Choptank, 
Frenchtown, and Newcastle, where they took boat for Bristol, 
Bucks county, Pennsylvania. He died in Buckingham, in the 
same county, in 1753. The family were members of the Society 
of Friends or Quakers. 

Thomas Fell, the eighth child of Joseph Fell, married Jane 
Kirk, of the county of Bucks. Their first child was Jesse Fell, 
who was born in Buckingham April 16, 1751. On August 20, 
177s, Jesse Fell and Hannah Welding, of Bucks county, were 
joined in marriage by Isaac Hicks, Esq., one of the justices of the 
peace of Bucks county, " by virtue of a marriage license by them 
produced under the hand and seal of the Hon. John Penn, Esq., 
governor and commander-in-chief of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania." In the latter part of the year 1785, Jesse Fell removed, 
with his wife and four children, to the Wyoming valley for the 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 345 

purpose of engaging in mercantile pursuits. He purchased the 
property at the corner of Washington and Northampton streets, 
and since known by his name, for forty pounds, on December 2i, 
1787. Here he carried on a store and tavern for many years. 
For a long time it was the sojourning place of the judges and 
lawyers upon the circuit, and the rendezvous of many local 
celebrities. During 1797-98-99 the sheriff's sales of real estate 
were held at the " Buck," as Mr. Fell's tavern was named. Mr. 
Fell continued to occupy these premises and to keep open house 
until his death, and for many years thereafter the place was, and 
is now, known as " the old Fell House." A very small portion of 
the building is still standing, and is kept as a hotel by Charles S. 
Gable. On October 21, 1789, the Supreme Executive Council 
of Pennsylvania commissioned Mr. Fell sheriff of Luzerne county 
for two years. On October 23, 1790, Sheriff Fell was re-com- 
missioned, and served a further term of two years. On January 
10, 1792, Mr. Fell was appointed lieutenant of the county of 
Luzerne by Thomas Mifflin, governor of Pennsylvania. On 
April II, 1793, Governor Mifflin 'appointed Mr. Fell brigade 
inspector of the Luzerne Militia brigade for the term of seven 
years. Although he was a Quaker and a professed noncomba- 
tant, Mr. Fell accepted the office and performed the duties thereof 
until the spring of 179&, when he was succeeded by Putnam 
Catlin, a member of the Luzerne county bar. Major Fell's first 
military experience has been described as follows : On the morn- 
ing of the first parade of his brigade he took it into his head to 
drill a little by himself Dressed in full regimentals, he marched 
out on the back porch of his house, and," placing himself in a 
military attitude with his sword drawn, exclaimed " Attention, 
Battalion ! Rear rank three paces to the rear. March ! " and 
he tumbled down into the cellar. His wife, hearing the racket, 
came running out saying, " Oh ! Jesse, has thee killed thyself! " 
" Go to, Hannah," said the hero ; " what does thee know about 
war?" On February 5, 1798, Mr. Fell was appointed by 
Governor Mifflin an associate judge of the courts of Luzerne 
county, to serve during good behavior. This position he filled 
with dignity and credit for a period of thirty-two years and a half, 
and terminated only by his death. In 1798 Mr. Fell was ap- 

346 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

pointed town clerk of Wilkes-Barre, which position he held for 
several years. While the commissioners, Judge Thomas Cooper, 
General John Steele, and William Wilson, were settling the 
contested land claims, under the Compromise Act of 1799, Judge 
Fell was constantly employed as their clerk. He was from the 
beginning their right hand man — for information or for advice — 
and his services were inestimable. In 1804 he was appointed 
assistant clerk to the county commissioners. This position he 
held until January, i&ig, when he was appointed clerk, and in 
this office he continued until his death. Few men wrote so plain 
and beautiful a hand as Judge Fell ; his handwriting was indeed 
so excellent as to be an enviable accomplishment, and was of 
much value to him. On March 17, 1806, the act incorporating 
the borough of Wilkes-Barre was passed by the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania. Judge Fell was named in the act as a commis- 
sioner to issue the proclamation for holding the first election for 
borough officers. The proclamation was issued April 25, and 
the election held May 6. He was elected burgess, and served 
in that office for one year. Subsequently, he served four terms 
as burgess, from 1814^0 181,8. He was a member of the borough 
council for many years, and he served as its president from May, 
1809, to May, 18 to; May, 1811, to May, 1814; and May, 1820, 
to May, 1823. He was a member of the first board of trustees 
of the Wilkes-Barre academy, which was incorporated March 19, 
1807, and filled that, position until his death in 1830. He was 
four years secretary, and three years president, of the board. In 
1808 occurred that event which more than any other circum- 
stance in the life of Jesse Fell has caused his name to be known 
and remembered by the people of this section of our common- 
wealth down to the present day. Judge Fell had seen anthracite 
coal burnt by blacksmiths in their fires, and he himself had 
used it as early as 1788 in a, nailery for making wrought nails. 
Obadiah Gore, an early settler of Wyoming, is supposed to have 
been the first person who attempted to use the coal. In 1768 or 
1769 he found by experiment that it was valuable in blacksmith- 
ing, and soon its use became general among the blacksmiths of 
the valley to the entire exclusion of charcoal. Mr. Fell was 
satisfied that it would burn in a grate properly constructed, and 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 347 

thus answer for family use. Turning the matter in his own 
mind, and gathering information and advice from Hon. Thomas 
Cooper, then president judge of the courts of Luzerne county, 
and afterwards president of Columbia college, South Carolina, 
who was familiar with the use of bituminous coal in England, 
Judge Fell and his nephew, Edward Fell, improvised a rude 
grate of green hickory withes. Having satisfied himself that the 
general design was good, the judge aided a blacksmith in forming 
an iron grate, which he placed in the bar-room of his house. As 
no little amusement had been excited at the judge's exertions to 
burn coal, he determined to make a suitable exhibition of the 
first attempt in the new grate, and accordingly gave notice to a 
large number of the most respectable citizens that, on the suc- 
ceeding evening, his experiment would be tried. The evening 
came, the fire was kindled, and the coal burned with unexpected' 
brilliancy; but only two or three of his neighbors came to wit- 
ness the experiment. The others, supposing the judge ha.d 
found out the fallacy of his plans, and intended to take a little 
innocent vengeance on them for their incredulity, very prudently 
tarried at home with the view of laughing at those of the invited 
who might have been more yielding than themselves-. Among 
others, Judge Cooper had been ii/vited to stop at the tavern on 
his way home. He did so, and saw a nice coal fire burning In 
the grate. Judge Cooper became very angry to find that he had 
been superseded in the discovery, and he walked the floor mut- 
tering to himself " that it was strange an illiterate man like Fell 
should discover what he had tried in vain to find out." On the 
day of his experiment. Judge Fell made the following entry on a 
fly leaf of his " Freemasons' Monitor:" 

"February 11, of Masonry 5808. Made the experiment of 
burning the common stone coal of the Valley in a grate in a 
common fire place in my house, and find it will answer the pur- 
pose of fuel, making a clearer and better fire, at less expense 
than burning wood in the common way. " Jesse Fell.' 

" Borough of Wilkes-Barre, 
"Feby. 11, 1808." 

His experiment succeeded beyond his sanguine expectations. 
He caused a substantial grate to be made and set up in his 

348 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

house, where it was in use for a long time. For many years it 
was generally considered and believed that Jesse Fell was the 
first person to discover that anthracite coal could be used for 
domestic purposes, but within the last few years evidence has been 
procured showing that, for several years before Fell made his 
experiment, anthracite coal had been successfully burned in stoves 
and grates by Oliver Evans and Frederick Graff, of Philadelphia, 
who soon after recounted their success in letters to some of their 
friends and acquaintances. We are indebted to the Wyoming 
Historical and Geological Society of this city for the following 
letters of Oliver Evans and Frederick Graff, in their own proper 
handwriting, evidencing that fact : 

" Being required to give my opinion of the qualities of the 
, Lehi coals. 

\ " I do certify to those whom it may concern. That I have 
experienced the use of them in a close stove and also in a fire 
place that may be closed and opened at pleasure so constructed 
as,' to cause a brisk current of air to pass up through a small 
contracted grate on which they were laid. I find them more 
difficult to be kindled than the Virginia Coal, yet a small quantity 
of dry wood laid on the grate under them is sufficient to ignite 
them, which being done they continue to burn while a sufficient 
quantity be added to keep up the combustion, occasionally stir- 
ring them to shake down the ashes. They, however, require no 
more attention than other coal, and consume away, leaving only 
a very light and white colored ashes, producing a greater degree 
of heat than any other coal that I am acquainted with perhaps in 
proportion to their weight, they being much the heaviest. They 
produce no smoke, contain no sulphur, and when well ignited 
exhibit a vivid, bright appearance, all which render them suitable 
for warming rooms. And as they do not corrode mettle as- much 
as other coals, they will probably be the more useful for Steam 
Engines, Breweries, Distillerys, smelting of metals, drying malt, 
&c. But the furnaces will require to be properly constructed, 
with a grate contracted to a small space, through which the air 
,is to pass up through the coal, permitting none to pass above 
them into the flue of the chimney until they are well ignited, 
when the doors of the stove or furnace or close fire place may 

Edmund Griffin Butler. 349 

be thrown open to enjoy the benefit of the light and radiant heat 
in front. A very small quantity of them is not sufficient to keep 
up the combustion ; they require nearly a cubic foot to make a 
very warm fire, consuming about half a bus. in about fourteen 
hours. " Oliver Evans. 

"Philadelphia, Feby. 15, 1803." 

■" Having made a trial of the Lehi coal some time in the year 
1802, at the Pennsylvania bank, in the large stove, I found them 
to answer for that purpose exceeding well. They give an ex- 
cellent heat, and burn lively. It is my opinion they are nearly 
equal to double the quantity of any other coal brought to this 
market for durability ; of course less labour is required in attend- 
ing the fire. Mr. Davis,' Superintendent of the water works of 
Philadelphia, has also made a trial of them for the Boiler of the 
Engine imployed in that work, and has found them to answer 
well. It must be observed, a draft is necessary when first kindled. 
For the use of familys the fire place can be so constructed with 
a small expense as to have the sufficient draft required. My 
opinion is, they will be found cheaper than wood. They burn 
clean. No smoke or sulphur is observed, or any dirt flying when 
stirred, which is a great objection to all other coal for family use. 
If the chimneys for the burning of those coal are properly con- 
structed, and a trial made, I am well convinced that most of the 
citizens of Philadelphia would give them preference to wood. 

" Fred'k Graff, 
" Clerk of the water works of Philadelphia. 

"Phila., May i, 1805." 

In 1 8 10 the Luzerne County Agricultural Society was or- 
ganized, and Judge Fell was its first president. From 181 2 to 
1814 he was treasurer of the Bridgewater and Wilkes-Barre 
Turnpike Company, operating that part of the road running from 
Wilkes-Barre to Tunkhannock ; and for a number of years he 
was one of the managers, and, in 1824, president, of the Easton 
and Wilkes-Barre Turnpike Company. In 1845 Fell township, 
Luzerne (now Lackawanna) county, was organized, and was 
named in honor of Judge Fell. 

Mr. Fell left surviving him three sons and five daughters. 
Sarah Fell, his third child and second daughter, married Joseph 

350 Edmund Griffin Butler. 

Slocum, of Wilkes-Barre, in 1800, and was the grandmother of 
the subject of our sketch. Mrs. Fell died March 7, 1816, and 
Judge Fell died August 5, 1830. 

Edmund Griffin Butler, son of Lord Butler, was educated at 
the Waverly institute, Waverly, New York, and the Wesleyan 
university, Middletown, Connecticut, from which last named 
institution he graduated in 1868. He studied law with Edward 
P. Darling, and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county 
November 17, 1869. He married December 22, 1869, Clara T. 
Cox, daughter of the late Henry Wellesley Hamilton Cox, of 
Friendsville, Pennsylvania. Mr. Cox was a native of England, and 
emigrated when a child to Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, 
and was a lineal descendant of the learned Dr. Richard Cox, 
tutor to Edwkrd the Sixth, one of the compilors of the liturgy, 
and who, in the reign of Elizabeth, was created Bishop of Ely. 
Mrs. Butler's mother was Caroline Peironnet, daughter of James 
S. Peironnet, a native of Dorchester, England. A friend said of 
him, " He exchanged for a home in a then uncultivated wild, in 
Susquehanna county, the shaven lawn and rose-wreathed cottages 
that lend such charms to English scenery. He often reminded 
■ me of those virtues that grace the character of an English county 
squire as shadowed forth by the felicitous pen of L'ving. He 
retained a love of letters to the last." Mr. and Mrs. Butler have a 
family of three children — Abi H., Elsey P., and Caroline C. Butler. 

Mr. Butler has inherited the best of the traits of the sturdy 
ancestry from which he sprang. He is a respected citizen in the 
community, in the early history of which his progenitors played 
so conspicuous a part. Without any pretence to brilliancy in his 
profession, he has nevertheless, by close application to his books 
and by manifesting a genuine, hearty interest in his cases, acquired 
a distinctive position therein, which is at the same time honorable 
and pecuniarily profitable. His practice is extensive, and almost 
wholly in the Common Pleas, to which he brings a natural apti- 
tude, the fruits of a careful training and an unremitting industry. 

The law is a profession in which there is much hard work to 
be done. Not only those who would achieve distinction in, but 
all who are dependant upon it for a livelihood, must submit to 
much in their practice that closely approaches drudgery. It is 

Burton Downing. 351 

only the fortunate few whose names and reputations enable them 
to refuse employment except in leading positions and in causes 
involving large interests. These reap golden harvests from merely 
planning the strategic moves of litigation, leaving to the younger or 
less brilliant and otherwise less favored of the fraternity t.he weary 
work of detail which frequently calls for equal ability, and always 
for more intense and burdensome application. There is a certain 
heroism in the faithful performance of this latter part of the practice, 
a sacrifice of needed rest and recreation, a sternly exacting devotion 
to the interests of clients that are seldom even understood, much 
less rewarded. Yet, after all, it is mainly those who are capable 
of such heroism, willing to make such sacrifices in the beginning 
of their professional careers, who ultimately reach the top rungs 
of the ladder. Such men's patience and perseverance must 
in the end reap for them the full measure of their deservings. 
They are a long way on their journey, however, before the nature 
and worth of their work come to be recognized by those whose 
appreciation leads to its reward. We are led to these remarks 
by the reflection that Mr. Butler is one of the patient many who 
have thus been toiling along urtcomplaining'ly, energetically, and 
never-tiring, until he has at last come to be looked upon by his 
brother professionals, and — what is more to the purpose — by a 
large number of the business community who have had the 
benefit of his services, as a lawyer of wide experience, sound 
judgment, safe in counsel, and reliable in execution. 

Mr. Butler is five feet eight inches in height, heavily built, and 
of commanding presence, the soul of good nature, well informed 
on general topics, and a companionable gentleman in every 


Burton Downing was born in the township of Hanover, Luzerne 
county, Pennsylvania, November 14, 1845. He is a descendant 
of an old New England family of that name. His great grand- 
father, Reuben Downing, came to Wyoming about 1763, in 

352 Burton Downing. 

company with Joseph Slocum, from either Connecticut or Rhode 
Island. He was probably a boy or young man at that time. 
His name appears among the list of taxables in Wilkes-Barre in 
1799. Bateman Downing, son of Reuben Downing, was born 
January 11, 1795, at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in a log house 
on Main street, near Northampton, where the Chrystal block 
now stands. He was a farmer and blacksmith. On February 
28, 1825, he was appointed by Governor Shulze a justice of the 
peace for Hanover and Newport townships, and was for upwards 
of forty years a justice of the peace in Hanover township. In 
the years 1831, 1832, 1850, and 185 1, he was treasurer of Luzerne 
county. In 1840 he was an assistant marshal, and took the cen- 
sus of the greater part of Luzerne county. He married early in 
life Sarah, a daughter of Benjamin Gary, and removed to the 
farm of his father-in-law, which he subsequently purchased. Mr. 
Gary was a descendant in the fourth generation of John Gary 
(originally spelled Carew), who came from Somersetshire, near 
the city of Bristol, England, about 1634, and joined the Plymouth 
colony. The precise date of his arrival in the new world is not 
known, nor the date of his birth. When a youth he was sent by 
his father to France to perfect his education, and while absent .his 
father died. On returning home to Somersetshire, he differed 
with his brothers about the settlement of their father's estate. 
He compromised by receiving one hundred pounds as his portion, 
and immediately sailed for America. We find his name among 
the original proprietors and first settlers of Duxbury and Bridge- 
water, Massachusetts. His name occurs in the original grant as 
well as in the subsequent deed made by Ousamequin, the sachem 
or chief of the Pockonocket Indians, in 1639. Mr. Gary's share 
was one mile wide and seven miles in length. Bridgewater was 
the first interior settlement in the old Plymouth colony. " Dux- 
bury New Plantation " was incorporated into a new and distinct 
'town, and called Bridgewater, in 1656. John Gary was elected 
constable, the first and only officer elected in the town that year. 
He was elected the first town clerk, and held the office each 
consecutive year until 1681. In 1667 John Gary was appointed 
on a jury "to lay out the ways requisite in the town." In 1667 
Deacon Willis and John Gary were chosen " to take in all the 

Burton Downing. 353 

charges of the late war (King PhilHps') since June last, and the 
expenses of the scouts before and since June." Mr. Gary was 
prominent among his fellows, and participated actively in town 
meetings ; was intelligent, well educated, and public spirited. 
The tradition is that he taught the first latin class in the colony. 
Doubtless he was deeply imbued with puritan principles, and a 
decided Christian, as were all the Bridgewater settlers. He died 
in 1681. Francis Gary, son of John, was born in Bridgewater in 
1648, and died in 1718. Samuel Gary, son of Francis, was born 
in Bridgewater in 1677, and removed from that town to Duchess 
county. New York. Eleazer Gary, son of Samuel, was born in 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts, in 1718, removed with his father 
and family to Duchess county. New York, and thence went as a 
pioneer to Wyoming valley in 1769. He married a Miss Stur- 
devant, and had a large family of sons and daughters, among 
them Benjamin Gary, the father of Mrs. Downing. The place of 
settlement of this family was called Garytown, now in the lower 
part of the city of Wilkes-Barre. John Gary, one of the sons of 
Eleazer Gary, was a man of herculean frame, marvelous strength, 
and great personal courage. He enlisted under Gaptain Durkee, 
in the Revolutionary war, and sei-ved with distinction throughout 
the war ; was at the Wyoming massacre and escaped death. It 
is recorded of him that, when eighteen years of age, when the 
early settlers of the valley were suffering for food, he went on 
foot over the mountains, in the severe cold of winter, to Easton, 
Pennsylvania, for flour. Samuel Gary, another son, was small in 
stature, but active, energetic, persevering, and patriotic. He was 
in the battle of Wyoming, under Gaptain Bidlack, and was among 
those who escaped massacre ; he was taken prisoner by the In- 
dians, and remained a captive for six years ; and was supposed to 
have been murdered, but unexpectedly returned in 1784 to 
Wyoming, having suffered incredible hardships in the mean- 
while. Nathan Gary, another son, was in the memorable battle 
of Wyoming, but escaped miraculously and without injury. He 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. He was the first coroner 
of Luzerne county. Benjamin Gary was commissioner of Luzerne 
county from 18 13 to 181 6. In 1864 Bateman Downing removed 
to Edgerton, Rock county, Wisconsin, where he died May 24, 

354 Burton Downing. 

1879. An obituary of him states that " he was an influential and 
leading democrat of the Jacksonian stripe ; and in his political 
integrity, his faithfulness to public trust, and his genial, social 
qualities as husband, father, friend, and neighbor, he was a model 
in his day and generation. One peculiar trait of his character 
was his happy faculty of giving good practical advice and counsel 
to young men, so that, with a well spent life, full of honor and 
replete with manly virtues, though dead, he still lives in the daily 
walks and conversations of those who are wise enough to follow 
his excellent example." Reuben Downing, son of Bateman 
Downing, "and father of Burton Downing, was born in Hanover 
township February 16, 1822. He was brought up as a farmer, 
and followed that occupation for many years. From 1847 to 
1853 he was deputy sheriff, under the administrations of William 
Koons and Gideon W. Palmer re.spectively. In 1853 he was a 
candidate for sheriff against Abram Drum, but was defeated by 
less than a hundred votes. On May 28, 1855, he was appointed 
prothonotary by Governor Pollock, which he filled until the next 
general election. The vacancy was caused by the death of Anson 
Curtis, M. D., the prothonotary. During the years 1868, 1869, 
and 1870, he was one of the auditors of Luzerne county. In 
1870 he was commissioned by Governor Geary one of the jus- 
tices of the peace for Hanover township. During a portion of 
the late civil war, he was treasurer of the bounty fund of Han- 
over township, and one of the deputy provost marshals of the 
Twelfth congressional district of Pennsylvania. He has also 
held the positions of school director, judge of elections, and other 
local offices in his native township. Since 1870 Mr. Downing 
has been the real estate agent of the Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Company. He is a man of wealth, and a director of the 
First National bank of this city, and owns one-half of the massive 
structure in which the bank is located. He resides in this city. 
He married, in 1844, Nancy Miller, daughter of the late Barnet 
and Mary Miller, of Hanover township. Burton Downing, the 
subject of our sketch, is his only son living. He was educated 
in the common schools of his native township and at the academy 
in the borough of New Columbus, Pennsylvania. He entered 
the office of Harry Hakes as a student of law, and was admitted 

Charles Edmund Rice. 355 

to the bar of Luzerne county November 19, 1869. Mr. Downing 
followed his profession for a few years, and is now engaged in 
attending to the property interests of his father. He has also 
taught school in Hanover township and other localities. He is 
a widower, having married Emma Brown, daughter of Smith 
Brown. Eva Frances Downing is their only child. 

Mr. Downing does not appear to have acquired that love for 
the allurements of the law — such as they are — that prompts so 
many to waste time in its practice that could probably be more 
profitably employed in other directions. He has rather inclined 
to stick closely to his first love — the farm ; and the bright pros- 
pects the unusually propitious circumstances under which he is 
a farmer hold out to him, are such as would give almost any 
man ample warrant for following the plow. As already shown, 
he had the advantage of excellent general training, and of a 
first-class preceptor, and but for his preference for the humble, 
though probably more useful, avocation, might have gone to the 
first rank in our profession. 


Charles Edmund Rice was born September 15, 1846, at Fair- 
field, Herkimer county, N. Y. He is a descendant of an old 
Wallingford, Connecticut family of that name, his great-grand- 
father having been a teacher in Wallingford and New Haven for 
over forty years prior to the revolution. His grandfather, Moses 
Rice, was a native of Wallingford, where he was born in 1797, 
but removed to Salisbury, Herkimer county, N. Y., at an early 
age. He died in 1880. His wife was Roxana Cook, daughter 
of Atwater Cook, who was a descendant of Henry Cook, a native 
of Kent, England, who emigrated to the new world and was at 
Plymouth, Mass., before 1640. His son, Samuel, went to Wal- 
lingford in 1670 with the first planters. Mrs. Rice was born in 
Salisbury, Herkimer county, N. Y., September 25, 1777, and died 
September 15, 1852. Hon. Atwater Cook, of Salisbury, promi- 

356 Charles Edmund Rice. 

nent in Herkimer county in his day, and who represented the 
county in the state legislature in 1831 and 1839, was a brother 
of Mrs. Rice. Thomas Arnold Rice, the father of Charles E. Rice, 
after his marriage removed to Fairfield. He was a leading man in 
his town, and was for many years a trustee of the Fairfield acad- 
emy and the Fairfield Medical college. His wife was Vienna 
Carr, a daughter of Eleazer and Hannah Carr. The Carrs were 
natives of Salisbury and the family was originally from Connect- 
icut. Charles E. Rice, son of Thomas Arnold and Vienna Carr 
Rice, was prepared for college at Fairfield academy, N. Y. This 
institution was incorporated in 1803, and for the first twelve or 
fifteen years of its existence was the only school of the kind in 
central or western New York in which thorough academic in- 
struction could be obtained. After leaving the academy Mr. 
Rice entered Hamilton college, Clinton, N. Y., from which he 
graduated in 1867. After leaving college he went to Blooms- 
burg, Pa., where he taught for one year in the Bloomsburg 
Literary institute, in the meanwhile reading law with John G. 
Freeze, of that place. In 1868 and 1869 he attended the Albany 
Law School, from which he graduated in the latter year and was 
admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the state of New 
York. He then came to Wilkes-Barre, where he has since re- 
sided, and entered the office of his relative, Lyman Hakes, and 
was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county February 21, 1870. 
In 1874 he was the candidate of the republican party for the 
office of Orphans' Court judge, but was- defeated by Daniel L. 
Rhone, the present incumbent. In 1876 he was nominated by 
the republican party for district attorney of the county, and was 
elected over P. J. O'Hanlan, democrat, by a majority of two 
thousand four hundred and forty-four, and this in a county that 
gave Samuel J. Tilden, who ran for president the same year, 
nearly four thousand majority. In 1879 he was the candidate of 
his party for law judge, and was elected over William S. McLean, 
democrat, and John Lynch, labor reformer. He is now the pres- 
ident judge of Luzerne county. Mr. Rice was one of the charter 
trustees of the Memorial Presbyterian church, and he is now one of 
the trustees of the Wilkes-Barre Female institute. He married 
December 18, 1873, Maria Mills Fuller, daughter of the late 

Charles Edmund Rice. 357 

Henry M. Fuller, of the Luzerne county bar. They have two 
children living, Charles Edmund and Philip Sydney Rice. Lieu- 
tenant Adam Clarke Rice, of the 121st regiment New York Vol- 
unteers, who died during the recent civil war, was a brother of 
Charles E. Rice. His "letters and other writings" in a book of 
one hundred and sixty-six pages were compiled by Judge Rice, 
and printed for private circulation among the friends of the 

There have been good lawyers who have not made good 
judges. There have been some good judges who were not 
among the best lawyers. The man who combines the qualities 
essential to success, both at the bar and on the bench, and whose 
qualities never forsake or fail him in either capacity, is a remark- 
able man. The man who reaches the bench and sits long enough 
on it to warrant this verdict of himself before he has reached his 
fortieth year is one man among ten thousand. This reads like 
extravagant commendation, yet it is fully merited in the case of 
Judge Rice. His progress to one of the highest honors of the 
profession, to a position that would justify the honorable seeking 
of a lifetime, has been rapid, yet it has had no meretricious 
aids, and is the reward solely of valuable services faithfully per- 
formed. Judge Rice's practice in the courts attracted attention 
with its very beginning. There was a quiet force in his methods, 
and a clean cut vigor in his arguments, that brought him at once 
into an enviable notoriety. In attestation of this was his nomi- 
nation for the responsible position of judge of the Orphans' 
Court within five years after his admission. Men of even less 
service in the profession have, upon occasion, had similar honors 
awarded them, but it was generally in recognition of their activity 
and worth as workers in partisan politics, a field in which Judge 
Rice has never made himself conspicuous. Only two years 
later, as already stated, he was made a candidate for the district 
attorneyship, and the remarkable majority by which he was 
elected was as much a deserved tribute to the popular esteem in 
which he was held as to the fact that his opponent's nomination 
had been achieved in despite of the protests of a large contingent, 
both professional and lay, of his own party. As prosecutor of 
the pleas of the commonwealth he achieved a most enviable rep- 

35 8 Charles Edmund Rice. 

utation. He was always ready. He was rigorously impartial. 
The public had a live and trusty representative in the Quarter 
Sessions, and while the law or the facts were never strained to 
convict the accused for the glory of the prosecution, the wrong- 
doer who had not escaped the guantlet of the grand jury room 
was made to realize that the law could not be offended or public 
rights or individual liberties infringed with impunity within his 
jurisdiction. He never promised more than he felt that he could 
fully prove, and seldom proved than he had promised. 
There was never any rant or straining for dramatic effect in his 
presentation or summing up of a case. His pleas were calm, 
dignified, incisive, and without any waste words. The duties 
of the office were performed, in short, with such- becoming 
earnestness and fidelity as is seldom equaled and never excelled. 
In such a position and thus discharging his trust he made ene- 
mies, of course, but they were of the sort whose enmity begets 
for its object the friendship of better men. When in 1879, there- 
fore, he was nominated for additional law judge, the people had 
come to have great faith in him, knowing that his comparative 
youth was set off by a soberness of mood and maturity of judg- 
ment far in advance of his years. He was chosen, as stated, in 
the three-handed contest that followed, and with the retirement 
of Judge Harding in 1879 became the president judge of the dis- 
trict. According to the census of 1880, Luzerne is, excluding 
Philadelphia, the third largest county in the state, the other two 
being Allegheny and Lancaster. Owing to the greater rapidity of 
growth in mining than in agricultural communities, Luzerne is 
to-day, in all probability, the next largest after Allegheny. Its 
present population of probably one hundred and sixty thousand 
souls, the mixed nationalities of which that population is made 
up, and the vast mining and other property interests located 
within its borders give its courts and judicial proceedings an im- 
portance which reaches out beyond its limits, and is, relatively 
to those of its sister counties, very great. In no county are 
questions of greater variety likely to arise for judicial abitra- 
ment, and in few, if any, is there as frequent call for original 
authoritative determination of the meaning of the unwritten and 
statutory law. The responsibilities here involved are assuredly 

Charles Edmund Rice. 359 

a safe test of the capacity of the man, or men, upon whose 
shoulders they are foisted. Judge Rice has acquitted himself of 
them with remarkable success, displaying a legal acumen and 
nicety of logical discrimination, the best proof of the sufficiency 
of which is the frequency with which it has found endorsement 
in the higher tribunal; or rather, the unfrequency of the occa- 
sions upon which it has failed of secusing such approval. Few, 
if any, of our local judiciary have a higher standing in the 
Supreme Court. Few, if any, are more frequently quoted ; none 
are more uniformly patient and conscientious in their researches, 
or wiser or more courageous in determination. If it be Judge 
Rice's ambition to rise still higher in the scale of judicial promo- 
tion, there are a multitude of good reasons upon which to base 
the belief that it may be gratified. Personally Judge Rice is all 
that constitutes a good citizen and delightful companion. He 
takes as active an interest in all public affairs as is becoming in 
one in his position, and his counsel in matters outside the law is 
held in high esteem by friends and neighbors, and in the various 
associations, religious or otherwise, with which he is connected. 
His bearing is rather reserved, but that is a surface indication 
only. Beneath it is a generous and captivating affability. He 
has read extensively, and when " off duty " enjoys general con- 
versation, which his native wit and acquired intelligence never 
fail to pleasantly enliven. He is a keen reader of men — a fact 
of which the writer has seen signal illustration upon more than 
one occasion — and that capacity, besides adding to his efficiency 
on the bench, enables him to always accommodate himself appro- 
priately to the company in which he is placed. He is a studious 
man and loves his home, and his books and his family engage the 
greater part of the intervals between the sessions of court. The 
purity of his private life and the unbending integrity and supe- 
rior achievements of his public career have enlisted the respect 
and admiration of all who know him. 

360 Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 


Benjamin Ford Dorrance was born in Kingston township, Lu- 
zerne county, Pennsylvania, August 14, 1846. He is a descendant 
of Rev. Samuel Dorrance, " a Scotch Presbyterian lately arrived 
from Ireland, a graduate of Glasgow university, licensed to preach 
in 171 1 by the Presbytery of Dumbarton, and bringing with him 
satisfactory testimonials of his ministerial character and standing 
from several associations in Scotland and Ireland." — History of 
Windham County, Conn., 2^8. The first account we have of the 
Dorrance family in America tells us that on April 17, 1723, the 
people of Voluntown, Conn., gave Rev. Samuel Dorrance a call 
to preach the gospel, at a salary o'i"£6o per year for the present, 
and ;^50 in such species suitable to promote his building and 
settling." On the same day a number of persons, " as a special 
token of their love and goodness," presented Mr. Dorrance with 
"five thousand shingles, three pounds money in shingle nails, 
five pounds in work, three pounds in boards and plank, two hun- 
dred clapboards, breaking up two acres of land, a cow and calf," 
etc. This Voluntown church was the first, and long the only, 
Presbyterian church in Connecticut. Letters were sent to the 
ministers in New London, Canterbury, Preston, Plainfield, and 
Killingly inviting them to join in the ordination of Mr. Dor- 
rance, October 23, 1723. Up to this date the proceedings of 
town and people had been marked by entire harmony and unan- 
imity, but on the day appointed for ordination a violent opposition 
was manifested. Various conflicting elements were working 
among the people. A large number of new inhabitants had 
arrived during the summer. Mr. Dorrance had been accompa- 
nied to New England by several families of Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terians who had followed him to Voluntown and settled there, 
buying lands in various localities. The advent of these foreigners, 
though men of good position and excellent character, was looked 
upon with great suspicion by the older settlers. The adoption 
of the Westminster Confession by the new church caused imme- 

Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 361 

diate outbreak and rebellion. The council met according to 
appointment — the Revs. Lord, Coit, Estabrook, and Fisk — and 
were proceeding regularly to busine.s3, when to their amazement a 
number of people appeared, determined to ob.struct the ordination 
of Mr. Dorrance, and " in a riotous, disorderly, and unchristian 
way " presented the subjoined remonstrance : 

" We, whose names are underwritten, do agree that one of our 
New England people may be settled in Voluntown to preach the 
gospel to us, and will oblige ourselves to pay him yearly, and 
will be satisfied, honored gentlemen, that you choose one for us 
to prevent unwholesome inhabitants, for we are afraid popery 
and heresy will be brought into the land ; therefore we protest 
against settling Mr. Dorrance, because he is a stranger, and we 
are informed he came out of Ireland, and we do observe that 
since he has been in town that the Irish do flock into town, and 
we are informed that the Irish are not wholesome inhabitants ; 
and upon this account we are against settling Mr. Dorrance, for 
we are not such persons as you take us to be, but desire the gos- 
pel to be preached by one of our own, and not by a stranger, for 
we cannot receive any benefit for neither soul nor body, and we 
would pray him to withdraw himself from us." 

The council passed the day in hearing the opposers, and the 
second day achieved the following result : " We esteem the 
objections offered by the defending party against Mr. Dorrance's 
ordination invalid. We judge the people's call of Mr. Dorrance 
not sufficient," etc. On December 23, 1723, he was duly or- 
dained. Beside him his brothers George and John, and John 
jun., were then found on the church rolls. Time soon wrought 
a change, so that the Rev. Mr. Dorrance was no longer "a stranger" 
among his people. He is found in the ministry at Voluntown in 
the year 1760, and at that time his salary had risen to the res- 
pectable sum of £s00- He died November 12, 1775, at the age 
of ninety years. Those of the Dorrance family who came to 
Wyoming were John and George, sons of Rev. Samuel Dor- 
rance. John was never married. He was the defendant in 
the celebrated test case for the title to lands at Wyoming, 
between the Pennamites and Yankees, known as Van Home's 
lessee v. Dorrance, reported in 2 Dallas, 304, on which ex-Gov- 
ernor Hoyt has published a very elaborate and learned brief, 
reviewing, not only all the questions at issue between the parties, 

362 Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 

but their conduct during its progress. George Dorrance was 
born March 4, 1736, and was slain July 4, 1778. He was a 
lieutenant-colonel of the militia at Wyoming. In 1777 he led a 
scouting party up the river consisting of eighty men, to disperse 
or capture a settlement of Indians and Tories on the Wyalusing. 
Having accomplished the object, an unseasonable snow storm 
detained them beyond their expected time, and they suffered 
extremely from cold and hunger. By Colonel Dorrance's order 
rafts were made of the huts from which the enemy had been 
driven, and the whole of the company were safely wafted down 
to Forty Fort. On July 3, 1778, he went out of Forty Fort with 
that little band of heroes who thought to drive their insolent 
invaders from the valley. He commanded the left wing under 
Colonel Denison. His coolness in the midst of the fight when 
one of his men gave way, is shown by the firm command, in- 
stantly obeyed, " Stand up to your work, sir.'' He was severely 
wounded on the field of battle, while gallantly riding along the 
broken lines and laboring to restore the men to order and posi- 
tion. He was the only one of the wounded who was saved from 
death on the field or at the hellish orgies of the succeeding night. 
His feeble condition on the next day making him a burden to 
his captors, they slew him and divided his garments and arms 
among them. He was twice married. By his first wife he had 
two daughters. By his second wife he had three sons: Robert, 
who served in the independent company of Captain Ransom 
until the close of the war, afterwards in the western army, and 
was in the battle resulting in St. Clair's defeat, where he was 
killed, November 4, 1791; Gersham, who went back to his old 
home at Voluntown ; Benjamin, who was born in 1767. Eliza- 
beth, the second wife of Colonel Dorrance, married Ensign Jabez 
Fish, who was in the battle at Wyoming and escaped. Benjamin 
Dorrance was one of the most popular men of his day. In 1801 
he was elected sheriff of Luzerne county. Soon after his term ex- 
pired he was elected one of the commissioners of the county. He 
was a member of the legislature of Pennsylvania during the years 
1808, 1809, 1810, 1812, 1814, 1819, 1820, and 1830. He was also 
the first president of the Wyoming bank, of this city. An obit- 
uary notice of Mr. Dorrance is here appended : " Colonel Ben- 

Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 363 

jamin Dorrance is no more. The place on earth that once 
knew him shall know him no more forever. On Thursday, 
August 24, 1837, while conversing cheerfully at his own house 
with a member of his family, he was seized with an apoplectic 
fit ; he fell, and in a moment the vital spark was extinct. There 
are few, indeed, whose departure could have occasioned so deep 
a void, so wide a chasm in society. Universally known, every 
where respected and beloved, not by his relations alone, but by a 
numerous circle of friends, the bereavement is deeply felt. * * 
Colonel Dorrance was about seventy years old. He was born in 
Plainfield, state of Connecticut, in 1767, and came to Wyoming 
when quite a lad, with his father's family. In the Indian battle 
his father, Lieutenant-colonel George Dorrance, who was third 
in command, standing next to Butler and Denison, was slain. 
The day after when Forty Fort was surrendered, the subject of 
this notice was in the fortification, and used to describe with 
graphic clearness the entry of the British at one gate and the 
Indians at the other. Colonel Dorrance was a man of sterling 
good sense, remarkably pleasing in his manners, eminently hos- 
pitable, liberal and benevolent. * * * Nq man enjoyed 
society and the good things of this life with a higher relish than 
Colonel Dorrance, yet using them as subservient, and never allow- 
ing pleasure to mislead from the moral path, or to interfere with 
health or business. If asked who, for the last half century, has 
been the happiest man in the county, the county, I think, would 
say Colonel Dorrance. Yet he was careful, active, intelligent, 
and shrewd in business — a strict economist — and was abundantly 
blessed with this world's goods. In fine. Colonel Dorrance was 
an extraordinary man ; mingling in his character the pleasant 
and the useful, liberal expenditures with fair and steady acquisi- 
tion, sweetening labor with enjoyment, and heightening pleasure 
by a prompt and energetic devotion to business ; and throughout 
life popular without envy, without an enemy, and never yielding 
his independence or integrity. Honor and affection to his mem- 
ory." The wife of Colonel Benjamin Dorrance was Nancy Ann, 
daughter of Jedediah and Martha {Clark) Buckingham. Mr. 
Buckingham was a descendant of Thomas Buckingham, a Puri- 
tan settler and ancestor of all of the American Buckinghams, and 

364 Benjamin Ford Dokrance. 

was one of the company to which Eaton and Hopkips, two 
London merchants, and the two ministers, Davenport and Prud- 
den, belonged. They sailed from London in the two ships the 

Hector and the . Thomas Nash, the ancestor of Charles 

Dorrance Foster, was in the same company. They arrived at 
Boston June 26, 1637, and on March 30, 1638, the company 
sailed for Quinnipack, now New Haven. Here we find the name 
of Thomas Buckingham under the head of " Names of Planters 
and Division of Land according to Estate and Heads in Families," 
from which it appears that he had four persons in his family. 
Thomas Buckingham removed to Milford in the autumn of 1639. 
He was one of the company, of which Peter Prudden was the 
pastor, who first settled that town. The church was organized 
at New Haven August 22, 1639, and Thomas Buckingham was 
one of the seven pillars of which it was composed. Rev. Thomas 
Buckingham was the youngest child of Thomas Buckingham, of 
Milford, the Puritan settler, and was born in 1646. He was mar- 
ried in Hartford and preached in Wethersfield in 1664, when but 
eighteen years of age. He was one of the founders and fellows 
of Yale college from 1700 to his decease, and a strong supporter 
of its interests. He evidently held a high rank among the cler- 
gymen of the time, and was one of the leaders in all efforts for 
the prosperity and extension of the church, and was one of the 
moderators of that famous synod which convened at Saybrook 
and formed the platform for the government of the churches, in 
1708. He was ordained and installed pastor of the church in 
Saybrook in 1670, and continued in that relation until his death, 
April I, 1709. 

Thomas Buckingham, son of Rev. Thomas and Hester [Hos- 
mer) Buckingham, was born September 29, 1670. He was a 
prominent man in town affairs, being appointed to many import- 
ant offices of trust, and was also a prominent member of the 
church and a landholder in Lebanon. He died September 12, 
1739. Thomas Buckingham, son of Thomas and Margaret 
{Griswold) Buckingham, was born January 24, 1693. He was a 
sea-faring man, and died December 13, 1760. Jedediah Buck- 
ingham, son of Thomas and Mary [Parker) Buckingham, was 
born January 20, 1727, at Saybrook. He settled in Columbia, 

Benjamin Ford Dourance. 365 

where he died July 9, 1809. He married Martha Clark, of Leb- 
anon, Conn. Hon. William A. Buckingham, for eight years 
governor of Connecticut, and more recently a senator of the 
United States from Connecticut, is of the same family. Benja- 
min Dorrance left two sons surviving him. Rev. John Dorrance, 
who was born February 28, 1800, and died April i, 1861. He 
was pastor of the Franklin street Presbyterian church, of 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., where he labored with marked success for 
twenty-eight years. His daughter, Emily Augusta, is the wife 
of Alexander Farnham, of the Luzerne county bar. Another 
daughter, Margaret Stella, is the wife of George Murray Rey- 
nolds, of this city. Colonel ChaVles Dorrance, the other son of 
Benjamin Dorraixce, was born January 4, 1805, and has lived on 
the old homestead farm of the family, which has lost none of its 
attractiveness or value, but which has been largely added to in 
extent, taste, and value since it passed into his hands. His home 
has ever been the abode of a large and generous hospitality, dis- 
pensed with all the grace and dignity befitting his surroundings. 
He has ever been a farmer, and, commencing his active business 
life with a liberal education, has kept up that intercourse with 
his fellow men and given that attention to the affairs of the day 
which bring out his genial and warm-hearted nature and add a 
charm to his society. The Dorrance farm has long been the 
model farm of the valley, and the colonel, farming for pleasure 
as well as profit, has succeeded in acquiring both results from 
his labors. He has never sought official position, except, possi- 
bly, that of captain of the Wyoming volunteers, from which he 
rose through the various grades to the rank of colonel, which, 
title he has enjoyed for forty years. It was a youthful fancy that 
led him into military life, awakened by fireside tales of the early 
days of Wyoming, in which were recounted the gallant deeds of 
his ancestor. Yet the colonel's life has not been barren of official 
honors. When the Luzerne County Agricultural Society was 
organized in 1858, by unanimous choice he was elected president 
of the society, which position he filled with honor and dignity 
for ten years, and its success during that period was largely due 
to his uniform courtesy and his superior skill of disposing of 
knotty subjects, as well as in the management of the business 

366 Benjamin Ford Dokrance. 

affairs of the society. He was, in conjunction with the late A. 
C. Laning, appointed by the late Judge Conynghatn, as his last 
official act, a commissioner of the Luzerne county prison, which 
position he held for a succession of 3'ears. He was chosen and 
acted as president of the board during his entire official term. 
When the patriotic citizens met to effect an organization for the 
proper commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
battle and massacre of Wyoming, Colonel Dorrance was, without 
a dissenting voice or thought, made the president of that organi- 
zation. How well, and with what grace and liberality he per- 
formed the duties of that position, and how largely his means 
and his hospitalities were taxed to meet the requirements of the 
great occasion, is attested by all. It is a singular coincidence 
that the father should have been the first president of the Wyom- 
ing bank, and that after the lapse of more than half a century 
his son should now hold the same trust. Time and space will 
not permit us to name all the positions of trust and honor he has 
been called upon to fill in an active life of three score years. 
Whatever they may have been, he has filled them all with hon- 
esty and fidelity, and now, at the age of nearly four score years, 
he enjoys the reputation of an honest and honorable man, in 
whom dwell all the sweet and tender elements of humanity, 
which, as occasion has offered, have welled out to the comforting 
and blessing of all who have come in contact with him. Blest in 
his family, blest in his store, and blest in all his surroundings, long 
may he live to enjoy the blessings of a well spent life, which has 
diffused its sweet savor on all who have enjoyed the pleasure of 
kindly intercourse with him. Colonel Dorrance married August 
28, 1845, Susan E., daughter of the late James Ford, of Law- 
renceville, Pa. He was a native of Perth Amboy, N. J., and came 
to Pennsylvania about the year 1800. He settled in Lawrence- 
vilk, and was a member of the legislature of Pennsylvania from 
Tioga county for two years, and a representative in congress 
from his district from 1829 to 1833. His life was honorably 
interwoven with the history of his state. He died at Lawrence- 
ville in August, 1859, aged seventy -six years. The wife of Mr. 
Ford was Maria Lindsley, a daughter of Judge Eleazer Lindsley, 
of Lindsley, Steuben county, N. Y. He was a son of Colonel 

Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 367 

Eleazer Lindsley, a hero in the war of the revolution, who left 
his home near Morristown, N, J., after the war and purchased a 
township of six miles square in Steuben county, N. Y., which 
was named after him. He was the first representative in the leg- 
islature from Steuben county. He removed there with his 
family, but lived but a short time, and his was the first death in 
Lindsley. He was buried with a ring upon his finger, the gift of 
his personal friend in the revolution, General La Fayette. Col- 
onel Dorrance has a family of five children living, four sons and 
a daughter, Annie Buckingham, who is the wife of Sheldon 
Reynolds, of the Luzerne county bar. Benjamin Ford Dorrance, 
eldest son of Colonel Charles Dorrance, was educated at the 
Luzerne institute, at Wyoming, Pa., and at Princeton college, 
graduating in the class of 1868. He studied law with Andrew 
T. McClintock, and was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county 
August 20, 1870. Mr. Dorrance is a democrat in politics and a 
Presbyterian in religious belief He married May 22, 1872, Ruth 
Woodhull Strong, a daughter of Schuyler Strong, a prominent 
lawyer and leading citizen of the state of New York. Mr. and 
Mrs. Dorrance have a family of three children, Anne, Frances, and 
Ruth Dorrance. Mr. Strong was a graduate of Union college^ 
at Schenectady, while under the presidency of Dr. Nott, and from 
the time of his admission to the bar took a position second to 
none in his profession. He practiced in the courts of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Virginia. On August 20, 1823, he was 
appointed quartermaster of the Ninety-Sixth regiment of infantry 
of the state of New York. He died September 13, 1845, while 
yet a young man, at Springfield, 111. 

The Strong family originated in Shropshire, England. One 
of the family married an heiress of Griffith, of the county of 
Caernarvon, Wales. Of this line was Richard Strong, born at 
Caernarvon in 1561. In the year 1590 he moved to Taunton,. 
Somersetshire, England, and died there in 1613. He left a son,. 
John, aged eight years, and a daughter, Eleanor. John, born at 
Taunton in 1605, moved to Plymouth, and thence, by the ship 
Mary and John, in 1629, for New England, w.hich place he 
reached May 30, 1630. He assisted in founding the town of 
Dorchester, Mass. In 1638 he removed to Taunton, Mass., re- 

368 Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 

inaining there until 1645. He was a deputy thence to the gen- 
eral court in 1641, 1643, and 1644, this being the legislative body 
of the Plymouth colony. He moved in 1645 to Windsor, Conn., 
and thence in 1659 to Northampton, Mass. of which he was one 
of the first and most active founders, as he had previously been 
of Dorchester, Hingham, Taunton, and Windsor. He was 
chosen and ordained ruling elder of the church at Northampton 
in 1663. He married in 1630 his second wife — his first having died 
as soon as she had arrived in America — Abigail Ford, of Dor- 
chester,- Mass., daughter of Thomas Ford, who also emigrated 
in the Mary and John. He lived with his second wife fifty-eight 
years, and died April 14, 1699, aged ninety-four years, leaving 
eighteen children. Mrs. Strong died in 1688, aged eighty years. 
Thomas Ford, her father, was a man of prominence in the early 
colony, and was a deputy to the general court from 1637 to 1640. 
The descendants of Elder John Strong have numbered over 
thirty thousand persons, among these are four hundred college 
graduates, over thirty college professors, as many authors, four 
governors, over thirty judges, over thirty members of the United 
States congress, sixty officers of the revolutionary army, and one 
hundred members of state legislatures. Among these are Gover- 
nors Strong, of Massachusetts, Haight, of California, and Hunt, of 
New York; ex-Justice William Strong, of the United States Su- 
preme Court; Captain Nathan Hale and General Elijah Chapman, 
of the revolutionary army; Professors Dana, Whitney, and Good- 
rich, of Yale; Newberry and Dwight, of Columbia; Robinson, 
of Union Theological seminary, etc. Rev. Horace E. Hayden, 
of this city, is descended from Elder John Strong in two lines, 
through his son. Lieutenant Return Strong, and his daughter, 
Elizabeth Strong. Theodore Strong, of Pittston, brother of 
Judge Strong, is also a descendant of John Strong. Schuyler 
Strong was the son of Selah and Ruth ( WoodhuU) Strong, who 
was the son of Major Nathaniel and Amy {Brewster) StroTio-^ 
who was the son of Selah and Hannah (WoodhuU) Strono-, who 
was the son of Selah and Abigail (Terry) Strong, who was the 
son of Thomas and Rachel {Holton) Strong, who was the son of 
Thomas and Mary {Hewctt) Strong, and who was the son of 
Elder John and Abigail {Ford) Strong, the first settler. 

Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 369 

The mother of Mrs. Dorrance was Frances Cruger Strong. 
She was the daughter of General Daniel Cruger, a distinguished 
and prominent citizen of Steuben county, New York. The an- 
cestors of Mr. Cruger were Huguenots, who, at the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, escaped from France. A portion of them 
reached England in safety, while others fled to Germany and 
found a home at Altonia, in the duchy of Holstein; and others 
fled to Denmark. That branch of the family from which Mr. 
Cruger descended settled in Holstein. His father emigrated to 
America in 1768 and settled in Sunbury, Pa., where, on Decem- 
ber 22, 1780, Daniel was born. Soon after the birth of his son 
the elder Cruger removed to Newtown (now Elmira), N. Y., and 
engaged in mercantile business. When a young man young 
Cruger went to Albany, N. Y., and learnt the art of printing. 
After his apprenticeship was out he settled at Owego, N. Y. and 
established the Owego Democrat, which was the first journal ever 
published in that part of the state. He edited and published 
this paper imtil 1804, when he parted with his interest in the 
concern. His father having previously settled at Bath, N. Y., 
young Cruger now made that village his home. For a time he 
pursued his occupation there, but the business proving injurious 
to his health he renounced it and entered the office of General 
S. S. Haight as a student at law, with whom he continued until 
admitted to the bar, when he became a partner of the general. 
His ability as a lawyer soon e.Khibited itself, and lie became, 
within a few years after the commencement of his practice, one 
of the leading lawyers at the Steuben county bar. He continued 
to practice with increasing success until the year 1812, when the 
war with England broke out. General Cruger enlisted and ac- 
cepted a position on the staff of General McClure, with the rank of 
major, and occupied a prominent position in the field during the 
war. He was a member of the legislature of the state of New York 
during the years 1813, 1814, and 1815, and during the last named 
year he was elected speaker of the assembly over Jacob R. Van 
Renssel.ier, the federal candidate. In 18 16 he was elected to 
congress from what was then the Twentieth congressional dis- 
trict, and during his term he served with credit as a member of 
the judiciary committee, and made several speeches on the floor 

370 Benjamin Ford Dorrance. 

of the house which won for him the respect and consideration 
of his fellow members. He was also district attorney for the 
Seventh district of the state of New York, consisting of the 
counties of Steuben, Allegany, and Tioga. About the year 
1828 General Cruger removed to Syracuse, and in 1833 he re- 
moved to Wheeling, W. Va. Early in June, 1843, while attend- 
ing a meeting of the directors of the Wheeling bank, he was 
stricken down with apoplexy, dying within a few moments after 
the attack. 

Mr. Dorrance, as will be seen, had the advantage of an excel- 
lent preliminary training, an. education finished at one of our 
best universities, and a tutor in the mysteries of the law who has 
gone to the very forefront of his profession, and when admitted 
was fully equipped, therefore, for a successful career at the bar. 
Coming from such an ancestry he necessarily inherited, also, 
many of the qualities which fit men for a conquering career in 
almost any vocation. For a time after hanging out his shingle 
he sought clients and labored zealously and with much success 
to advance their causes. His eyesight early began to fail him, 
however, and not being dependant upon the profession for a live- 
lihood — possessing, in fact, like his father, a natural inclining to 
agriculture, he has of late years devoted his time principally to 
that pursuit, with results gratifying to his pride as well as helpful 
to his exchequer. The Dorrances farm on advanced scientific 
principles, giving, among other things, much attention to blooded 
stock. The subject of this sketch is already the possessor of a 
comfortable competence, and some day, in the ordinary course, 
will be a very rich man. It is pleasant to know, therefore, that 
he is one of the not too numerous class who are disposed and 
know how to utilize such gifts unselfishly, and with an eye, not 
only to their own good, but to the good of the communities in 
which they respectively abide. He is of generous instincts and 
companionable, one who is like to gather around him an abiding 
circle of deserved and warm friends. He lives comfortably but 
not ostentatiously, is fond of books and keeps himself posted upon 
current events, as to which his opinion is valuable as being that 
of a liberal-minded, clear-headed man of the world. 

Lewis Wesley De Witt. 371 


Lewis Wesley De Witt was born in the township of Exeter, 
Luzerne county, Pa., December 3, 1845. He is a descendant of 
John De Witt, who was born in Greenwich township, Warren 
.(formerly Sussex) county, N. J., October 29, 1785. He was a 
soldier of the war of 1812, and was one of the early settlers of 
the present township of Franklin, having removed there in 1817. 
Valentine DeWitt, son of John De Witt and father of L. W. De 
Witt, was born in the present township of Franklin October 8, 
1 8 19. He is still living and is one of the most prominent and 
substantial citizens of his native township. The mother of L. 
W. De Witt was Ruhamah Lewis, daughter of the late Levi 
Chapman and Hannah [Skaj) Lewis, of Exeter township. She 
was born April 5, 1826, and died January 27, 1848. L. W! De 
Witt was educated in the public schools of his native township 
and at Wyoming seminary. In his young manhood he taught 
school in the townships of Franklin, Kingston, and Exeter. In 
1867 and 1868 he was principal of the high school at Hyde 
Park, now a portion of the city of Scranton, Pa. He read 
law -with the firm of Harding & Palmer, of this city, and was 
admitted to the bar of Luzerne county, December 17, 1870. 
Mr. De Witt married October 15, 1872, Harriet Frances 
Stephens, daughter of the late William P. Stephens, of Hyde 
Park, Pa. Mr De Witt has been at the bar about fourteen years, 
and in that time has secured a large and increasing clientage. 
He is a safe counsellor and a zealous advocate. No lawyer ever 
defended the rights of his clients with more vigor and earnest- 
ness than Mr. De Witt. 


The history of Pennsylvania is as yet unwritten. When the 
typical American of to-day, momentarily wearied with the chase 
after wealth, an establishment, horses, a footman, and all those 

3/2 George Kelsey Powell. 

things which represent his conception of prosperity and practical 
happiness, stops to inquire, if ever he does, concerning the men 
who founded his country, who they were, whence they came, 
and what were the causes which have influenced the develop- 
ment of its civilization, his thoughts invariably turn toward 
Massachusetts. Plymouth Rock looms up before him vast and 
imposing, but the Delaware flows by unheeded. He is famil- 
iar with the story of the Mayflower and her burden of strange 
folk destined to a barren shore; it is impressed vividly upon his 
imagination; but of the Welcome, which sailed over the same sea, 
bearing a purer people to a better land, he has never heard a 
■whisper. Why the chroniclers who have so energetically and 
successfully tilled the one field should neglect the other, it is 
difficult to understand. Surely there is enough of romance to 
please the fancy and much food for rugged thought, in the career 
of that son of a fighting old English admiral, who forsook the 
path which seemingly led direct to fame and fortune, and, assum- 
ing the quaint ways and plain garb of a despised sect, preached 
its peaceful faith. Caleb Pusey, going out unarmed into the 
forest to meet a threatened attack of the savages, is a more heroic 
figure than blustering Miles Standish, girt with the sword he 
fought with in Flanders. Llo^'d, Logan, and Pastorius, trained in 
the schools of Europe and versed in all the learning of their day, 
were men whose peers are rai'ely found among colonists. The 
Quaker, the Mennonite, and the Moravian, mindful of how their 
fathers were harried from place to place, with the prison behind 
and the stake threatening before, bringing across the ocean with 
them their Bibles, and often nothing else, with hearts warm 
enough and a creed broad enough to embrace the religious way- 
farer and wanderer, as well as the negro and Indian, contrast 
favorably with the narrow and intolerant Puritan, whose hand 
fell heavily upon all of diff'erent race, habits, or belief from his 
own. — Historical and Biographical Sketches, by Samuel W. Fenny- 
packer, Philadelpliia, i88j. 

The first Moravian brethren, who emigrated to this country 
about the middle of the last century, crossed the ocean at differ- 
ent intervals of time, and in larger or smaller companies. When- 
ever they had obtained full control of a transport ship, by charter 

George Kelsey Powell. 373 

or otherwise, our forefathers never failed to introduce among the 
passengers on board a complete social and religious organization, 
corresponding as nearly as might be with that established in their 
congregations at home; hence the term used in the reports of the 
day, die See Gcmeinen, the '' sea congregations." Regular times 
were set apart in these floating congregations for their various 
religious meetings ; chaplains, teachers, exhorters, and nurses 
were provided, and system was carried into the minutest details 
of life. Each member was assigned to a mess and hammock 
company, and his place and duty in every contingency were des- 
ignated. They all felt that they formed a united band of follow- 
ers of the same Lord, to serve whom in a new field of labor they 
had forsaken their homes and their native land. The days spent 
on the ocean were not to be wasted in idleness or inactivity, but 
must be employed in preparing, instructing, and invigorating 
their minds, and promoting their growth in grace. Although 
sickness, storms, and other perils of the sea interfered with pre- 
scribed rules, yet they carried across the waves, not only their 
God in their hearts, but some of the most blessed practices and 
observances they had been accustomed to at home. Ship life 
proved to them a season of rich mental and spiritual activity and 
enjoyment, and combined as it was with order and discipline, it 
had a powerful tendency to increase their bodily comfort and 
well-being. The first " sea congregation " left London in March 
and arrived in Philadelphia in June, 1742. Count Zinzendorf 
himself had preceded them about six months, and during 
twenty previous months small companies, partly direct from 
Europe and partly by way of Georgia, had been their forerun- 
ners. Some preliminary arrangements for their reception had 
been made and their arrival was anxiously looked for by about 
twenty-five or thirty brethren and sisters, resident, for the time 
being, in Pennsylvania. The responsible task of fitting out and 
organizing the expedition had been entrusted to Brother Span- 
genberg, then residing in London, and the selection could not 
have fallen upon a more suitable individual, for to his other qual- 
fications he joined that of personal experience. Seven years 
before he had fitted out the first Moravian colony which went to 
Georgia, had himself accompanied it across the Atlantic, had 

374 George Kelsey Powell. 

spent four years in Georgia, Pennsylvania, and the West Indies, 
and had made several voyages between those colonies, some of 
which were attended with more than ordinary privations and 
dangers. He was now, after Zinzendorf's departure, at the head 
of affairs of the church in England, and had a serious responsi- 
bility resting on him. Yet he did not decline the additional 
weight, but applied himself to his new. duty with his accustomed 
devotedness, alacrity, foresight, and attention to details. The 
majority of the " sea congregation " consisted of Germans, many 
of whom had been selected to replace the first colony at Pilger- 
ruh in Holstein, but being refused admission by the government 
at Copenhagen, they now proceeded to America. They reached 
London in February, and were not only received and entertained 
by their local brethren, but in the organization of the "' sea con- 
gregation," which sailed on the ship Catharine, there were in- 
cluded seven families who joined them there. These included 
Samuel Powell, with his wife Martha, and Joseph Powell with 
his wife Martha. After all the perils and hardships and dela'ys 
of a sea voyage in those days these good brethren landed in this 
country, the Powells first preaching at New Haven, and holding 
impressive religious discussion with the students and professors 
of Yale, and journeying toward New York from New Greenwich 
on foot, re-uniting with their ship's company in New York har- 
bor, and sailing thence to Philadelphia, from where they jour- 
neyed to Bethlehem, the chief of the Moravian settlements. 

Revs. Samuel Powell and Joseph Powell were brothers, and the 
latter was the great-great-grandfather of George Kelsey Povvell, 
the subject of this sketch. Rev. Joseph Powell was born near 
White Church, Shropshire, England (on the border of Wales), 
in 1 710. He became acquainted with the Moravian brethren 
through the instrumentality of Wesley and Whitefield, and in 
1741 offered to accompany a party of Moravians who were then 
organizing under Count Zinzendorf to emigrate to this country. 
He did not, however, emigrate until 1742, having sailed from 
Gravesend, England, March 19, and reached Philadelphia on 
June 7, 1742. Before leaving England he married Martha 
Pritchett, who accompanied him. In 1743, when the Moravian 
church in Philadelphia, Pa,, had been established, he was one of 

George Kelsey Powell. 375 

the missionaries employed in that vicinity. In 1747 he was sta- 
tioned as a missionary at Shamokin (now Sunbury, Pa.). In 
1756 he was ordained a regular minister of the Moravian church 
at Bethlehem, Pa., by the Right Rev. Matthew Hehl, bishop of 
the church. As an Evangelist he was active and prominent, and 
faithfully served the holy cause in which he had enlisted, tra- 
versing various regions of the country preaching the gospel to 
the Indians. He was at one time located at Neshaminy, Bucks 
county, Pa., at other times on Staten Island and Long Island. 
Again at Dansbury, near the Delaware Water Gap, at Carroll's 
Manor, Maryland, and at some stations in New England. Six 
years of his life he spent in Jamaica, in the West Indies, preach- 
ing to the negroes and slaves. On all these journeys he was 
accompanied by his wife and children, until the year 1772, when 
his wife was taken ill at Carroll's Manor. In consequence of her 
illness the family returned to Bethlehem, where she died May 6, 
1774. Soon after this date he was transferred to Nine Partners 
(or Sichem), Dutchess county, N. Y., where the Moravians had 
a church and mission. He was accompanied by some of his 
children, intending this locality to be his permanent and future 
home. His ministry there was, however, of short duration, as 
he shortly after died. In 1859 ^^'^ Moravian Historical society 
erected a monument above his grave, taking up the stone which 
his Indian parishoners had set over it, with the inscription of their 
affection. The following is the inscription on the monument : 


Joseph Powell, 

a Minister of the Gospel 

in the Church of the United Brethren, 

Korn 1710, 

near White Church, Shropshire, England, 

Died Sept. 23, 1774, 

at Sichem, in the Oblong, 

Dutchess Co., N. Y. 


Erected by the 

Moravian Historical Society, 

October 6, 1859. 


How beautiful upon the mountains 
Are the feet of him that bringeth 
Good tidings, that publisheth peace, 
That bringeth good tidings of good. 
That pubhsheth Salvation. — ^Isaiah LIL, 7> 

376 George Kelsey Powell. 

Mr. Powell left several children, among them Joseph Powell, 
of Bedford county, Pa. He was born in Bethlehem township, 
Northampton county, about 1750. He was educated for the 
ministry and was located in Bedford county at the outbreak of 
the revolution. He served as chaplain to the Bedford county 
battalion of associators in 1776, and was a member of the con- 
vention of July 15 of that year, member of the general assembly 
in 1779 and 1780, and a member of the constitutional convention 
of 1789 and 1790. He died in November, 1804, in Southamp- 
ton township, Bedford county. Pa. Another son, Martin Powell, 
was a Methodist minister. He was the grandfather of Prof J. 
W. Powell, of the United States army geological survey. Stephen 
Powell, another son, was the great-grandfather of George Kelsey 
Powell. He was a soldier in the revolution, and in 1798 emi- 
grated from Nine Partners to Sheshequin, Luzerne (now Brad- 
ford) county. Pa. Sheshequin was the site of an Indian town 
built after the Pontiac war, at which the Moravians established a 
mission, on the solicitation of some of the native inhabitants who 
had belonged to Brainerd's congregations on the Delaware. Mr. 
Powell located in what is now Ulster township, near Milan on 
the Susquehanna river, at Powell's Eddy. He married Polly 
Burge prior to his removal from the state of New York. Joseph 
C. Powell, son of Stephen Powell, was a farmer and a man of 
mark. Prominent in the organization of Bradford count)', he 
became quite conspicuous in its politics. When a young man 
he removed to Troy, Pa., where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. PVom 1 8 18 to 1820 he was one of the commissioners 
of Bradford county. In 1821 he was elected sheriff, and served 
in that position for three years. In 1836 he was appointed pro- 
thonotary, clerk of Oyer and Terminer and Quarter Sessions, by 
Governor Ritner, and held these positions for three years. In 
1849 and 1850 he was one of the members of Lhe legislature 
from Bradford county. He removed to Towanda after his elec- 
tion as sheriff, and resided there until the time of his death in 
1854. Joseph Powell, president of the First National bank of 
Towanda, is one of his sons. From 1874 to 1876 he was a 
member of congress. In 1883 he was the candidate of the 
democracy of the state for the position of state treasurer, but was 

George Kelsey Powell. 377 

defeated by Silas M. Bailey. John Powell, son of Stephen Pow- 
ell and brother of Joseph C. Powell, was the grandfather of 
George K. Powell. He was born in Ulster township, Bradford 
county. Pa., and, when a young man, removed to Penn Yan, Yates 
county, N. Y. He was a farmer, and in addition to his work on 
the farm he carried on a blacksmith and carriage shop. He was 
an active and prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. James Smith Powell, the father of George K. Powell, 
was a native of Penn Yan, N. Y. He entered the Genessee Wes- 
leyan seminary, at Lima, N. Y., but during the prevalence of 
cholera in 1832 the school was broken up. He was a blacksmith 
and merchant, and a prominent man in his neighborhood. For 
over thirty years he was a school director and village trustee. 
In 1868 he was elected coroner of Yates county for three years, 
but resigned the office before the expiration of his term. The 
mother of George K. Powell was Maria Easton, daughter of 
Charles Easton, of Middlesex, Yates county, N. Y. He was one 
of the early settlers of Yates county, a farmer and a large land 
owner. Salina Alcesta Easton, a missionary at Cawnpore, India, 
under the direction of the Women's Foreign Missionary society 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, is a sister of the late Mrs. 
J. S. Powell. 

George Kelsey Powell was born at Penn Yan, N. Y., June 10, 
1845. He was prepared for college at the Penn Yan academy and 
entered the Genessee college at Lima, N. Y., since which time 
the college has been removed to Syracuse, N. Y., and re-named 
the Syracuse university. Mr. Powell graduated in the class of 
1866. After leaving college he went to Beaver, Pa., and was 
professor of Latin and Greek in the Beaver college and Female 
institute during a portion of the years 1866 and 1867. In the 
spring of 1867 he entered the United States navy on board the 
man-of-war steamer Wateree as captain's clerk. The Wateree 
was the first iron vessel ever built for our government. Of fair 
sea-going size, her draught was so light — scarcely more than 
that of a fishing schooner — that the chances of her safely perform- 
ing the task allotted her were at least problematical. It was sent 
by the admiral to most of the small as well as the large ports, 
thence her officers saw more of the countries than most others. In 

378 George Kelsey Powell. 

the summer of 1867 she experienced a " norther " in the bay of 
Valparaiso, during which several vessels were destroyed and many 
lives lost. During her cruise in the south Pacific waters, through 
the kindness of General Hovey, minister to Peru, and General 
Kilpatrick, minister to Chili, the Wateree's officers enjoyed 
many advantages when in port for sight-seeing and social inter- 
course with the natives. While at Arica, a city in southern Peru, 
the great earthquake occurred which destroyed the Wateree. 
Arica lies nearly one thousand three hundred miles south of the 
equator, and about four hundred miles south of Lima, the capital 
of Peru. It had a population of six thousand, and was not 
only the seaport of Tacna, but in fact of a large part of Bolivia. 
The amount of foreign merchandise stored there, including quan- 
tities of alpaca wool, ores, and cinchona-bark coming down from 
the interior, was very large. All this was lost. The proprietor 
of the largest warehouse, connected with which was a distillery, 
returning to the place after the catastrophe, was unable to point 
out the site of his establishment, the destruction was .so com- 
plete. The desert hills around Arica are stuffed with desiccated 
bodies of the ancient Aymaras, who seem to have had here an 
important fishing station. To these hills the terrified inhabitants 
of the town fled on the first warnings of danger, there to be met 
with the appalling spectacle of the grave literally giving up its 
dead. The convulsed and writhing earth threw to the surface 
hundreds of the grim, dried bodies of the Indians, who had 
lived here centuries before, still wrapped in the cerements that 
the dry and nitrous soil had preserved from decay. Appleton's 
Annual Cyclopedia for 1868 gives the following account of the 
earthquake in Peru, which Mr. Powell says is, in the main, 
correct : 

"The first shock (in Peru) was felt at 5:30 p. m. It was pre- 
ceded by a rumbling sound. An eye witness at Arica says the 
hour was that when by custom most of the inhabitants had just 
closed their daily labors and were at their homes. The instant 
the startling indications of an earthquake were felt, there was a 
general rush for uncovered spaces, which were reached by many 
uninjured, but not by all. The streets became a scene of terror. Ail 
the houses in the city trembled like a person affected with the 
ague. Then they surged, and some of them fell to pieces with 

George Kelsey Powell. 379 

crash after crash. At this juncture, when the undulations were 
active, the earth opened in several places in long and almost reg- 
ular lines. The fissures were from one to three inches in width. 
The sensation was distinct, as though something were rolling 
underneath. From every fissure there belched forth dry earth 
like dust, which was followed by a stifling gas. Owing to the 
demolition of buildings, and the general destruction of all kinds 
of property, and the dust thrown out, as well as that set in 
motion by the general tumult, a dense cloud was formed over 
the city and obscured the light. Beneath the cloud was the gas, 
which severely oppressed every living creature, and would have 
suffocated all if it had lingered longer stationary than it did, 
which was only about ninety seconds. The (severe) undulations 
were three in number. * * * Three quakes at short inter- 
vals succeeded, as though subterranean explosions were taking 
place. At this time people from all parts of the city fled to the 
hills amid falling stones and timbers, which descended from 
swaying walls and broadly rent buildings, just on the eve of 
crumbling into perfect ruin. Some were struck down dead by 
the falling materials, and others were maimed, while all were 
made to stagger from side to side like people in a state of intox- 
ication. Many persons carried children in their arms, and those 
who had not these carried articles of value. The avarice of some 
was stronger than fear, even amid this terrible confusion, and 
hence there were those who delayed their escape to collect valu- 
ables, many of whom suffered for their temerity either by the 
sacrifice of their lives or otherwise. As the rush for the hills 
continued, and stones and materials of all kinds were falling, and 
houses were crashing, numerous people were struck down and 
either killed or dangerously wounded. The number of persons 
estimated killed at Arica was five hundred, and not a house was 
left uninjured. All the public edifices were destroyed, including 
the custom house, which contained four million dollars worth of 
goods, all of which were lost. The entire damage at Arica was 
estimated at about twelve million dollars. The waters rose to 
such a height that a tidal wave forty feet high, rolled with resist- 
less fury upon the ships in the harbor and precipitated them on 
the main land, far beyond any point ever reached before by the 
sea. The United States storeship Fredonia, and the United 
States steamer Wateree were both at anchor in the harbor of 
Arica near each other. After the first shock had occurred on 
the land. Dr. Dubois, surgeon, and the paymaster of the Fredo- 
nia, took a boat and went on shore to inquire for the welfare of 
friends and offer the services of the ship. A few moments after 
leaving the vessel a great upheaving of the waters in the bay 

380 George Kelsey Powell. 

commenced, and the Fredonia, parting her chains, was tossed 
about at the mercy of the sea, and was finally dashed to pieces 
on a reef. Nothing of the vessel was saved. Her officers and 
crew, twenty-seven in number, were lost; also Mrs. Dyer, wife 
of the lieutenant commanding. The officers were: Lieutenant 
B. Dyer; D. Organ, master; J. G. Cromwell, purser; and S. 
Lunt, secretary to the commander. The Wateree was more se- 
curely anchored, but dragged her anchor, and the great tidal 
wave swept her four hundred and fifty yards inland, about two 
miles north of the ruined town, where she laid across a hillock 
of land very slightly injured. Only one sailor was washed over- 
board (and it was said his life was saved). Lieutenant Johnson, 
of the Wateree, was ashore at the time, and while carrying his 
wife in his arms to some place of safety, she was struck by a 
portion of a falling building and instantly killed. The Peruvian 
corvette America shared the same fate as the Wateree, but lost 
three officers and sixty men. Commander Gillis, of the Wateree, 
after the disaster, together with Dr. Winslow and Dr. Dubois, of 
the Fredonia, were of great service to the inhabitants, dividing 
their provisions among the suffering people and saving many 
lives. The American merchantman Rosa Rivera, the English 
ship Chancellor (with eight men), and the French bark Eduado 
were lost." 

Two days after the event Mr. Powell wrote home the following 
letter, which was published at the time in the Yates County 
Chronicle, of Penn Yan, N. Y. : 

U. S. Steamer Wateree, Arica, August 15, i J 
My very dear parents, sisters, brother, and friends : 

We are alive and well. God has kindly and wonderfully pre- 
served us. Thanks, thanks, thanks, to our kind Heavenly 
Father. Have you read the news ? On the night of the thir- 
teenth this place was visited with an «ay>// earthquake. The city 
is entirely destroyed. The Wateree is high and dry on shore, 
about an eighth of a mile from the sea. Near us are the wrecks 
of the America (Peruvian man-of war), and an English bark. 
The Fredonia, our storeship, was utterly destroyed, and not a 
sign is visible of a large bark which was anchored near us. The 
loss of life has been great, both ashore and aboard ships, but we 
have miraculously escaped with the loss of one man, who was 
in a small boat. Just after we had finished dinner, a little after 
five o'clock p. M., we felt a fearful shock, which sent us all to the 
deck, whence we saw the most frightful sight I ever beheld. 
The earth was shaking like a leaf, and the buildings in Arica 
crumbling to the ground as if they were made of so much sand. 

George Kelsey Powell. 

The shock lasted between four and five minutes (an age), and at 
its close most of the town was in ruins. Then, after a few min- 
utes, came the sea rushing- in over the wharf, up the streets, 
utterly destroying those buildings in the lower part of the town 
that still stood. The current went past us at the. rate of seven 
or eight knots per hour. We let go our second anchor, and, as 
both dragged, payed out chain. After running in about five 
minutes the tide changed, and out we went as far as the chains 
would let us, and the water receded so far as to almost leave us 
aground. But what use of trying to describe it. I never can, 
much less now, while the excitement is still so great. Two 
hours of most imminent danger, followed by a night of suspense ; 
shock after shock of earthquakes, sea after sea rushing in and 
receding, ships almost colliding with us and then disappear- 
ing, darkness upon us, till finally both of our anchors were 
carried away and we were at the mercy of the waves. About 
half-past seven we struck where we now are, and from that 
time the sea began to abate. Was I frightened ? At the earth- 
quake itself, no ; though I felt as I never did before ; but for 
about ten minutes after the first sea came in I was exceedingly 
alarmed ; after that I was perfectly cool — whistled, talked cheer- 
fully to all, and Jiiing on. I gave up nearly all hope, thought 
we must all be destroyed, and stood expecting to see the vessel 
go to pieces. When the shock came on we were all on board 
ship, except Lieutenant-Commander Johnson, who was on shore 
with his wife. Poor Mrs. Johnson! They were living in the 
second story of about the only house which is now standing, but, 
like every one else, they ran into the streets, and while her arm 
was around her husbands neck, a door-casing fell, struck her, 
and killed her immediately. Mr. Johnson escaped, and finally 
succeeded in getting her body. Yesterday I was watching with 
poor Mr. J. till late in the day, when we succeeded in getting a 
coffin made, and buried her. I had to read the funeral service, 
and we buried her as much like a Christian as we could. It was 
an awful day for me ; almost as bad, though free from danger, 
as the night before. The captain of the Fredonia was on shore, 
and her doctor and paymaster went ashore before the rushing in 
of the sea, but all the rest on board, except two men, were lost. 
Three officers — one with his wife — and over thirty men went 
down with the ship. The last we saw of the Fredonia that night 
she was all right, but yesterday morning nothing was visible 
except a piece of her hull with two men clinging to it. The 
America lost her captain, three other officers, and most of her 
crew, besides many badly hurt. She is a sad sight. How did 
we escape ? God alone knows. He saved us. It seems provi- 

382 George Kelsey Powell. 

dential that this vessel and not another was here, for not another 
on the coast could have escaped as we did. The Wateree draws 
very little water, and her bottom is .very flat, so that it is almost 
impossible to capsize her, and she ran upon the shore with hardly 
ajar. Here, too, the shore is low and soft; but if we had been 
driven the other side of the city all would have been lost. Some 
of the waves which came into the bay and town were at least 
thirty or thirty-five feet high. They rushed up over the first story 
of the custom-house. The people here are all ruined and very 
many have been killed and wounded. We are about four miles 
north of the town. We don't apprehend any further trouble, but 
shall be prepared for anything. Last night all of us, except a 
few left to guard the ship, camped at the foot of a high hill about 
three miles inland. The people are living on the sidehills, and 
some are going inland. We have heard from Tacna. There 
they lost few lives, though many buildings were destroyed. 
Several towns north of here are completely destroyed. VVhat 
are we to do ? Stay here for the present and look out for things. 
To-morrow the mail steamer is due going north, and we shall 
send word to the admiral at Callao, and expect him here in about 
a week. Farther than this no one can say. I don't think the 
government will ever launch the vessel, as it would cost more 
here than she is worth. Of course we shall not go to Frisco very 
soon. I will let you know the news by every opportunity. Try 
not to worry. The Almighty hand will protect us. We have 
plenty of provisions, and there is water near. 

George K. Powell. 
After the Wateree was driven ashore the officers and crew 
lived in tents made of sails for ten days, until the arrival of the 
flag ship Powhatan, which took most of the officers to Callao, 
and thence most were ordered home by mail steamship and the 
Isthmus of Panama. Mr. Powell was in the navy about a year 
and a half He then returned home and subsequently taught 
school for a year at Painted Post, N. Y. He was for three 
months the principal teacher in the house of refuge at Roches- 
ter, N. Y. In 1870 ha came to Scranton, Pa., and entered the 
law office of Willard & Royce, and was admitted to the bar of 
Luzerne county June 12, 1871. He had previously read law 
under his uncle, Henry M. Stewart, at Penn Yan, and was ad- 
mitted to the Supreme Court of the state of New York, January 
5, 1871. After Mr. Powell's admission to the Luzerne county 
bar, and marriage, he removed to the borough of Kingston, 

George Kelsey Powell. 383 

where he resided until the present year, when he removed to this . 
city. He was for two years while at Kingston superintendent 
of the Methodist Epi.scopal Sabbath school of that place. He 
also filled the positions of trustee, steward, and other offices in 
the church of his choice. He is a republican in politics, but has 
never filled, or been an aspirant for, any political office. Mr. 
Powell married August 28, 1873, Lorette Smallwood, daughter of 
John Smallwood, of Ripley, Chautauqua county, N.Y. Mr. Small- 
wood was born in England February 15, 181 1, and emigrated with 
his father's family to America in 1820. He married September 20, 
1837, Harriet Jeanette, youngest daughter of the late Judge Web- 
ster, of Ripley. Mr. Smallwood was a successful farmer. He 
was also assessor in Ripley for many years. For eight years 
and over he was one of the commissioners of license for the 
county of Chautauqua. He was a prominent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, to the various interests of which he 
was a liberal contributor. He also gave his support, by personal 
effort and otherwise, to the objects of benevolent and reforma- 
tory institutions generally. The father of Mrs. Smallwood was 
Elizur Webster, who was born in Connecticut August 24, 1767. 
In October, 1803, he removed from Washington county, N. Y., 
to Batavia, and in 1808 to Warsaw, where he had taken up sev- 
eral thousand acres of the Holland company's land. In 1837 he 
removed to Ripley. He was the first settler in the present town 
of Warsaw, and was eight miles from the nearest settler on the 
Holland purchase. He was appointed a justice of the peace, the 
first in the township, and was the first supervisor of Warsaw 
after its formation, and held the office many years. He was 
• also successively associate judge of the county court, a member 
of assembly in 1816 and 1817, and a member of the constitu- 
tional convention in 1821. He died in Ripley in 1848. One of 
his daughters married Andrew W. Young, a prominent citizen 
of western New York, and author of" Science of Government," 
" National Economy," "American Statesman," " History of Chau- 
tauqua County, New York," etc. Mr. and Mrs. Powell have a 
family of four children: Lewis Smallwood Powell, Nellie Wil- 
lard Powell, Edith Maria Powell, and Mary Louise Powell. 

Mr. Powell's varied experiences before he settled down to. 

384 George Stekle Ferris. 

the practice of the law were, as will be perceived, of a char- 
acter to develop that spirit of self-reliance, without which there 
is small chance for success in any profession. He has seen much 
of the world and men of the world, and acquired thus a knowl- 
edge not to be gleaned of books, and that must needs stand in 
good stead the lawyer, whose duties call almost as loudly for an 
understanding of human nature and of matters and things gen- 
erally as of the letter and spirit of the law. He was a dutiful 
student before his admission and has been a dutiful student ever 
since. Not a few members of our profession foolishly imagine 
that when they have gone far enough into the book.s to acquire 
title to hang out a shingle, they have fully equipped themselves. 
Mr. Powell made no such error. He realized from the begin- 
ning that while a few years of patient poring over the authorities 
are sufficient to secure the legal right to call one's self an attorney 
at law, every spare hour for years after admission must be de- 
voted to keeping pace with new developments, if one seeks to 
be a lawyer just to his clients and useful to himself The result 
is that now, after nearly fourteen years of continuous practice, 
he enjoys the benefits of a large and profitable clientage, and 
they, in turn, enjoy the benefit of being ably as well as faith- 
fully served. Mr. Powell is yet young and ambitious and has 
every prospect, if his life is spared and his physical vigor con- 
tinues, of reaching a distinguished position in the profession. 


George Steele Ferris was born at Pittston, Luzerne count)', 
Pennsylvania, April 28, 1849. He is a descendant of Samuel 
Ferris, a native of Reading, in Warwickshire, England, who was 
one of the early settlers of the Massachusetts colony. He was 
a resident of Stratford, Conn., as early as 1655. Zachariah Fer- 
ris, son of Samuel Ferris, married Sarah {Noble) Ferris about 
1698, and resided in New Milford, Conn. Benjamin Ferris, son 
of Zachariah Ferris, married Phebe Beecher, of Litchfield, Conn. 

George Steele Ferris. 385 

He was an approved and valuable minister of the gospel, and 
belonged to the society of Friends, and was a brother of David 
Ferris, whose memoirs and life was published in Philadelphia in 
1855. Benjamin Ferris, son of Benjamin Ferris, was born in 
1738. He married Mary Howland, great-granddaughter of Lord 
Edmund Fitzgerald. Eber Ferris, son of Benjamin Ferris, was 
born in Newtown, Conn., May 26, 1784. Edwin Fitzgerald Fer- 
ris, son of Eber Ferris, was born February 19, 1822, at Una- 
dilla, N. Y. He spent his early life in Otsego county, M. Y., 
and came to the Wyoming Valley in company with the late Rev. 
Reuben Nelson, D. D. After the opening of the Wyoming Sem- 
inary, September 24, 1844, he was one of the teachers. He 
resided in Pittston for many years, and in 1847 was superintend- 
ent for Lord and John L. Butler during their early coal opera- 
tions. He subsequently engaged in the milling business, and 
was in partnership at various times with James Mott, Theodore 
Strong, J. A. Wisner, and Charles Steele, until the summer of 
1 86 1, when he accepted a position in the civil service at Wash- 
ington, D. C. He died June 7, 1877, at Pittston. He married 
December 7, 1847, Margaret, daughter of Joseph and Sarah 
{Rmisoni) Steele. Mrs. Ferris was a descendant of Samuel 
Ransom, who was born about 1737, at or near Ipswich, Eng- 
land. He was a resident of Canaan, Litchfield county. Conn., 
on May 6, 1756, and on that day was married to Esther Lau- 
rence. She was born about the year 1739, in Windham county. 
Conn. In 1758 the eastern part of Canaan was set off into the 
town of Norfolk, and it was in this town, near Doolittle Pond, 
that Samuel Ransom bought land and lived until he removed 
to the Wyoming Valley, in 1773 ; and it was on this farm 
that all his children, except the youngest, were born. He was 
evidently a prominent citizen, and, for those days, a wealthy 
farmer. In less than six months after he moved to the valley he 
had established himself as a prominent citizen, and March 2, 
1774, he was chosen a selectman of the town of Westmoreland, 
and a surveyor of highways. His name frequently appears in 
the local histories of the times as a leading member of the com- 
munity, and a participant with his neighbors in the earlier trou- 
bles between the Connecticut settlers and the Pennsylvania au- 

386 George Steele Ferris. 

thorities, and in the events leading to the revolutionary war. 
Miner, in his " Hazleton Travelers," speaks of Captain Ransom 
as having been in the French and Indian war. It is not likely 
that he would have been appointed a captain in the Continental 
service had he not had some previous military experience in the 
field. The Hartford, Conn., state records show that he was com- 
missioned by the assembly October, 1775, as captain of the 
Third company Twenty-Fourth regiment Connecticut militia. 
On August 24, 1776, it was voted at a town meeting to erect cer- 
tain forts " as a defense against our common enemy " — the British 
and Indians. Among the forts erected in compliance with this 
resolution was one on Garrison Hill, in Plymouth ; and for this 
Samuel Ransom hauled the first log. On August 23, 1776, con- 
gress passed the following resolution : " Two companies on the 
Continental establishment to be raised in the town of Westmore- 
land, and stationed in the proper places for the defense of the 
inhabitants of said town and parts adjacent, till further order of 
congress j * * * that the said troops be enlisted to serve 
during the war, unless sooner discharged by congress ; * * * 
that they be liable to serve in any part of the United States." 
On August 26, 1776, congress commissioned Samuel Ransom, 
of Plymouth, captain. He enlisted his company, which was 
known as the Second Independent company, for the revolutionary 
service, and was attached to the Connecticut line. On Decem- 
ber 12, 1776, congress resolved, "that the two companies raised 
in the town of Westmoreland be ordered to join Washington 
with all possible expedition." Captain Ransom's company con- 
sisted of eighty-four men, and its headquarters before joining 
Washington was either at Garrison Hill or Forty Fort. On the 
roll of names I find that of his son-in-law, Timothy Hopkins, 
and of his son, George Palmer Ransom. Without following Cap- 
tain Ransom and his company in historical detail, it will be suffi- 
cient to say that they joined the regular Continental army at 
Morristown, N. J., and were first under fire in Januar}-, 1777, at 
the battle of Millstone, N. J., near Somerset court house, under 
General Dickinson. We next find Ransom engaged at the bat- 
tles of Brandywine, Germantown, Bound Brook, and Mud Fort, 
and in other lesser engagements, where he and his command 

George Steele Ferris. 387 

acquitted themselves like veterans. In October, 1777, his com- 
pany, by casualties, was reduced to sixty-two men. During the 
winter they remained with the main army in winter quarters near 
Morristown, N. J. In the following June affairs in the Wyoming 
Valley became so threatening that Captain Ransom resigned to 
go to his home and defend it against the British and Indians, 
who were advancing down the valley under Colonel John Butler. 
Captain Ransom reached Forty Fort on the morning of the 
massacre and reported to Colonel Zebulon Butler, the American 
commander, as a volunteer aide. Upon the incidents of the 
massacre it is not necessary to dilate. Captain Ransom fully 
sustained his reputation as a cool and fearless soldier, and was 
killed in the heat of the fight. He was with Whittlesly's com- 
pany on the extreme left, under the command of Colonels Deni- 
son and Dorrance. He was detailed to make a reconnoisance of 
the ground at the opening of the engagement, and, as he did not 
return to report, it is probable that he went at once into the thick 
of the fight and was unable to withdraw before he was killed. 
Of the fifteen officers eleven were killed. Every captain of the 
six companies, including Captain Ransom, was found dead at 
the front of the line. The place where they fell is about a mile 
above the Wyoming station of the D., L. & W. R. R., and very 
nearly on the bed of the track of that road. Captain Ransom's 
body was found near fort Wintermoot with a musket shot through 
the thigh, his head severed from his shoulders and his whole 
body scarred with gashes. It was identified by the shoe and 
knee buckles. He was buried with the other bodies near the 
site of the granite monument erected to the memory of those 
who fell in this battle. His name leads the list of the killed en- 
graved upon the tablet. The township of Ransom in Lacka- 
wanna (late Luzerne) county, was named in honor of Captain 
Samuel Ransom. The sufferings, hardships, and outrages to 
which the survivors of the massacre and their families were sub- 
jected are too familiar to require repetition here. Samuel Ran- 
som's house and other buildings were burnt, and his family fled 
down the valley with the other refugees. After the advance of 
Sullivan's army his family returned and re-occupied their land, 
only to become involved in the troubles growing out of the 

388 GiiORGE Steele Ferris. 

struggle for the ownership of the valley between the Connecti- 
cut and the Pennsylvania authorities. In all these hardships 
they bore their share. After the death of Captain Ransom his 
widow married Captain James Bidlack, sen., and is said to have 
moved back to Norfolk, Conn., where, in all probability, she died. 
George Palmer Ransom, second son of Captain Samuel Ransom, 
went to the Wyoming Valley with his father in 1773, when 
eleven years of age. At fourteen years of age he enlisted in his 
father's company and served with it during the war. After the 
resignation of Captains Ransom and Durkee, their companies 
were merged into one under Lieutenant, afterwards Captain, 
Spalding, and on the day of the massacre July 3, 1778, it was 
hastening to the scene of hostilities, but was still some forty-five 
miles distant at Shupp's, on the Pocono. George was with this 
company the day of the batde. He helped to bury the dead, 
among them his father. On December 6, 1780, when eighteen 
years old, he and five others were taken prisoners by a party of 
Butler's rangers and carried into captivity to Montreal, suffering 
grievous hardships and subjected to many indignities. In June, 
1 78 1, he and several others escaped from prison. They wan- 
deaed through the dense wilderness towards Lake Champlain, 
which they reached after three days and nights of intense suffer- 
ing from cold, fatigue, and hunger. They lived on snakes and 
frogs. He next went to a kinsman's at Pultney, Vt., where 
he remained until completely rested, and then went to Connecti- 
cut. From there he re-joined his company. He was in Sulli- 
van's campaign up the Susquehanna valley after the Indians, and 
afterwards was stationed at West Point, N. Y., where he received 
an honorable discharge at the end of the war. He married his 
first wife, Olive Utley, of Taunton, Mass., during the war, nor 
did he take his wife and child to Plymouth till the close of the 
same Mrs. Ransom rode there on horseback, carrying in her 
arms her infant daughter, Sarah, afterwards Mrs. Joseph Steele, 
and the grandmother of the subject of our sketch. After his 
discharge George Palmer Ransom settled permanently at Ply- 
mouth, where for sixty-five years he was a well-known, greatly 
respected and highly honored citizen. He was for many years 
colonel of the militia regiment of Luzerne county. He died in 

George Steele Ferris. 389 

1850 in his eighty-ninth year. His first wife died July 14, 1793, 
aged thirty-three years. Sarah Ransom, eldest child of Colonel 
George Palmer Ransom and OVive (U^/ey) Ransom, was born Sep- 
tember II, 1784, at Taunton, Mass. She married May i, 1800, 
Joseph Steele, of New Buffalo, Pa. Margaret, youngest child of 
Joseph and Sarah Steele, and mother of the subject of our sketch, 
was born June 23, 1826, at Hanover township, Luzerne county. Pa. 
For the facts relating to the Ransom family we are indebted to 
" A Genealogical Record of the Descendants of Captain 
SaiMuel Ransom, of the Continental Army," compiled by his 
great-great-grandson, Captain Clinton B. Sears, of the United 
States army. George S. Ferris was educated at Columbia col- 
lege, Washington, D. C, and at Allegheny college, Meadville, 
Fa., from which latter institution he graduated in 1869. In 1870 
and 1 87 1 he was a clerk in the treasury department in Washing- 
ton, D. C, and while in that position he studied law in the Col- 
umbia Law school of that city. He graduated from the Law 
school, in June, 1871, and was admitted to the Supreme Court of 
the District of Columbia. He then returned to Pittston and 
entered the law office of the late C. S. Stark, and was admitted 
to the bar of Luzerne county February 19, 1872. Mr. Ferris 
has been for the past six years a trustee of the First Presbyterian 
church of West Pittston, and is at present a school director of 
that borough. He married September I, 1875, Ada, daughter of 
Lewis G. Stark, who resides near Nicholson, Wyoming county. 
Pa. They have one child, Edwin Fitzgerald Ferris. 

Lewis G. Stark is the descendant of Aaron Stark, of Hartford 
Conn., in 1639. He was in Windsor in 1643 ; in Mystic in 1653. 
In May, 1666, he took the freeman's oath in Stonington, Conn. 
In 1669 he was made freeman of New London, Conn., where he 
died in 1685. Christopher Stark, son of William Stark, and 
grandson of Aaron Stark, lived in Dutchess county, N. Y., and 
must have been a very aged man when he removed to Wyoming 
with his family in 1769. He died in 1771. James Stark, one of 
his sons, died July 20, 1777. In the battle and massacre were 
three of the name : Aaron Stark, James Stark, and Aaron 
Stark, jun. David and Aaron, sons of Christopher Stark, fell. 
Aaron Stark, jun., son of James Stark, was in the massacre and 

390 Eben Greenough Scott. 

escaped. He subsequently returned to Dutchess county, N. Y. 
William Stark, son of Christopher Stark, came from Dutchess 
county, N. Y., and settled on the Tunkhannock creek, now in 
Wyoming county, Pa. He married Polly Gary, and died about 
1795. He was buried at Goshen, N. Y. Nathan Stark, son of 
William Stark, was born December 28, 1768. He married Dorcas 
Dixon, and died May 23, 1837. William Stark, son of Nathan 
Stark, was born January 13, 179 1. He was a pensioner of the 
war of 181 2, and died a few years since. Lewis G. Stark is a 
son of William Stark. 

Mr. Ferris, it will be observed, is at this writing but thirty- 
five years of age, and has been twelve years a practitioner at the 
bar. The general tendency of attorneys is to the county seat of 
the county, where they hang out their shingles. The assumption 
is natural that where the courts are, there the most legal business 
is to be done, but it is equally true that where the courts are 
there are always the greatest number of lawyers to do it. Mr. 
Ferris has resisted the temptation to settle down within sight of 
the court house, and has remained in Pittston, which, being the 
place of his nativity, and, as a consequence, the home of his 
closest friends, who know him better than he could be known 
elsewhere, has given him a very extensive and quite lucrative 
practice. It is not flattery to speak of him as one of the really 
good young lawyers of the county. He comes of good stock, 
as already shown ; he has fine natural abilities ; his alma mater 
gave h-im every advantage ; he has industry and persistence ; 
and out of these conditions and qualities he has reared a pro- 
fessional reputation that brings him numerous clients, whose 
interests are always intelligently and conscientiously served. 


William and Anna [Boice) Scott, of Litchfield, Hartford county, 
Conn., had thirteen children. Gardner, the eldest, who was born 
September 10, 1767, settled near Geneseo, N. Y. George, one 

Eben Greenough Scott. 391 

of his sons, born in 1784, came to Pennsylvania when a young 
man and settled in Towanda. He was commissioned an associ- 
ciate judge of Bradford county in 1812, and held the position 
until 1818; as prothonotary in 1818; as clerk of the courts of 
Quarter Sessions, Oyer and Terminer, and of the Orphans' Court 
in 1824, and held these last positions until 1830. He was the clerk 
of the commissioners from 18 15 to 18 19, and was county treas- 
urer in 1823 and 1824. He was the publisher for a time, also, of 
the Bradford Settler, and was prominent in the politics of the 
county for many years. He married a Miss Strope, of Wysox, 
a daughter of Henry Strope and a granddaughter of Sebastian 
Strope, and was the father of H. Lawrence Scott, at one time 
United States collector of internal revenue, and from 185 i to 1854 
register of wills, recorder of deeds, and clerk of the Orphans' 
Court of Bradford county. Pa. One of his daughters married 
Burton Kingsbury, and another General H. J. Madill. Sebas- 
tian Strope was one of the first settlers of Wysox, Bradford 
county, Pa., he having located there in 1776 in connection 
with his brother Isaac, his father-in-law, Isaac Van Valken- 
burg, and Hermanas Van Valkenburg. These settlers came 
from near Claverack, Columbia county, N. Y. He died in 
Wysox in 1805, aged seventy years. His neighbors bore testi- 
mony to his worth and integrity as a man and citizen. He was 
in the colonial army and engaged at the battle of Wyoming, 
and escaped from the fearful massacre by hiding in a patch of 
thistles which had grown up in an old stock yard. He was a 
fearful and silent spectator of the butchery of Lieutenant Shoe- 
maker by the tory Windecker after he had promised his unfor- 
tunate victim quarter. His wife was captured by the Indians 
May 19, 1778, and remained in captivity nearly three years. The 
mother of Mrs. Scott was Catharine, daughter of Rudolph Fox. 
He was the first permanent white settler of Bradford county. In 
the month of March, 1777, while in search of his cattle, he was 
seized and taken a captive to Quebec, where he was kept for 
nine months, during all of which time his family were ignorant 
of his fate. Luther Scott, another son, was born in 1788 and 
resided in Wilkes-Barre for awhile with his 'brother David. He 
received a lieutenant's commission in the United States army in 

392 Eben Greenough Scott. 

1812. During the war of 1812-14 he distinguished himself by 
his activity, courage, and fidelity, for which he received honora- 
ble mention. After the war, being then a captain of artillery, he 
accompanied Commodore Decatur on the expedition to Algiers. 
During the Creek war he was stationed at different points in 
Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. His duties were arduous and 
perplexing, and in the faithful discharge of them his health be- 
came impaired. He died at New Orleans, April 8, 1819. He 
was the author of a work on artillery practice. David Scott, the 
eighth child of William Scott, was born at Blandford, Mass., 
April 3, 1782. When about eighteen years of age David left 
home and went to reside with his brother, Gardner Scott, at Gen- 
eseo, N. Y. There he remained three or four years, and then 
went to reside with his brother George, at Towanda. He there 
engaged in school teaching, his school being in Towanda town- 
ship. While residing in Towanda he had a long and severe 
attack of fever, and his life was saved after he had got so low that 
he could not speak above a whisper, by his nurse allowing him 
to drink freely of water, against the positive directions of the at- 
tending physician. In December, 1806, he located in Wilkes- 
Barre and became a student of law under Thomas Graham, who 
was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county in 1798. Mr. 
Graham was a member of the board of trustees of the Wilkes- 
Barre academy from 1807 to 18 14. He died April 26, 18 14. 
During the next two years David Scott read law, taught school, 
and engaged in other industrial pursuits. He was admitted to 
the bar of Luzerne county January 3, 1809. On January 16, 
1809, he was appointed and commissioned by Governor Snyder 
prothonotary of the court of Common Pleas, and clerk of the 
Orphans' Court, Quarter Sessions, and Oyer and Terminer. 
These offices he held until the year 18 16. He was commissioned 
a notary public February 24, i8iO.' In 1816 he was elected a 
representative to congress from the Luzerne district, but before 
the time for taking his seat arrived Governor Snyder tendered 
him the commission of president judge of the judicial district 
composed of the counties of Dauphin, Schuylkill, and Lebanon, 
He was commissioned on December 21, 1816, and soon thereaf- 
ter removed with his family to Harrisburg. He served as presi- 

Eben Greenough Scott. 393 

dent judge of this district until July 29, 1818, when he was com- 
missioned by Governor Findlay president judge of the Eleventh 
judicial district (comprising Luzerne and three other counties) to 
succeed Judge Burnside. He held his first court at Wilkes-Barre 
in August, 18 18. 'In 18 19 he was elected a member of the board 
of trustees of the Wilkes-Barre academy, and served in that po- 
sition until 1838. From May, 1824, until May, 1827, Judge 
Scott was burgess of the borough of Wilkes-Barre. He was 
one of the vice presidents of the Luzerne County Bible society 
in 1819, the year of its organization, and from 1828 to 1830 was 
its president. From 1827 to 1829 he was president of the Lu- 
zerne County Temperance society. He was the founder of the 
Protestant Episcopal church in Wilkes-Barre, and instituted in 
his office the first Sunday school organized in northeastern Penn- 
sylvania. During several years he was canal commissioner and 
president of the board of public works of Pennsylvania, and as 
canal commissioner he refused to take any salary because he was 
receiving a salary of sixteen hundred dollars a year as a judge. 
" To him, George Denison, and Garrick Mallery the people of 
Luzerne county were more indebted for the North Branch Canal 
than, probably, to all others combined." In the summer of 1837 
Judge Scott had some intention of retiring from the bench — 
would do so, in fact, if he could have assurance that a person 
whom he could approve would be appointed his successor. The 
matter was broached to Governor Ritner by a mutual friend. 
The governor, after some hesitation, promised to appoint Nathan- 
iel B. Eldred, then president judge of the Eighteenth judicial 
district, to the Luzerne district if Judge Scott would resign. 
This suited the latter, and in March, 1838, he drew up his resig- 
nation and delivered it to the " mutual friend." Upon its deliv- 
ery to Governor Ritner, he promised to apppoint Judge Eldred 
"and no other man." On April 7, however, Judge Scott, Judge 
Eldred, and the "mutual friend" were astonished by the an- 
nouncement that Governer Ritner had appointed William Jessup 
president judge of the Eleventh judicial district. It is well to 
here remark that Luzerne county never had a purer or abler 
judge than Judge Jessup. Judge Scott was an eminent example 
of the invigorating effects and auspicious influences of our repub- 

394 Eben Greenough Scott. 

lican institutions upon the actions and fate of men. To speak 
with the strictest regard to truth, unmixed with romance or flat- 
tery, Judge Scott was a self-made man. Unaided by wealth or 
influential connections, with no other capital than his head and 
his hands to commence with, he rose from the humbler walks 
of life to some of the most eminent and respectable public sta- 
tions, occupying in his .advance upwards, many intermediate 
public positions of varied and important responsibilities, and 
filling all with that measure of ability and industry which alone 
make office respectable, and secures to the people the legitimate 
benefits of a well administered government. In all the private 
relations of life Judge Scott bore the reputation of stern integ- 
rity and strict regard to morality and justice. For several of the 
later years of his life he labored under painful bodily infirmities, 
the results of the severe application of his earlier years. A par- 
alytic affection had seated itself upon his system which, in the 
end, subdued a constitution not naturally very robust. We here 
re-produce a portion of an article upon Judge Scott which was 
written in 1876 for the Luzerne Legal Register by the late 
Hendrick Bradley Wright : 

" The young lawyer who had hardly made his first brief is 
elected to congress, and before he takes the oath of office is 
transferred to the bench! A truly rapid progress. His judg- 
ment and intellect formed in bold relief the outline of a character 
which made and left its impression upon the circle in which he 
moved. With great energy he overcame the obstacles of early 
life which lay in the path before him, and moved steadily forward 
to the point of his ambition, and he attained it. In a fair and 
honorable encounter with the world he reached the summit, the 
summit of Ids ambition. He could not be said, as a judge, to be 
a book lawyer. Perhaps he did not read as much as a judge 
should read. He had no occasion to do this, as Graham, Wells, 
Bowman, Denison, Mallery, Conyngham, Collins and others were 
attendants and practitioners in his courts. If he were leaning 
from the rule of an adjudicated case their keen eye would surely 
bring him to the point. They were all able lawyers, and no one 
knew it better than he. But, if he did not read, he thought; and 
when the mind of David Scott was aroused there was a great 
intellect at work ; and seldom did he fail to arrive at a correct 
conclusion. If he did not in all cases give the correct reason 
for his opinion, still the result he reached was the law of the case. 

Eben Greenough Scott. 395 

In a conversation with the writer of this article, while yet on 
the bench, he said: 'You will sometime be a judge, decide 
promptly, after understanding the facts of the case, from your 
first impressions — they are always the best and most reliable — 
and in this way you will seldom be wrong ; such has been my 
practice;' and he added further in an undertone, 'you need not 
always give the reasons upon which you base your judgment.' 
This, undoubtedly, was his practice. He relied upon his strong 
mind, and very seldom did it lead him astray. There was em- 
phasis in his language and manner. In his charges to the jury 
you could see the big veins raise upon his broad and massive 
forehead as he moved on with his argument, and his remarkably 
clear and penetrating eye would of itself attract your attention. 
His language was plain, uttered in distinct sentences, without 
regard to rhetoric, but always to the point. He was remarkably 
fair in the statement of his legal points, and no lawyer had just 
cause of complaint that .the written charge, filed on exceptions, 
varied from the one that preceded it to the jury. The jury, too, 
well understood the bent of his mind, though he expressed no opin- 
ion on the facts. The lawyer who went into court with a good 
cause succeeded; but if it were defective in law or fact he got 
no mercy from the bench. And what better encomium can be 
passed upon a judge, reserving always strict honor and unbend- 
ing integrity. Never in the long term that David Scott presided 
on the Luzerne bench did I hear the imputation that he acted 
under bias or improper influence. He was a man of strong 
prejudices as well as strong mind, and the two generally go 
together; but no man ever intimated that he was the object of 
persecution in court, resulting from these prejudices. David 
Scott was no advocate ; at least not one that would have become 
eminent in the forum. I have heard him speak at public meet- 
ings on different subjects, and he failed to make a decided hit. 
What he said was to the point, and good sense, but the emphatic 
manner and somewhat discordant style lessened the effect. He 
was not what the world calls an orator. He dealt too much in 
facts. His thoughts were electric, and he passed with too much 
rapidity from one point to another, and did not dress them up in 
such language as is calculated to please the assembly. He was 
in his element on the bench, and hence dealt with the dry 
elements of the law, not only with effect, but with an ardent rel- 
ish. He liked it. Stare decisis was not always the rule of his 
actions. His pride of opinion sometimes led him astray from 
the adjudicated track, though probably not from the true one. 
I remember well, in listening to the trial of Warder and Tainter 
in the court of this county, that he refused to admit the doctrine 

396 Eben Gkeenough Scott. 

that the return of two niJiils on a scire facias to foreclose a mort- 
gage 'restored a dead man to life,' and the probability is that a 
large majority of the profession to-day are of Judge Scott's opin- 
ion. But they took a writ of error, and reversed him. Where 
the reason is to sustain the doctrine that two nihils are equivalent 
to notice may be a very difficult one to be found. He came 
down pell-mell on the writer in Hobbs v. Fogg, where we were 
attempting to make the point that a negro was not a citizen, and 
the Supreme Court would, undoubtedly, have affirmed the ruling 
of Judge Scott had not the convention entrusted with the amend- 
ments to the constitution put the word ' white ' in that instru- 
ment while the court were advising on the question. Few judges 
in Pennsylvania during the time of David Scott had a reputation 
for more ability or integrity of purpose. Very few of his causes 
went up on writ of error from Luzerne. In Wayne and Pike (a 
part of his district) the decision of David Scott was treated as 
the law, and probably during his twenty years on the bencl^ not. 
ten cases went up from these two counties. As a criminal judge 
he was humane in his sentences. Though remarkably fair and 
decided, and apparently a severe judge against offenders, his 
judgments were always tempered with mercy. We have known 
him to change the term of imprisonment which he had written 
out and before him, and the prisoner on the floor for sentence, 
when suggestions have come voluntarily from some member of 
the bar in the prisoner's favor. His heart was filled with gener- 
ous impulses. But if he had made up his mind, and believed he 
was right, then no man had more decision. He would not yield. 
His manner and deportment on the bench to the bar was uni- 
formly pleasant and forbearing. But ill betide the lawyer who 
interrupted him in his charge to the jury. Particularly to young 
men he was remarkably affable. Many are the times when we 
have heard him supply the wanting word, or give the nod of an 
encouraging assent, to the young lawyer who was hesitating and 
doubting whether he was making his point or not. During the 
latter part of his judicial career his deafness, which had more or 
less afflicted him for many years, grew upon him, and at times it 
required a loud voice to make him hear. His position on the 
bench during the taking of evidence, or hearing the argument of 
counsel, was with one hand back of his ear, and leaning forward. 
And his deafness, probably, gave rise to the fact of a somewhat 
noisy court house for many years after he left the bench, but 
which, we are glad to see, has been corrected, much to the credit 
of the court and the convenience of the profession. We should 
say, in the summary of this article, that the leading prominent 
traits of character in Judge Scott were firmness and decision 

Eben Greenough Scott. 397 

large conceptive powers, and a mind peculiarly well balanced. 
To these add integrity of purpose, and you have a portrait of the 
man as he was." 

The late Chief Justice Woodward, who was admitted to the 
Luzerne bar August 3, 1830, and practiced before Judge Scott 
for nearly eight years, described him as " one of the ablest men 
that ever presided in a Pennsylvania court of justice, stern 
as the image of justice itself He was an honest, upright 
judge — a little overbearing sometimes, and always of irascible 
and pugnacious temper." It was often observed of him that if 
he had been in military life he would, most probably, have been 
distinguished. The ancestor of Judge Scott was at the battle of 
Culloden, on Drummossie moor, near Inverness, Scotland, which 
was fought April 16, 1746. After the defeat of the Scottish 
troops Judge Scott's ancestor went to the county of Cavan, in 
Ireland, and subsequently one of his sons emigrated to the Berk- 
shire hills, in Massachusetts, and the other to Virginia. Gen- 
eral Winfield S. Scott was a descendant of the Virginia branch, 
and Judge Scott of the Massachusetts family. These facts were 
corroborated by a conversation held between General Scott 
and Judge Scott some years prior to the death of the latter. 
Judge Scott died at Wilkes- Barre December 29, 1839, and his 
remains are interred in the Hollenback cemetery of this city. 
Judge Scott was twice married, the first time September i, 181 1, 
to Catharine Hancock, daughter of Jonathan Hancock, of Wilkes- 
Barre. She died November 15, 1832, and on March i, 1836, he 
married Mrs. Mary Dorrance, iiee Elder, of Lykens Valley, Dau- 
phin county, Pa. She was the daughter of David Elder and his 
wife, Jane, daughter of Colonel Bertram Galbraith. Mr. Elder 
was the son of Rev. John Elder, who for fifty-six years was a 
minister of the gospel at Paxton, Pa. Colonel Galbraith was a 
grandson of Rev. William Bertram, first pastor of the church at 
Derry, Pa. The first husband of Mrs. Scott was Henry B. Dor- 
rance, M. D., a cousin of the late Benjamin Dorrance, of King- 
ston, Pa. Judge Scott had seven children, all by his first wife, as- 
follows: William Boice Scott; Martha A. Scott, who married Lu- 
ther Kidder (Rev. Charles Holland Kidder, late rector of St. 
Clement's P. E. church of Wilkes-Barre, is a son of the late Judge 

3g8 Eben Greenough Scott. 

Kidder) ; Marietta Scott, who married Oliver Watson, of Wil- 
liamsport, Pa. (Mrs. Watson is the only survivor of her father's 
family) ; Catharine Scott, who married the late Judge Warren J. 
Woodward; Elizabeth Scott, who married R. Bethel Claxton, 
D. D., rector of St. Stephen's P. E. church, Wilkes-Barre, from 
1840 to 1848; Ellen Scott, who died unmarried; and George 
Scott, who was register of wills of Luzerne county in 1859 and 
i860, and who was admitted' to the Luzerne county bar January 
10, 1854, and who died unmarried at Wilkes-Barre September 26, 
1861. William Boice Scott, the father of Eben Greenough Scott, 
the subject of this sketch, was a native of Wilkes-Barre, and died 
when quite a young man. He married Susan Israel Greenough, 
daughter of Ebenezer Greenough, a native of Canterbury, N. H. 
At the beginning of the present century, from 1800 to 1825, 
there was a very noticeable accession to northern Pennsylvania 
of many persons of the cultured and higher classes of New 
England, and among them was Ebenezer Greenough, then in his 
twenty-second year and a graduate of Harvard college. The 
force and self-reliance of his character were indicated in some of 
the circumstances attending his journey. It was performed in 
the saddle, and he declined accepting from his parents a larger 
sum than that which would suffice for his traveling expenses, 
preferring to depend in the future upon his own exertions. He 
was furnished with several letters of introduction from persons 
of position and influence. In one written by Rev. Abiel Foster, 
one of the most prominent of New Hampshire's public men, 
these words occur: " He is a young gentleman of a respectable 
family in this town. His moral character is fair and unimpeach- 
able, his disposition modest and amiable." Referring to the 
memoranda of his early life it appears that his father was a mer- 
chant, and was born in Haverhill, Mass., December 11, 1783. 
His mother was the daughter of Ebenezer Flagg, of New Hamp- 
shire, and the family consisted of eight children; four sons and 
four daugters. Consonant with the laudable desire of the mother 
each son received a careful collegiate education, and each in due 
course acquired considerable wealth and influence. Except 
when in the academy or college, the youth of Ebenezer was 
passed with his parents. During the vacation period he taught 

Eben Greenough Scott. 399 

school and applied his earnings to the expense of his own train- 
ing. At Wilkes-Barre he was tendered the principalship of the 
academy, which he accepted, continuing to act in this capacity 
for three years, and discharging its duties with ability and suc- 
cess. While in Wilkes-Barre he entered upon the study of the 
law in the office of Ebenezer Bowman (a graduate of Harvard 
college in the class of 1782, and who was admitted to practice 
in the Luzerne county courts May 27, 1787) and upon removing 
to Sunbury in 1807, he finished his legal course of study under 
the tuition of Charles Hall of that place. On January 19, 1808, 
he was admitted to the Northumberland county bar, and imme- 
diately took a high rank in his profession. In 181 1 he moved 
to Danville, Pa., but in 1815 returned to Sunbury, where he there- 
after resided permanently. He was a federalist in a fervidly dem- 
ocratic county and state, and, although averse to holding office, 
was elected a member of the Pennsylvania legislature in 1829 
His shrewd and superior intelligence was in constant requisition 
during the term of his legislative service ; also in various other 
relations, regarding the draftirtg of important bills and the sup- 
port of certain provisions calculated to meet the special demands 
and exigencies of the time. The beneficial influence which he 
was thus enabled to exercise unostentatiously upon the material 
interests of the state when in an incipient stage of its develop- 
ment, cannot be too highly praised or appreciated. As a lawyer 
he was one of the most successful and distinguished in the state, 
and his record is free from stain or blemish. With unusual 
powers, enriched and strengthened by a familiar acquaintance 
with men and literature ; with a thorough knowledge of the de- 
tails, subtleties, and complications of the law, he possessed a 
judgment at once clear and impartial, great calmness under the 
most perplexing circumstances, keen shrewdness, and penetrative 
mental perceptions that seldom erred. In the latter years of his 
life his health became much impaired; but the immediate cause 
of his death was an accident that happened while in his carriage, 
from which he was thrown with much violence. This event oc- 
curred December 25, 1847, and wherever he was known occa- 
sioned great sorrow and regret. His family consisted of seven 
children, one of whom, an only son, William Israel Greenough, 
is now an attorney of high repute in Sunbury. 

400 Eben Gref.nough Scott. 

Eben Greenough Scott was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., June 
15, 1836. He was prepared for college at the Episcopal High 
school, near Alexandria, Va., then under the charge of Rev. E. 
A. Dalrymple, and also by Rev. Henry L. Jones, at Bridgeport, 
Conn. He then entered Yale college, from which he graduated 
in the class of 1858. Mr. Scott read law with his uncle, Wil- 
liam I. Greenough, at Sunbury, and William M. Meredith, of 
Philadelphia, and was duly admitted to the bar of Philadelphia 
in June, i860. He located at Potts ville. Pa., and subsequently in 
Sunbury, Pa., and practiced in each place for a number of years, 
While a resident of Sunbury in 1870, he was the democratic can- 
didate for congress in the district composed of the counties of 
Dauphin, Juniata, Northumberland, Snyder, and Union, but was 
defeated by John B. Packer, republican, by a majority of two 
thousand three hundred and fifty-four. In 1871 Mr. Scott was 
the candidate of the democratic party for president judge of the 
Eighth judicial district, composed of the counties of Montour and 
Northumberland, and was defeated by W. M. Rockefeller, of Sun- 
bury, owing to dissensions in the democratic party. On April 26, 
1861, during the recent civil war, Mr. Scott joined company C, 
Eleventh regiment of Pennsylvania militia. He remained in this 
service about two months, and in June, 1861, received an ap- 
pointment in the regular army, with the rank of first lieutenant. 
He served in the army of the Potomac under General McClellan, 
and subsequently was instructor of artillery at Kort Schuyler, 
New York harbor. He removed to Wilkes-Barre in 1872, and 
on September 9, 1872, was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county, 
where he has been in continuous practice since. On February 
14, 1863, Mr. Scott was married to Elizabeth Woodward, daugh- 
ter of the late ex-Chief Justice George W. Woodward, of this 
city. They have had two children, George Woodward Scott, and 
William Scott, both of whom are now deceased. It is with law- 
yers as with men in all other professions ; some are profound 
and technical, slow-moving, but sure; others are vigarous rather 
than painstaking, courageous and self-reliant rather than careful. 
The first reach the goal they aim at by degrees, fortifying every 
stage of their progress, so that their being compelled to turn 
back is impossible, and gradually, but with the utmost certainty. 

Eben Greenough Scott. 401 

they get there. The others make their way by. vehement, in- 
domitable push, avoiding incidentals as unimportant, but gallop- 
ing, so to speak, to and with the main issue. Of the two the 
former are least frequently worsted. It is of them that most 
of the text-book writers come. Their methods of thought de- 
velop system, and their manner of working begets inclination to lit- 
erary endeavor. Eben Greenough Scott came of good legal stock. 
Both his grandfathers were prominent and distinguished law- 
yers. Ebenezer Greenough, of Sunbury, and Judge Scott, of 
VVilkes-Barre, were both leading lights of the fraternity, and 
each left his impress upon the judicial proceedings of the communi- 
ty in which he lived. When yet a student the grandson was fond 
of committing his views to print, and many of the leading edi- 
torials of one of the then leading journals of Philadelphia, came 
from his pen and the pens of a bevy of college chums similarly 
inclined. When he went to the bar he quickly showed himself 
to be a very talented member of the first of the two classes above 
named, and many a vexed client has had reason to thank the 
conscientious deliberation and extreme care which he brought 
to the prosecution of their causes. In addition to his active 
practice he wrote and published in 1871, " Commentaries upon 
the Intestate System, and the Powers and Jurisdiction of the 
Orphans' Court of Pennsylvania," a work of great value in a 
professional library. Another book, " Development of Consti- 
tutional Liberty in the English Colonies of America," elicited 
warm praise, both in this country and in Europe. In recognition of 
these and other literary labors he was recently elected a Fellow 
by courtesy of the Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, an 
institution of learning bearing the highest of reputations. Mr. 
Scott has had some experience in politics, but was unsuccessful 
in securing political honors for himself, though as an active dem- 
ocrat he has contributed no little toward advancing the ambition 
of others. In 1872, as already stated, he was the democratic can- 
didate for judge of the Northumberland district. Although the 
county was at the time understood to contain a reliable democratic 
majority, there were internal dissensions which resulted in sacri- 
ficing the greater part of the ticket, Mr. Scott included. His 
nomination for congress had an equally disastrous ending, as 

402 Gaius Leonard Halsey. 

the district was hopelessly republican, although Mr. Scott suc- 
ceeded in reducing the usual majority of nearly three thousand to 
less than twenty-four hundred. All who know him are convinced 
that he would have graced either position. As will be under- 
stood from what has been already told, Mr. Scott is a lover of 
books. He has done some traveling also, both at home and 
abroad, and from the two sources of information has acquired a 
wide knowledge of notable men and places and their history, 
which, with his remarkable powers of comparison and analysis, 
make him a delightful addition to any company. A store of 
anecdote and a ready repartee, with an equipment of facts and 
figures enabling him to enter into discussion upon, almost any 
topic, make him welcome wherever those who know him meet 
for " feast of reason and flow of soul." 


The American Halseys are of English origin, and have been 
settled in America about two hundred and fifty years. The 
family in England is of considerable antiquity. It has been con- 
jectured that the Alsis mentioned in the " Domesday Book " are 
the originals of the family. In the Conqueror's time (1066 to 1087) 
the Alsis possessed land in half the counties of his realm, and 
had representatives in each of the three great classes into which 
landed proprietors were divided by the compilers of the " Domes- 
day Book." But it was several centuries after the Conqueror's 
time that the first indisputably genuine member of the family is 
known to have existed in England. This was John Hals, a man 
of considerable wealth and repute, who lived in the reifn of 
Edward III. (1327 to 1377). He belonged, originally in Corn- 
wall, and built, in the adjoining county of Devon, the ancient 
mansion of Kenedon, mentioned by Burke in his " Landed Gen- 
try." 'Kenedon is contemporary with the great hall of William 
Rufus, otherwise known as Westminster Hall, of London, and 
with Windsor Castle. The reign of Edward is noted as havin"- 

Gaius Leonard Halsey. 403 

been a time of luxury and extravagant living. Many of the 
present architectural monuments of England belong to that reign. 
The passing of sumptuary laws became necessary. John Hals 
was one of the English judges of Common Pleas. His second 
son was Robert (or John), who added an E to his name, making 
it Halse. He was educated at Exeter college, Oxford, and be- 
came successively provost of Oriel, proctor of Oriel, prebendary 
of St. Paul's, and bishop of Litchfield and Coventry. He was 
present at the battle of Bloreheath, one of the engagements fought 
during the War of the Roses, and escorted from that field to Ec- 
cleshall, Margaret of Anjou, the queen of the imbecile Henry VL 
Bishop Halse was eminent for promoting none but the best of 
his clergy. He died in 1490, and was buried in Lichfield cathe- 
dral. His consecration as bishop took place in St. Clement's 
church, Coventry. One of the direct descendants of John Hals 
returned to Cornwall in 1600, and purchased the estate of Fen- 

Hertfordshire at the present time contains, probably, the best 
known representatives of the family in England. Thomas Fred- 
erick Halsey, of Gaddesdon Place, near Hemel Hempstead, being 
now the member of parliament for that county. Gaddesdon 
Place was granted to William Halsey (or Hawse) by Henry VHL 
and has ever since belonged to his descendants. William's great- 
grandson became Sir John Halsey. Thomas Halsey, in 1738, 
was high sheriff of Hertfordshire, and the same office was sub- 
sequently held by Charles Halsey. Frederick Halsey, who died 
in 1763, took part in England's continental wars in the middle of 
the last century. He was commissary general of the allied army 
in Germany, and was afterwards aide-de-camp to the hereditary 
Prince of Wolfenbuttle, He died at Hesse Darmstadt. His 
arms were: Arg. on a pile sable, three griffins' heads erased of 
the first. His crest was a dexter hand purp. sleeve, gr. cuff arg. 
holding small griffin's claw erased, or. His motto: Nescit vox 
missa reverti. The crest of John Hals was a griffin sejeant wings, 
endorsed or. 

The first Halsey to arrive in this country from England, and 
the progenitor of Gaius Leonard Halsey, was Thomas Halsey, 
who settled at Lynn, Mass., as early as 1637, and who came from 

404 Gaius Leonard Halsey, 

Hertfordshire. Like most other settlers of that town, he was a 
farmer. Large stocks of horned cattle, sheep, and goats were 
raised there, and for some years the settlers lived in an almost 
ideal state of democracy. Small as their community was, they 
held town meetings every three months. Their fire wood was 
cut in common, and for the grass in the meadows and marshes 
lots were drawn. Thomas Halsey possessed one hundred acres 
of land at Lynn. The period of his arrival there was one of in- 
_ tense religious agitation. The incident of Endicott and the Red 
Cross, so vividly related by Hawthorne, occurred in 1635. 
Thomas Halsey's stay at Lynn, was, however, -of short duration. 
He was one of eight young Englishmen who, in 1640, purchased 
a ship, and, by permission of Governor Winthrop, set sail for 
Long Island with a view to settling there. They landed in Cow 
Bay, in what is now the town of North Hempstead, and purchased 
from James Forrett, the agent of Lord Sterling, a tract of land 
eight miles square. For the English claim they paid four bush- 
els of Indian corn. To the Indians they gave clothing and other 
articles of civilized life. Soon after their arrival at Cow Bay the 
Dutchman of New Amsterdam laid claim to all the land in that 
neighborhood, and sent an armed body of men to enforce the 
claim. Obliged thus to depart, Thomas Halsey and his com- 
panions sailed for a harbor eighty miles to the east, where they 
planted a town, which, in memory of the English town from 
which they had sailed for the new world, they called Southamp- 
ton. From the agreement which they drew up it might be imagined 
that these settlers fancied they were founding an independent 

Thomas Halsey passed the remainder of his days at South- 
ampton. Local historians say he had great influence among his 
companions and was endowed with the largest amount of worldly 
possessions. He was active in establishing the Connecticut 
system of jurisprudence, and in 1664 was chosen a representative. 
He built a house, which is said still to exist, on Main street. In 
1874 it was owned by Thomas NichoUs White. Thomas Hal- 
sey's first wife was murdered by two Indians, who were promptly 
captured and executed. This was the only Indian murder com- 
mitted in the Southampton colony. Thomas Halsey was a man 

Gaius Leonard Halsey. 405 

of considerable force of character, of strong will, and appears to 
have been seldom much influenced or controlled by others. The 
Southampton town meetings on more than one occasion were 
marked by stormy scenes. He was censured in 1646 for 
"hindering the quiet proceedings of the court, and causing them 
to lose their time by his wilful obstinacy." For "the unjust 
charging of the court for justifying the actions of Mr. Howe," 
he was condemned to make public acknowledgements, and to 
pay a fine of five shillings. He refused to make this acknowl- 
edgement, and the fine was increased to forty shillings. A year 
later, at the general term of court, Mr. Halsey's fine was remit- 
ted. His will was probated in New York city in 1679. He left 
three sons and one daughter. The most of the Halseys now 
living in this country are descended from this stock. Many of 
them have never left Southampton. New York city and Brook- 
lyn have seen a few. Others have settled in New Jersey. Tomp- 
kins county, in New York state, has a village called Halseyville. 
One of the Southampton daughters was married to a Conkling, 
from whom is descended Roscoe Conkling. 

Gaius Leonard Halsey belongs to the ninth generation in 
descent from Thomas Halsey, the line being: (i) Thomas; (2) 
Thomas ; (3) Jeremiah ; (4) Jeremiah ; (5) Matthew ; (6) Mat- 
thew ; (7) Gaius ; (8) Richard Church ; (9) Gaius Leonard. 
The two Thomases ended their days at Southampton. Jeremiah 
(3) removed to Bridgeharapton ; Matthew (6) probably settled 
at Easthampton. Of Matthew (2) it is recorded that, in a 
winter of great severity, near the end of the last century, he 
skated across New York Ba_y, the Kill von KuU, and thence up 
Newark Bay to Newark city, where he visited the lady who 
subsequently became his wife. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and while serving in Connecticut captured thirteen 
Hessians. For this exploit he was rewarded by the government 
with a vast quantity of depreciated Continental currency, the 
worthlessness of which embittered his after days. After the war, 
and after his children had been born, he emigrated to Springfield, 
Otsego county. New York, and .thence to Howard, Steuben 
county, where he lived to be over ninety years of age. 

The maiden name of Matthew Halsey's wife was Leonard. 

4o6 Gaius Leonard Halsey. 

She became the mother of three children who reached mature 
age. The eldest was Rufus, who had a son Thomas and a son 
Jefferson. Thomas was the father of Mrs. Ami Gilchrist and 
of Victoria Halsey, both of whom are residents of this city. 
Matthew's second child was Harriet, and his third was Gaius. 
Gaius was born May 4, 1793, and received for his middle name 
his mother's name, Leonard, but he did not use the name Leon- 
ard — at least not within the life-time of his children. He gave 
the name however, along with his own, to his second son. The 
two names exist a third time in the subject of this sketch. Gaius 
studied medicine, and finally drifted away from the home at How- 
ard and settled, first at Bainbridge, and then at Kortright Centre, 
Delaware county, where his children where born, where the re- 
mainder of his days were spent, and where he now lies buried. His 
second wife (Barbara Grant) to whom he was married a few years 
before he died, still lives at Hobart in the same county, and is 
the sole survivor of Gaius Halsey that now exists in Delaware. 
She never married again. Twenty years cover the period of 
Gaius Halsey's life at Kortright. They were eventful years to 
him and to his. But when the light of his life went out, in his 
forty-second year, his five children departed from the place never 
to return. The going of the Halseys from Kortright was as sud- 
den and abrupt as had been their coming. ' Doctor Halseys first 
wife, and the mother of his four children, was Mary Church, 
a daughter of Richard Billings Church, of Bainbridge, Chenango 
county, N. Y. The Churches in those and in after days were a 
numerous, industrious, and valient race in this part of Chenango 
county. Mary Church had at least five brothers : Warren, 
Wilson, Billings, Ira, and Levi ; and at least two sisters, Rhoda, 
and Pamela. Pamela became the wife of Ezra Corbin, of Bain- 
bridge, in the same county. Levi, Wilson, and Pamela Church 
lived to a ripe old age. They all died within the last fi\'e years. 
Richard Billings Church was born in 1768, and was the son of 
Timothy Church, of Brattleboro, Vt., who served in the war of 
Independence as a colonel, and after the war is said to have gone 
to Chenango county, N. Y., with his family, but to have returned 
subsequently to Brattleboro. His grave is at Brattleboro. He was 
the seventh of Nathaniel Church's thirteen children, and was born 

Gaius Leonard Halshy. 407 

May 12, 1736, his mother being Rachel McCranney, of Springfield, 
Mass. Nathaniel's father was Samuel Church (born 1667) and 
Samuel's father was also Samuel Church (born 1640). The father of 
this Samuel was Richard Church. Samuel was Richard's fourth and 
last child. Richard was born about 1610, probably in England and 
of English parents, and was an early settler at Hartford, Conn. 
With his family he moved from Hartford to Hadley, Mass., in 
1660, and seven years later he died. Hadley is eighteen miles 
distant from Springfield. This Richard Church is one of two 
Richard Churches who are prominent in the Church genealogy. 
The other Richard came to New England in 1630, when twenty- 
two years of age, and in 1632 moved to Plymouth, Mass., where 
he built a house of worship. The late Sanford E. Church, chief 
justice of the New York State Court of Appeals belonged to the 
Connecticut family ; the same family as Doctor Gaius Halsey's wife. 
Of Mary Church clear and deep impressions survive with 
all who knew her. She was a woman of strong personality and 
of great personal courage. To fear she was a total stranger. Her 
husband's regard for her — and Doctor Gaius Halsey was not a 
man easily swayed in his judgment by affection — may be learned 
from the eloquent and reverent epitaph which still remains 
where he placed it on her tombstone, under a grove of trees ad- 
joining the house in Kortright Centre, where she lived and died : 

" Beneath this stone rests all that was mortal of Mrs. Mary 
Halsey, wife of Dr. Gaius Halsey, who departed this life July 26, 
1830, aged 35 years. May her infant children, arrived at more 
mature years, on visiting this spot, pledge their vows to Heaven 
to honor her memory by imitating her virtues." 

Doctor Halsey lies at his wife's side in that isolated and solemn- 
ly silent burial field. Over his wife's grave he erected a stately 
monument of panelled brown stone, long and flat in shape, and 
covered by a marble flag bearing the inscription. His own grave 
was marked in the same manner by his children. To those who 
know what Kortright Centre was in those days — how it was cut 
off from the pulse of the world, these graves speak of Doctor Hal- 
sey's character. Hewasverymuchalawunto himself Self-reliance 
was, perhaps, his chief quality. He was marked by nature for 
distinction, and yet he was content to dwell where distinction was 

4o8 Gaius Leonard Halsey. 

forever an impossible thing to acquire. With strange self-abne- 
gation, in this sterile and almost unpeopled solitude, he held up 
during a short life the torch of humanity and civilization. But 
to what really adequate end ? To his children he was a stern 
parent, but he knew his duty to them in the matter of education. 
He found a teacher in the pastor of the local church ; he had 
them taught Latin as well as the English branches, and he after- 
wards sent them long distances away for higher training. There 
is still preserved in the family a large mounted globe which he 
owned, as well as a complete set of Brewster's Edinburgh Cyclo- 
pedia — works which in those days it must have been no easy 
matter to procure. He had a wide local reputation for skill in 
surgery, and it is related of him that on one occasion when he 
had a particularly difficult case in hand he made a special trip to 
New York to purchase new instruments. On this trip he stopped 
at the Astor House, then just completed and the wonder of the 
town. The bill he piaid subsequently became, at Kortright, a sub- 
ject for some wonder. Above his office at Kortright was a room 
for his students — of whom he had many — who were instructed 
there in the art of dissecting. This room and the whole office 
building, as well as the dwelling house, remains to this day, 
scarcely altered from the appearance they had fifty years ago, 
when the fires of Doctor Gaius Halsey's life went out with un- 
timely suddenness. In 1826, on the fiftieth anniversary of Amer- 
ican independence. Doctor Halsey was chosen to deliver at Kort- 
right Centre the oration of the day. From the surrounding 
country great throngs of people came to this celebration. It was 
probably the greatest event in the annals of the place, as it was 
the most memorable anniversary the nation had yet known. The 
oration was printed the following week in one of the county 
newspapers. A copy of that issue, still preserved in the family, 
has the oration printed with the news of the simultaneous death, 
on July 4, of Jefferson and John Adams, probably the two men 
who were then held in the highest veneration by the whole 
American people. In this address Doctor Halsey said of Wash- 
ington, that he derived honor " less from the splendor of his ac- 
tions than the dignity of his own mind." John Randolph was 
referred to, in parenthesis, as " the beardless man of Roanoke." 

Gaius Leonard Halsey. 409 

Four children were born to Doctor Halsey, three of them sons : 
Richard Church (born Bainbridge, N. Y. 1 8 17), Gaius Leonard (born 
1 8 19), and Nelson Gaylord ; and one daughter, Lavantia. The sons 
are all now living : Richard Church, a physician at White Haven ; 
Gaius Leonard, also a physician at Unadilla, N. Y. ; and Nelson 
Gaylord, a merchant at Kankakee, 111. Lavantia became the 
wife of a physician (Doctor Goff) and at their home in the state 
of Illinois bore him several children. She died about fifteen 
years ago. The children are Lizzie (now the widow of John J. 
Russel) Halsey, William, Leonard, and Mary. Nelson Gaylord's 
children (he married Miss Girard) are Helen, Winfield Scott, Nel- 
son Gaylord, Rebecca, and one other. The children of Gaius 
Leonard, who married Juliet Carrington, are Francis Whiting, 
(born 1 85 1, married Virginia Isabel Forbes), Frederick Arthur 
(born 1856), and Lavantia (born 1868). Richard Church has two 
children, Lavantia Harriet, and Gaius Leonard, the latter his first 
child, being the well-known lawyer of Wilkes-Barre, to whom is 
devoted this sketch. The maiden name of the mother of Mr. 
Halsey is Anna Sprowl, a member of the society of Friends, and 
a native of Kennett, Chester county, Pa. Richard Church Hal- 
sey studied medicine with his father, and in addition graduated 
at a medical college in the city of New York. Flis first location 
was at White Haven, but after a few years' residence there re- 
moved to Nesquehoning where the subject of this sketch was 
born. After a residence of four or five years at Nesquehoning, 
he removed again to White Haven where he has since resided. 

Gaius Leonard Halsey was born July 12, 1845, at Nesquehon- 
ing, Carbon county, Pa. He was educated at the Wilkes-Barre 
academy. Liberal institute, at Clinton, N. Y., and Tuft's college, 
Medford, Mass., from which he graduated in 1867. During a 
portion of 1866 he taught school at Canton, Mass., and after 
graduation, one year in White Haven, Pa., where he now resides. 
In 1868 he went to Washington, D. C, and during the winter of 
1868 and 1869 was engaged as a stenographer, and during a por- 
tion of the time did work for the late Oliver P. Morton, of Indi- 
ana, and John A. Logan, of Illinois. In 1869 and 1870 he was 
a stenographer for the Legislative Record at Harrisburg, Pa. In 
1870 and 1 87 1 he was assistant sergeant-at-arms in the house of 

4IO Gaius Leonard Halsey. 

representatives of Pennsylvania, and 1871 and 1872 was a trans- 
cribing clerk in the house of representatives. He studied law 
with Lyman Hakes and Charles E. Rice, and was admitted to 
the bar of Luzerne county, September 9, 1872. Mr. Halsey 
married April 17, 1882, Sarah Elizabeth Levan, a daughter of 
John W. Levan, of White Haven, Pa. They have two children, 
Anna Catharine Halsey and John Richard Halsey. 

Mr. Halsey, as will be seen from the above, has not been long 
at the bar, but he has wisely utilized his time and achieved a 
prominent place in the profession. The young lawyer who is 
not inveigled into taking an active part in politics, is an exception 
to a very general rule. The profession is always in demand for 
service on the "stump" during campaigns, and for a time there 
is a sort of glory in that service, though it is a glory of which 
most men generally get a surfeit. From haranguing crowds at 
the cross-roads on the "great and undying fundamental doctrines 
of our glorious party," etc., etc., etc., to wanting an office is how- 
ever a material and easy transition, and that is why it comes that 
in almost every list of aspirants for political position there 
is a goodly proportion of "limbs of the law." Fortunately 
the appetite is one that does not usually abide with its vic- 
tims very long, for if it is not quenched, after a reasonable 
period of waiting, by the attainment of some "fat place" it is 
very likely to be, by the forced conviction that there are altogether 
too many applicants for the limited number of "fat places" to be 
divided, and that the time consumed in looking for comfortable 
provision at the public crib might be far more profitably em- 
ployed in building up a practice. And it may be remarked here, 
parenthetically, of even those who do for a time succeed in office 
hunting, a not insignificant proportion generally end up, to use the 
expression of a knowing fellow practitioner, as "politicians with- 
out a following, and attorneys without a clientage." We are led 
to these remarks by the recollection that Mr. Halsey has had many 
incentives to take a hand in active politics, but though an ardent 
republican, he has evinced little inclination to do so by wisely 
giving his time to his professional duties and to keeping himsel 
well up with the decisions so as to be enabled to perform those 
duties thoroughly and acceptably to his clients. He is a gentle- 

Lyman Hakes Bennett. 411 

man of commanding presence and of never failing affability, ad- 
vantages that are always of great consequence in professional 
life, and, being thoroughly well read, legally and generally, and 
willing to work, has a manifestly bright future before him. 


Lyman Hakes Bennett was born in Harpersfield, Delaware 
county, N. Y., February 20, 1845. He is of Quaker parentage, 
and a descendant of Alden Bennett, a native of Rhode Island, 
where he was born April 24, 1754. His occupation was that of 
captain of a whaling vessel. He perished at sea in 1785, "vessel, 
crew, and cargo lost." His wife was Elizabeth Vail, who was 
born March 28, 1758. They were married at Stanford, Dutchess 
county, N. Y., in 1776, and had five children; four sons and a 
daughter. Alden Bennett, their youngest son, was a captain in 
the war of 1812, and was stationed at Plattsburg, N. Y., during 
that event. He was by occupation a manufacturer of agricultural 
implements. He died at New Haven, Oswego county, N. Y., 
September 25, 1854. He was twice married. By his first wife 
he had one son, D. M. Bennett, now residing at Saratoga, N. Y. 
He is an attorney and master in chancery. Isaac Bennett, second 
son of Alden Bennett, sen., was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., 
June 22, 1780. He married March 6, 1803, Anna Losee, daugh- 
ter of Simeon and Miriam [nee Carpenter) Losee of Dutchess 
county, N. Y. She was born October 15, 1779. The year of 
their marriage they removed, by means of an ox team and sled, to 
Harpersfield, and settled on a farm at Quaker Hill (they being 
Quakers or Friends) in Harpersfield. With the exception of one 
family their nearest neighbors resided ten miles distant, and their 
nearest mill was twenty miles from their place of settlement. 
Isaac Bennett died March 30, 1812, and his wife died December 
13, 1858. Mrs. Bennett was a woman of great energy of char- 
acter, and after the death of her husband cleared and paid for 
the farm and educated her four sons. Alden I. Bennett.-their 

412 Lyman Hakes Bennett. 

third son, studied medicine in Kortright, N. Y., with Gaius Hal- 
sey, M. D., who was the grandfather of Gaius L. Halsey of the 
Luzerne county bar. He located at Nanticoke, Pa., in 1825, and 
was the first resident physician of that borough. He married in 
1829 Maty Ann Bennett, daughter of Thomas and Mary Ann 
Bennett (jiee Espy), of Nanticoke. They removed to Boliver, O., 
in 1 83 1. He was a member of the constitutional convention of 
Ohio in 185 I. In 1853 they removed to Beloit, Wis. He was 
a state senator in that state when he died in 1862. He was a 
prominent candidate for the republican nomination for governor 
of the state. Two of his sons, Thomas and Phineas,- served in 
the late civil war as lieutenants of Wisconsin regiments. Sub- 
sequently Thomas Bennett became chief clerk and then quarter- 
master, under General Sherman, of the military division of 
Mississippi. He married Jennie Ewing, daughter of Hon. James 
Ewing of Ohio. Joseph Bennett, youngest son of Isaac Bennett, 
was twice married and left three sons and three daughters. John 
Ira Bennett, one of the sons, is a prominent lawyer in Chicago, 
III, and is a master in chancery in the United States courts for 
the northern district of Illinois. At the opening of the late civil 
war Mr. Bennett was appointed with the rank of colonel on Gov- 
ernor Yates' staff, and devoted much of his time during the early 
part of the war to recruiting men. For these services he asked 
and received no compensation. He had a strong desire to enter 
actively into the service, but impaired health resulting from a 
protracted attack of typhoid fever, prevented him. While living 
at Galva, 111., he became widely known as a public spirited man, 
and was honored with many public trusts. In the campaign of 
1864 he was chosen as elector for the fifth congressional district 
on the republican ticket, and was elected, receiving the highest 
number of votes of any republican elector. He was afterwards 
a candidate for circuit judge of Henry and Rock Island counties, 
and although he carried his own county by a majority of one 
thousand votes, he was defeated by a small majority in Rock 
Island county, his opponent, George W. Pleasants receiving the 
election. He always took an active interest in educational mat- 
ters, and for many years was a member of the board of education. 
He also edited the Galva Union, a newspaper of his town, and 

Lyman Hakes Bennett. 413 

purchased and developed th^ coal mines at that place. Since 
settling in Chicago he has built up a wide and remunerative 
practice, and ranks among the most influential members of the 
Chicago bar, having associated v^'ith him his son Frank I. Ben- 
nett, a promising young attorney. Simeon Losee Bennett, eldest 
son of Isaac Bennett, was a farmer. He moved first to Illinois, 
then to Iowa, where he died September 13, 1873. Phineas Louns- 
bury Bennett, the second son of Isaac Bennett, was born in Har- 
persfield, February 15, 1806, and is still living. He is a farmer, 
and until recently resided on the paternal farm at Quaker Hill. 
In his youth and early manhood he taught school for ten or 
twelve years. In 1830 he was a teacher at Nanticoke, and re- 
sided with his brother Doctor Bennett. He is prominent in 
educational matters in Harpersfield, and for over thirty years has 
been school commissioner, superintendent of schools, and trustee 
of his school district. He was supervisor of his town in 1841 
and 1842, and was elected a justice of the peace, but declined to 
act. For many years he was a director in the Stanford Fire In- 
surance company. He is the father of Lyman Hakes Bennett. 
The mother of Mr. Bennett is Minerva Hakes, daughter of the 
late Lyman Hakes of Harpersfield. Judge Hakes was a de- 
scendent of John Hakes, an early Puritan, who was a resident of 
Windsor, Conn., in 1643. The following among others were 
"householders and had seating in the meeting" at Windsor, Jan- 
uary 18, 1659-60: William Hayden, the ancestor of Rev. Horace 
E. Hayden ; John Hakes, the ancestor of Lyman Hakes Bennett, 
Harry Hakes and Charles E. Rice ; Simon Hoyt, the ancestor of 
ex-Governor Henry M Hoyt; John Osborn, the ancestor of E. S. 
Osborne; Jonas Enno, the ancestor of J. W. Eno, of Plymouth; 
Joseph Loomis, the ancestor of W. W. Loomis ; Thomas Ford, the 
ancestor of Mrs. B. F. Dorrance of this city, and Theodore Strong 
of Pittston ; Matthew Grant, the ancestor of ex-President U. S. 
Grant, and Thomas Deble, the ancestor of ex-President Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes. Of the four sons of Judge Hakes, three became 
lawyers (Lyman, Harry and Harlo), and his two daughters each 
became the mother of a lawyer : Lyman Hakes Bennett, son of 
Minerva Hakes Bennett, and Lyman Hakes McCall, son of Car- 
oline Hakes McCall, of lona, Mich. Mr. Bennett worked on 

414 Lyman Hakes Bennett. 

his father's farm until the age of twenty, doing the ordinary work 
of farmers' sons, and going to school when he could be spared 
from the plough. In 1865 he went to Cambridge, Henry county, 
111., and spent a year there as clerk in the office of the recorder 
and clerk of that county. In 1866 he went to Washington, D. C, 
and entered into government employment as a clerk in the second 
auditor's office. He remained in this position until 1872, when 
he came to Wilkes-Barre and entered the office of his uncle, 
Harry Hakes. He was admitted to the bar of Luzerne county, 
December 4, 1872. While in Washington Mr. Bennett entered 
the Columbia Law school, and graduated therefrom in 1870. He 
was in the class of George S. Ferris of the Luzerne county bar. 
Mr. Bennett has two brothers living, Alden J. Bennett, a banker 
at Virginia city, M. T., and Isaac Bennett, a farmer living near 
Binghamton, N. Y. His only sister is the widow of the late Rod- 
ney Dennis, who was a prominent lawyer in Steuben county, N. Y. 
Mr. Bennett married June 2, 1874, Ella N. Robbins, daughter of 
Robert Robbins of Dodgeville, la. Her mother was Eleaner 
Houpt, a daughter of the late Philip Houpt of this city. They 
have two children living, Anna Minerva Bennett and Lillian 

It is no reflection upon the personal appearance of Lyman 
Hakes Bennett to say that his looks are not nearly so suggestive 
of the lawyer as his name. Meeting him casually you would be 
disposed to regard him as too big for books and too fond of his 
ease to be energetic. But Mr. Bennett is, nevertheless, a very 
industrious and conscientious reader, and there are few attorneys 
at the bar so truly zealous and untiring in unraveling the intri- 
cacies of a cause given him to try, and bringing them within the 
light of the law. He is an examiner and master in chancery, and 
as such has solved many knotty problems in a manner testifying 
amply to his possession of great ability as a lawyer, and of a 
judicial mind. His methods are those of the man who real- 
izes that the profession of the law yields profit or fame to nothino- 
less than hard, willing, and unremitting work, and uniting with 
this wise conviction, a giant's frame and iron constitution, he has 
bent himself to just that kind of work. There is, in fact, no 
more indefatigable toiler at any bar in the state. Such men 

Malcom Edwards Walker. 415 

must succeed. Socially Mr. Bennett is a prime favorite with 
those who really know the man. Behind his brawny exterior 
is an unwavering good nature and disposition to any rational recre- 
ation and enjoyment that make his few intimate friendships very 
warm ones. He takes little interest in politics beyond keeping 
himself at all times well informed upon, and capable of intelli- 
gently discussing, the questions of the hour. A lawyer devoted 
to his profession and dependent upon it has no time for more. 


Malcom Edwards Walker is a native of Waverly, Luzerne 
(now Lackawanna) county, Pa., where he was born April 8, 
1847. He is a descendant of Thomas Walker, of Boston, Mass., 
who died July 2, 1659. Thomas Walker of Sudbury, Mass., 
was the son of Thomas Walker of Boston. He taught school at 
Sudbury in the year 1664, and in 1672 kept an ordinary. " His 
signature was very good. The town of Sudbury considered if 
they would give Mr. Walker land as an encouragement to keep 
a free school in Sudbury.'' His wife, Mary, was a daughter of 
Daniel Stoner, of Billerica, formerly of Boston, and was fourteen 
years younger than her husband. She married a second time 
Captain John Goodenow, of Sudbury. She gave her son, Wil- 
liam Walker, lands in Wells, Me., in 171 5. Thomas Walker 
had ten children ; five sons and five daughters. William 
W^alker, the third son of Thomas Walker, was born in Sudbu^ry 
July 22, 1666, and married, May 6, 1686, Sarah Goodenow, 
daughter of Captain "John Goodenow. He taught school, and 
was a farmer in addition. He died in 1732. Thomas Walker, 
the third son of William Walker, was born in Sudbury August 
15, 1689. He married Elizabeth Maynard June 16, 1717. They 
had three children, two sons and a daughter. Hezekiah Walker, 
son of Thomas Walker, was born- in Sudbury in 1721, andmar- 
ried in 1738, Hannah Putnam, of Framingham, Mass., and had four 
children. Hezekiah Walker, son of Hezekiah Walker, was born 

4i6 Malcom Edwards Walker. 

February 25, 1747, in Holden, Mass., and died December 30, 1837. 
He married, in 1776, Lucy Raymond. She was born in 1755, and 
died January 21, 1849. For upwards of sixty -three years they trod 
life's pathway together, and were honored by the entire community 
as having Hved without a stain or reproach on their names. They 
had twelve children, six boys and six girls, and upwards of eighty 
grandchildren at the time of their deaths. Of these children 
Joel Walker, of Oakland, Mass., eighty-seven years of age, and 
Eli Walker, of West Boylston, Mass., eighty-three years of age, 
still live, and are both physically and mentally healthy and vig- 
orous. Of the others, one son lived to be upwards of ninety 
years, two daughters eighty-eight, one eighty-three, and the rest, 
with one exception, who died at seventy-three, upwards of seventy- 
five years of age. Rev. John Walker, the grandfather of M. E. 
Walker, was the seventh child of Hezekiah Walker, and was born 
in Holden May 20, 1787, and died at Cold Brook Springs, Mass., 
August 18, 1866. He married Eunice Metcalf November 29, 
1 813. She died in 1870, aged eighty years. They had seven 
children, five sons and two daughters. One of the daughters 
died in infancy and the rest are still living, as follows: John, a 
florist, Worcester, Mass.; A. Judson, a Baptist minister, also the 
inventor and patentee of the " hydraulic elevator, " Warren, Mass. ; 
William S., a Baptist clergyman, Newton, Mass.; Eunice M., 
Cold Brook Springs; Sylvia J., wife of Henry Wilder, a mer- 
chant and farmer at Hubbardston, Mass. ; and Harvey D., teacher 
and also a Baptist clergyman, Huntington Mills, in this county. 
Rev. John Walker, until the age of twenty-one, worked on his 
father's farm, and at the age of twenty-five began preaching. 
For years he was the only Baptist minister in Holden, Princeton, 
West Boylston, Westminster, and Leominster, and in all these 
places reared vigorous churches, and converts were numbered by 
hundreds. He was the regular ordained pastor, during his min- 
istry, of churches at Holden, Princeton, West Sutton, Barre, and 
Cold Brook Springs, being pastor of the latter place at the time 
of his death. 

Prof Harvey D. Walker, the father of M. E. Walker, is a son 
of Rev. John Walker, and was born at Princeton, Mass., April 
20, 1 8 17, and married Electa B. Bates, of Bellingham, Mass. 

Malcom Edwards Walker. 417 

April 2, 1844, and had four children, two boys and two girls, all 
of whom are living. At the age of ten years, while at work on 
the farm, Harvey D. formed this purpose, " that, cost what it 
might, he would go through college." To this his father gave 
no encouragement, so, working by day and studying by night, 
almost entirely without instruction, except what could be gained 
from the scanty text-books within his reach, he prepared him- 
self to be a teacher, and at the age of sixteen, a boy weighing 
less than ninety pounds, commenced teaching in the public 
schools. The school numbered upwards of sixty, half of whom 
were older than their teacher. His success was such that after 
the public fund was expended the citizens of the district added 
six weeks to the term by subscription. For four successive 
years he taught school, working during vacation, his father re- 
ceiving all his wages. At twenty his father allowed him the last 
year of his minority and he entered on the accomplishment of 
his long cherished purpose. With but a single suit of clothes 
and a handful of books, without a dollar, or a friend to whom he 
could look for aid, he commenced his studies and fitted himself 
for college. He entered Brown University in 1839, graduated 
with honor in 1843, and in 1846 the degree of A. M. was con- 
ferred on him by his alma mater. Two days after graduation he 
became principal of the Milbury Academy, at Milbury, Mass., 
where he remained over two years, meeting with decided success. 
Among his pupils at this place whom he fitted for college were 
Hon. H. C. Rice, ex-governor of Massachusetts; Hon. S. P. Bates, 
LL. D., state historian of Pennsylvania, and former deputy state 
superintendent of public schools, Meadville, Pa. (a cousin of Mrs. 
H. D.Walker); and Bishop Willard R. Mallalieu, of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. In November, 1845, he removed to Abing- 
ton Centre, Luzerne (now Waverly, Lackawanna) county, and 
on December I, 1845, he commenced his labors as principal of 
Madison Academy, and continued in that position for nearly 
eight years. Among those who received instruction at Madison 
Academy during this time were Garrick M. Harding, Alexander 
Farnham, D. L. Patrick, George R. Bedford, Jerome G. Miller, 
A. H.Winton, A. J. Smith, the late G. Byron Nicholson, and other 
members of the Luzerne bar. In October, 1853, he accepted the 

4i8 Malcom Edwards Walker. 

principalship of the preparatory department of Lewisburg Uni- 
versity, and after the first year of his labors at this institution he 
taught a part of the Latin of the collegiate, and of the Greek of 
the theological, course. Among his students at this place were 
Thomas H. B. Lewis, W. H. Gearhart, and J. M. C. Ranck, mem- 
bers of this bar. In October, 1857, he moved to New Columbus, 
in this county, and organized the academy — which had then 
existed but a single year as a Normal School — under the name 
of the " New Columbus Normal Institute," and became its prin- 
cipal, and remained as such until December 30, 1861, when he 
moved to Orangeville, Columbia county, and commenced work 
as principal of the Orangeville Academy and Normal Institute, 
continuing as such until September, 1869. In 1864 he was 
induced by Thomas H. Burrows, then superintendent of public 
schools, and Governor Curtin to become interested in the estab- 
lishment of the Soldiers' Orphans' Schools of Pennsylvania, and 
was commissioned as principal of the first Soldiers' Orphans' 
School established in Pennsylvania, although the second to go into 
operation owing to the necessary changes incidental thereto, and 
remained as such until its removal in June, 1868. In September, 
1869, he became principal of the public schools of Bloomsburg, 
and seven months later " professor of rhetoric and higher math- 
ematics " in the Bloomsburg State Normal School. In October, 
1 87 1, he returned to Waverly and re-opened the Madison Acad- 
emy (which he had left just eighteen years before), with its new 
buildings, as the Waverly Normal School, and commenced teach- 
ing the children of very many of his former pupils. In April, 
1880, he located at Huntington Mills as principal of the Hunting- 
ton Mills Academy and Normal School, and is still teaching 
there. Here, as at Waverly, he is instructing scores of the chil- 
dren of those who were his pupils at New Columbus and Orange- 
ville. Although nearly sixty-eight years of age Professor Walker 
is as active physically and mentally as when in his teens. The 
wife of Rev. Harvey D. Walker is Electa B. Bates, a daughter 
of the late Otis Bates, of Bellingham, Mass. Lucias R. Bates, of 
West Boro, Mass., one of the largest manufacturers of straw goods 
in the United States, is her brother. Her sisters are R. T. Brown, 
widow of Rev. James Brown, late chaplain United States army. 

Malcom Edwards Walker. 419 

now living at Factoryville, Pa. ; and Cynthia, wife of E. C. Craig, 
of Walpole, Mass. 

M. E. Walker, at the age of fourteen, commenced assisting his 
father in the Orangeville school, and continued in that work 
until 1865, when he was appointed vice principal of the Orange- 
ville Soldiers' Orphans' School, which position he held until 
1868. In the latter year he commenced reading law with Sam- 
uel Knorr, of Bloomsburg, then assessor of internal revenue, 
and during 1869 and 1870 was a clerk in that office while prose- 
cuting his studies. He was admitted to the bar of Columbia 
county December 6, 1870, and the next morning entered the 
public schools of Bloomsburg as a teacher. On April i, 1871, 
he was appointed deputy postmaster of Bloomsburg, and con- 
tinued to act as such until the fall of the same year, when, desir- 
ing to open an office, he resigned and commenced the practice 
of his profession. In December, 1 87 1, Professor Henry Carver, 
principal of the Bloomsburg State Normal School, having left, and 
the faculty having been re-organized, George E. Elwell, then a 
teacher in the public schools, was elected one of the faculty. He 
tendered his resignation as teacher in the public school and the 
directors accepted it, provided M. E. Walker could be induced 
to take his place; and thus from January 2 to June i, 1872 he 
again taught school. On November 25, 1872, he removed to 
Shickshinny and opened an office, and has resided there since. 
He was admitted to the Luzerne bar January 6, 1873. On April, 
8, 1873, he established the Mountain Echo, becoming its editor 
and proprietor, continuing as such until 1876, when he disposed 
of the same to R. M. Tubbs, the present editor. In September, 
1873. he was asked by one of the directors of Bloomsburg to 
take the principalship of the schools of the West ward. Know- 
ing that Professor Bates, of the Normal School, as well as a 
number of the older teachers of the public schools, were appli- 
cants for the position, he said to Mr. Ringler, the director, " give 
me twenty-five dollars a month more than any one else asks and 
I will come." Upon this idly spoken promise, and without any 
application in writing, as required by the board, Mr. Walker was 
elected principal and his salary fixed at seventy-five dollars per 
month, an advance of twenty-five dollars, and the term fixed at 

420 Malcom Edwards Walker. 

eight months. Mr. Walker, upon being notified of the action of 
the board, had a special meeting called to re-consider their action, 
as his paper and practice required all his time. But the board 
unanimously refused to release Mr. Walker from his promise, but 
agreed that when actually necessary he might leave his position 
for the purpose of attending to his legal matters in Luzerne 
county. Thus from October, 1873, till June, 1874, he taught 
school again, spending Saturdays at Shickshinny, and at least 
one day during each sitting of court at Wilkes-Barre, and daily, 
by mail, keeping up his paper. Since 1876 he has devoted his 
time exclusively to the practice of law, sandwiched since 1879 
with the duties of justice of the peace. It is a remarkable fact 
that out of upwards of fifteen hundred cases acted upon by Mr. 
Walker but six appeals have been taken, one of them very 
recently ; four of the other five have been tried and the judgment 
of the justice affirmed, and not a single certiorari to his records 
has ever been taken. In 1875 Mr. Walker was elected the bur- 
gess of the borough of Shickshinny. In politics he is a republi- 
can, and was a member of the county committee of that party 
for several years. He has been frequently a delegate to state and 
county conventions of his party. Mr. Walker married, May 13, 
i873,Terressa A.Vannetta, daughter of Peter Vannetta, of Blooms- 
burg. She was for ten consecutive years prior to her marriage 
principal of the primary department of the public schools of 
Bloomsburg. They have three children living, Harvey Day 
Walker, Warren Woodward Walker, and Harry Malcom Wal- 
ker. While Mr. Walker is not a member of any temperance 
organization, he has never yet tasted a drop of any intoxicating 
liquors, domestic wine, or beer, and has never used tobacco in 
any form. 

It is scarcely necessary to add to the relation of the foregoing- 
facts that Mr. Walker is a man of much energy and perseverance, 
and a useful man in the community in which he resides. Taking 
example from his ancestry, he sets before him the objects to be 
attained and pursues his course to the ends thus marked out 
undeviatingly, and undeterred by any obstacles that intelligent 
effort can be made to overcome. That he is appreciated by his 
neighbors and fellow-citizens is also sufficiently attested. His 

Michael Cannon. 421 

practice is a large one proportioned to the territory from which 
it is drawn, and larger far than that of many of his more preten- 
tious professional brethren abiding in more pretentious commu- 
nities. That he is able to give it attention and at the same time 
not neglect his duties as a justice, of itself argues a willingness 
to work, and an ability to work, that, joined together, must needs 
make substantial headway in the world. 


Michael Cannon was born March 22, 1844, at Innisskeel, in 
the county of Donegal, Ireland, and was less than a year old 
when his parents came to this country. His father, who is still 
living, is James Cannon, an early settler at Summit Hill, Carbon 
county. Pa., having located there in 1832. He resided tliere 
until 1840, when he returned to Ireland and married Rosa, a 
daughter of Hugh McAloon, who is the mother of the subject of 
our sketch. Mr. Cannon subsequently returned to this country 
and has resided at Summit Hill and Hazleton ever since. 
Michael Cannon was educated in the public schools, and subse- 
quently became a teacher in the borough of Hazleton and in this 
city, studying law in the meanwhile in the office of the late David 
R. Randall and Michael Reagan, of this city. He was admitted 
to the Luzerne county bar January 25, 1873. In January, 1865, 
Mr. Cannon enlisted in the United States Navy, doing duty on 
the monitor steamer Canonicus, and was at the storming of Fort 
Fisher. He married, November 25, 1873, Nettie McDonald, 
youngest daughter of the late Patrick McDonald, of Union town- 
ship, Luzerne county, Pa. Mr. and Mrs. Cannon have four 
children; Nettie Cannon, Stella Cannon, Laura Cannon, and 
Edna Cannon. Mr. Cannon, it will be observed, is another of 
the numerous class of attorneys who began active life in the 
school-room. He is a representative, also, of those who have 
got along in the world without other education than that 
the common schools afford. The disadvantage arising from lack 

422 John Alfred 0pp. 

of college or university training is often more than compensated 
by the spirit of independent self-reliance that has its birth and 
growth in those exigencies that come with dependence upon our 
own energies for a livelihood. Mr. Cannon was a worker as well 
as a teacher, and in the latter capacity achieved an enviable rep- 
utation, as those who knew him and had opportunity of judging 
his qualifications and estimating the results of his effort at the 
time, freely attest. His enlistment in the nation's service when 
he was not yet quite of age, brought him experiences which have, 
doubtless, been valuable to him in later life. In the practice of 
his profession Mr. Cannon is noted among his brethren for both 
application and energy, qualities that are certain to unlock the 
repositories of the legal knowledge necessary for the successful 
prosecution of a client's cause. He is a democrat in politics and 
a fair orator, and has been frequently called to effective service 
on the stump in his party's behalf 


John Alfred Opp was born near Muncy, Lycoming county. 
Pa., July 15, 1847. He was educated in the public schools and 
at Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport, Pa., graduating from the 
latter institution in 1870. On July 4, 1863, during the late civil 
war, he enlisted in Company E, Thirty-Seventh regiment, Pennsyl- 
vania Militia, and remained in the service about one month, when 
the regiment was mustered out of service. In January, 1864, 
Mr. Opp enlisted in Company D, Eightieth regiment (Seventh 
cavalry) Pennsylvania Volunteers, and the regiment was mustered 
out of the service August 23, 1865, at Macon, Ga. After the 
war Mr. Opp was a teacher in the public schools in Muncy Creek 
township, Lycoming county, and in Plymouth, in this county. 
For the last five years he has been one of the directors of the 
public schools of the borough of Plymouth, where he resides. 
He studied law with E. H. Little, of Bloomsburg, Pa., and was 
admitted to the bar of Columbia county, February i, 1873, and 

John Alfred 0pp. 423 

to the Luzerne bar February 24, 1873. The father of John A. 
Opp is Thomas Jefferson Opp a native of Lycoming county. 
His grandfather, John Opp, was a native of Columbia county, and 
was one of the early settlers of Muncy, Pa. The mother of the 
subject of our sketch was Keziah Schuyler, daughter of the late 
Adam Schuyler, of Paradise township, Northumberland county. 
Pa. Mr. Opp married, October 12, 1880, Helen Wier, daughter 
of Andrew Wier, of Plymouth, Pa. Mr. Wier is a native of 
Scotland. Mr. and Mrs. Opp have a family of two children, 
John Howard Opp and Elizabeth Opp. Mr. Opp is a trustee in 
the First Presbyterian church of Plymouth, and is a director in 
the Plymouth Gas Company, and also in the Plymouth Water 
Company. He has held the position of judge advocate in the 
National Guard of Pennsylvania with the rank of major. It is 
no small praise to say of an American citizen that he was a brave 
and dutiful soldier in the years when the life of the nation trem- 
bled in the balance and there was call for every stout heart at the 
front. Such praise is Mr. Opp's due. The regiments in which 
he served did effective service, and in every engagement in 
which they were concerned during his term he had part and 
bore himself with conspicuous gallantry. It was of the young 
men of the country that the fervor of the army was constiuted, 
and the good names they earned fighting for union are a rich 
heritage to be bequeathed to their children. As a teacher he 
was painstaking and uniformly successful, winding golden enco- 
miums from directors, scholars, and parents. That his interest 
in the subject of education did not cease with his retirement from 
the school-room, is shown in his active service since as a director, 
to which he has devoted much time and brought ideas and ener- 
gies that have redounded greatly to the benefit of the schools. 
Mr. Opp is a generally bright man, and has already achieved a 
good standing in his profession. Few young men have had a 
greater degree of success in the same time, and fewer still can 
look forward to a bright future as hopefully. He is well read 
outside of the law, and this, added to his many other compan- 
ionable qualities, make him gratifyingly popular in the social 

424 John Tritle Luther Sahm. 


John Tritle Luther Sahm is a native of Greencastle, Franklin 
county, Pa., where he was born September 6, 1843. He is a 
descendant of an early German settler who came to Pennsylva- 
nia at a very early period in its history. His grandfather, John 
Sahm, was a native of the neighborhood of Manheim, Lancaster 
county. Pa., and was a farmer and distiller. He left to survive 
him seven children, two of whom became ministers of the gos- 
pel, as follows : Rev. Abram Sahm, a Methodist Episcopal min- 
ister, and Rev. Peter Sahm, D. D., a Lutheran minister. The 
latter was the father of the subject of our sketch. He was born 
near Manheim in 1809, and educated at the Lutheran Theologi- 
cal Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa., and graduated in the class of 1831. 
He commenced his ministerial labors in 1832, and had been 
engaged in the work of the ministry about forty-four years at the 
time of his death. He was endowed with more than ordinary 
natural talent, and his mind was well disciplined by education. 
He was a diligent student, and became a thorough theologian. 
He had acquired an accurate acquaintance with the German as 
well as the English language, and preached equally well in both. 
He was a homilectician and prepared his sermons carefully and 
systematically. His strength in the pulpit consisted more in 
the clearness and logical connection of the matter than in the 
ornament and beauty of his style. He was solid and instructive, 
as well as an impressive and successful preacher. As a pastor 
he was diligent and faithful. He was humble and modest in 
his bearing, quiet and retiring in his intercourse with his fellow- 
men, but in his consistency and devotion to the cause of Christ 
he exerted a positive and wide-spread influence over the mem- 
bers of his church and the community among whom he labored 
as a Christian minister. Although strongly attached to the 
Lutheran church he, nevertheless, fraternized with Christians of 
other evangelical denominations, and spent his last Sabbath 
morning on earth in participating in the exercises of the dedica- 

John Tritle Luther Sahm. 425 

tion of the Reformed church, at Laurelton, Pa. He served the 
following charges in the order named : Maytown, Middletown, 
St. Thomas, Greencastle, Blairsville, Johnstown, Indiana, Fried- 
ensburg, Loysville, Aaronsburg, and New Berlin. He died at 
Laurelton, Union county, Pa., March 14, 1876, aged sixty-six 
years. His remains are interred in the cemetery at New Berlin, 
Pa. He left five children to survive him, among whom in addi- 
tion to the subject of our sketch, is Theophilus H. T. Sahm, a law- 
yer at Hamburg, la. ; W. K. T. Sahm, a physician at McCoysville, 
Pa. ; and M. O. T. Sahm, a Lutheran minister in Lawrence county. 
Pa. The wife of Rev. Dr. Sahm is Susan Tritle, daughter of the 
late John Tritle, of Guilford, Franklin county, Pa. He was a 
farmer and spent a long life on the old homestead near Cham- 
bersburg. Pa. He was a man of industrious habits, and a devout 
Christian, and for many years an elder in